SAHARANPUR, a city and district of British India, in the Meerut division of the United Provinces. The city is situated on a stream called the Damaula Nadi, 907 ft. above sea-level, 998 m. by rail from Calcutta. Pop, (1901) 66,254, of whom more than half are Mahommedans. It is an important junction of the North-Western railway with the Oudh and Rohilkhand line. The government botanical gardens were established in 1817. There are railway workshops, and a large industry is pursued in wood-carving.

The District of Saharanpur has an area of 2228 sq. m. It forms the most northerly portion of the Doab, or alluvial tableland between the Ganges and Jumna. The Siwalik hills rise precipitously on its northern frontier; at their base stretches a wild submontane tract, with much forest and jungle. Cultivation generally in this part is backward, the surface of the country being broken by ravines. South of this tract lies the broad alluvial plain of the Doab, with fertile soil and good natural water-supply. This portion of the country is divided into parallel tracts by numerous streams from the Siwaliks, while the Eastern Jumna and Ganges canals cover the district with a network of irrigation channels. The annual rainfall averages about 37 in. The population in 1901 was 1,045,230, showing an increase of 4.4% in the decade. The principal crops are wheat, rice, pulse, millet, and maize, with some sugar-cane and cotton. The district contains the towns of Roorkee and, Hardwar.

During the later years of the Mogul empire, Saharanpur suffered much from the perpetual raids of the Sikhs, but in 1785 the district under Ghulam Kadir enjoyed comparative tranquillity. On his death the country fell into the hands of the Mahrattas. It was afterwards again overrun by the Sikhs, remaining practically in their hands until their defeat at Charaon November 1804, when it passed under British rule. Several disturbances subsequently took, place among the native chiefs; but from 1824 to 1857 nothing occurred to disturb the peace of the district. The Mutiny in this part was soon quelled.