TOUNGOO, or Taung-ngu, a town and district in the Tenasserim division of Lower Burma. The town is situated on the right bank of the river Sittang, 166 m. by rail N. from Rangoon. Pop. (1901), 15,837. From the 14th to the 16th century it was the capital of an independent kingdom. After the second Burmese War it was an important frontier station, but the troops were withdrawn in 1893. The district of Toungoo has an area of 6172 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 279,315, showing an increase of 32% in the preceding decade. Three mountain ranges traverse the district—the Pegu Yomas, the Karen, and the Nat-taung or “Great Watershed ”—all of which have a north and south direction, and are covered for the most part with dense forest. The Pegu Yomas have a general elevation of from 800 to 1200 ft., while the central range averages from 2000 to 3000 ft. The rest of Toungoo forms the upper portion of the valley of the Sittang, the only large river in the district, the chief tributaries of which are the Shwa, Hkabaung, Hpyu Thank-ye-Kat and Yank-thua-wa, all navigable for a great portion of their course. Limestone appears in various places, and in the north-east a light grey marble is quarried for lime. The rivers form the chief means of communication during the rainy season. The rainfall in 1905 was 80.30 in. There are 14 railway stations in the district. Rice is the staple crop; there are promising plantations of coffee and rubber. Forests cover more than 5000 sq. m., of which 1337 sq. m. have been reserved, yielding a large revenue.