1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Toy, Crawford Howell

TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL (1836–), American Hebrew scholar, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, on the 23rd of March 1836. He graduated at the university of Virginia in 1856, and studied at the university of Berlin in 1866–1868. In 1869–1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer on biblical literature.

He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1834); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the “International Critical Commentary”; and edited a translation of Erdmann’s commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange’s commentaries.; Murray’s Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt’s Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).