1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Rules and Abbreviations


I. Type.—Headings printed in bold Clarendon type (e.g. ALEPPO) represent article headings in the Encyclopædia, and the first reference under every such heading is to the article in question.

All references show (1) the volume in bold Clarendon figures; (2) the page in light face type; (3) the exact quarter of the page by means of the letters a, b, c, d, signifying respectively the upper and lower halves of the first and second columns, e.g. A (letter) 1-1a. In geographical references these letters are replaced by an indication of the map square in the usual form, e.g. “(B1).”

A rule or dash (—) denotes the repetition of the preceding heading, or of its first separate word. Hyphened words are treated as single words. Headings in italic type denote books, newspapers, or periodicals. Quotation marks are used for pictures, ships, statues, race horses and separate poems or musical compositions.

II. Alphabetization.—All titles, whether consisting of a single word or of more than one, and if of more, whether hyphened or not, are treated for the purpose of alphabetization as single complete headings. In the majority of cases the same rule applies to inverted headings. Surnames followed by Christian names and geographical headings like “Wycombe, High” are exceptions. An epithet or phrase in parentheses is not treated as part of the heading for alphabetical purposes except in a series of identical headings (see Preface, p. vii.).

Where the same name denotes human beings, places and objects, the order is (1) persons, (2) places, (3) things.

The prefixes “Mc” and “M‘” are alphabetized as “Mac”; “St” is treated as “Saint,” “S.S.” as “Saints.”

III. Geographical Headings.—The names of towns and villages are followed by the abbreviation for the country to which they belong. For this purpose English counties and the states of the United States rank as countries. All other topographical headings are described as “riv.,” “mt.,” &c. In cases like “Big Mountain,” “Big River,” denoting physical features the arrangement is

Big, mt.
—, riv.

Such a heading as “Big Mountain, Utah” would therefore denote a town, not a mountain. In the names of American counties, e.g. Madison Co., the word Co. is treated as part of the heading.

IV. Abbreviations.—The following list includes general contractions adopted for the purpose of this Index. The contractions usual in special branches of knowledge are included in the Index itself and in the article Abbreviation (vol. i. page 37).


Aby. Abyssinia
Aeg. Aegean Sea
Af. Africa
Afg. Afghanistan
Af.Rom Roman Africa
agri. agriculture
Ala. Alabama
Alban. Albania
Alg. Algeria
Alsk. Alaska
Als.-Lor. Alsace-Lorraine
Alta. Alberta
anat. anatomy
And.Is. Andaman Islands
Ang. Angola
Antarc. South Polar Regions
Arab. Arabia
arch. architecture
archae. archaeology
archip. archipelago
Arct. North Polar Regions
Arg. Argentina
Ariz. Arizona
Ark. Arkansas
Arm. Armenia
Ash. Ashanti
Asia M. Asia Minor
Assin. Assiniboia
astron. astronomy
Athab. Athabasca
Atl.O. Atlantic Ocean
Aus. Austria (including Bohemia)
Austr. Australia
Az. Azores
Babyl. Babylonia
Bah. Bahamas
Bal. Baluchistan
Bal.Is. Balearic Islands
Basu. Basutoland
Bav. Bavaria
B.C. British Columbia
Bech. Bechuanaland
Beds. Bedfordshire
Bel.Cong. Belgium Congo (including Congo Free State)
Belg. Belgium
Ber. Bermudas
Berks. Berkshire
bibl. biblical
biol. biology
Bol. Bolivia
Bor. Borneo
Bosn. Bosnia
bot. botany
Braz. Brazil
Br.E.Af. British East Africa
Brit. Britain
Brit.Gui British Guiana
Bucks. Buckinghamshire
Bulg. Bulgaria
Bur. Burma
C.Af. Central Africa
Cal. California
C.Am. Central America
Cambs. Cambridgeshire
Camer. Cameroon
Can. Canada
Can.Is. Canary Islands
Cape Col. Cape Colony
Cauc. Caucasia or Caucasus
Cey. Ceylon
chan. channel
Chan.Is. Channel Islands
chem. chemistry
Ches. Cheshire
Chil. Chile
chron. chronology
co. county
Colo. Colorado
Colom. Colombia
Conn. Conneecticut
Corn. Cornwall
Cors. Corsica
C.R. Costa Rica
Croat.Slav. Croatia Slavonia
crystall. crystallography
Cu. Cuba
Cumb. Cumberland
C.Verd.Is. Cape Verde Islands
d. daughter
Dah. Dahomey
Dalm. Dalmatia
D.C. Columbia, District of
Del. Delaware
Den. Denmark
dept. department
Dev. Devonshire
D.Gui. Dutch Guiana
dict. dictionary heading
dist. district
div. division
D.N.Guin. Dutch New Guinea