1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Saint-Simon, Claude de Rouvroy, Duc de

SAINT-SIMON, CLAUDE DE ROUVROY, Duc de (1607-1693), French courtier, was born in August 1607, being the second son of Louis de Rouvroi, seigneur du Plessis (d. 1643), who had been a Warm supporter of Henry of Guise and the League. With his elder brother he entered the service of Louis XIII. as a page and found instant favour with the king. Named first equerry in March 1627 he became in less than three years captain of the chateaux of St Germain and Versailles, master of the hounds, first gentleman of the bed-chamber, royal councillor and governor of Meulan and of Blaye. On the fall of La Rochelle he received lands in the vicinity valued at 80,000 livres. About three years later his seignior of Saint-Simon in Vermandois was erected into a duchy, and he was created a peer of France. He was at first on good terms with Richelieu and was of service on the Day of Dupes (11th of November 1630). Having suffered disgrace for taking the part of his uncle, the baron of Saint-Léger, after the capture of Catelet (15th of August 1636), he retired to Blaye. He fought in the campaigns of 1638 and 1639, and after the death of Richelieu returned to court, where he was coldly received by the king (18th of February 1643). Thenceforth, with the exception of siding with Condé during the Fronde, he took small part in politics. He died in Paris on the 3rd of May 1693. By his first wife, Diane de Budos de Portes, a relative of Condé, whom he married in 1644 and who died in 1670, he had three daughters. By his second wife, Charlotte de l'Aubespine, whom he married in 1672, he had a son Louis, the “author of the memoirs” (see below).