1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Retaliation

RETALIATION, repayment of like with like, especially the return of hostile action, injuries or wrongs by similar action or injury, as in the primitive theory of punishment, an “eye for an eye,” “tooth for a tooth.” The Late Lat. retaliare was formed from talis, such as, of the same quality as; and this source also gave talio, talionis, the name of this type of punishment. (See Punishment, Theory of, and Roman Law, § The Twelve Tables.) A special form of retaliation is familiar in the imposition of differential import duties against the goods of a particular country (see Tariffs and Protection).