1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Setubal

SETUBAL (formerly called in English St Ubes and in French St Yves), a seaport of Portugal, in the district of Lisbon (formerly included in the province of Estremadura), 18 m. S.E. of Lisbon by the Barreiro-Pinhal Novo-Setubal railway. Pop. (1900) 22,074. Setubal is built on the north shore of a deep estuary, formed by the rivers Sado, Marateca and São Martinho, which discharge their waters into the Bay of Setubal 3 m. below the city. Setubal is overtopped on the west by the treeless red heights of the Serra da Arrabida. There are five forts for the defence of the harbour; the castle of St Philip, built by Philip III. of Spain (1578–1621), commands the city. Setubal is the third seaport and fourth largest city of Portugal. It exports large quantities of fine salt, oranges and muscatel grapes; it has many sardine-curing and boat-building establishments, and manufactures of fish-manure and lace. Its port is officially included in that of Lisbon. Under John II. (1481–1495) Setubal was a favourite royal residence, and one of the churches dates from this period; but most of the ancient buildings were destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755. There are some fine public buildings, statues and fountains of later date, including a statue of the poet M. M. de B. du Bocage (1766–1806), who was a native of Setubal. In the sandhills of a low-lying promontory in the bay opposite Setubal are the so-called ruins of “Troia,” uncovered in part by heavy rains in 1814 and excavated in 1850 by an antiquarian society. These ruins of “Troia,” among which have been brought to view a beautiful Roman house and some 1600 Roman coins, are those of Cetobriga, which flourished A.D. 300–400. In the neighbourhood, on a mountain 1600 ft. high, is the monastery of Arrabida.