1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland/General Statistics

The table at the foot of this column shows the imperial revenue and expenditure, with the amount of revenue per head of population of the United Kingdom for various years. The financial year now ends on the 31st of March of the year following that quoted. The figures before 1907 did not include the revenue assigned to local purposes. The deficit in 1909 was due to delay in passing the Finance Act.

Year. Total
Revenue.
Total
Expenditure.
Proportion
of Revenue
per head.
£ £ £ s. d.
1861  70,283,674  72,792,059 2 8 10
1871  69,945,220  69,548,539 2 4 5
1881  81,872,354  80,938,990 2 7 1
1891  89,489,112  87,732,855 2 6 2
1901 130,384,684 183,592,264 3 2 10
1902 142,997,999 195,522,213 3 12 11
1903 151,551,698 184,483,708 3 11 6
1904 141,545,597 146,961,136 3 6 2
1905 143,370,404 141,956,497 3 6 4
1906 143,977,575 140,511,955 3 5 11
1907 156,537,690 151,812,094 3 6 5
1908 151,578,295 152,292,395 3 5 0
1909 131,696,456 157,944,611 2 18 5

National Debt (q.v.).—The table on the preceding page shows the position of the national debt at quinquennial intervals during 18911910.

Year ending March 31st.

1891. 1896. 1901. 1906. 1910.
£ £ £ £ £
 Funded debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579,472,082  589,146,878  551,182,153  634,047,429  614,868,547
 Terminable annuities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66,550,579  49,183,748  60,154,800  43,459,548  35,876,861
 Unfunded debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,140,079  9,975,800  78,133,000  65,713,000  62,500,000
 Other capital liabilities*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,317,719  3,979,940  14,464,396  45,770,210  49,218,217
  Total gross liabilities of the state . . . . 683,480,459  652,286,366  703,934,349  788,990,187  762,463,625
 Assets—
  Suez Canal shares . . . . . . . . . . 3,532,040 22,627,000 25,806,000 31,080,000 35,295,000
  Other assets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,740,397  939,354  712,760  2,586,799  4,118,352
 Exchequer balances at banks of England and Ireland   6,370,897  8,975,201  5,596,918  10,451,487  2,831,248

* These are in respect of sums borrowed under certain acts.† Nominal value.
‡ Estimated market value on the 31st of March each year.

Area and Population.—The United Kingdom has an area of 120,651 sq. m., and at the census of 1891 had a population of 37,732,922 and in 1901 of 41,458,721. If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq. m., and the population to 41,609,091. The main divisions are as follows:—

Area
sq. m.
Population.
1891. 1901.
 England and Wales .   .   .  58,324 29,002,525 32,527,843
 Scotland .   .   .   .   .   .  29,796 4,025,647 4,472,103
 Ireland .   .   .   .   .   .  32,531 4,704,750 4,458,775
 Islands in the British seas .  302 147,842 150,370

Vital Statistics.—The following table institutes a comparison and the total between the birth-rates per thousand of the population in the United Kingdom and certain other countries, at intervals (so far as possible) of five years, adding the figures for other years in specific years when there was a marked fluctuation:—

1881. 1886. 1891. 1896. 1901. 1905. 1906.
 Russia in Europe* .   .   .   .   .  47·8 (1882, 50·4) 46·5 48·8 49·7 47·9
 Hungary .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  42·9 45·6 42·3 40·5 37·8 36·0
 Austria .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  37·5 (1882, 38·9) 38·1 38·3 38·0 36·6 33·7
 Germany .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  37·0 37·0 37·0 36·3 35·7 33·0
 Japan .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  25·6 27·3 (1889, 30·2) 26·7 30·0 32·7 30·6
 Holland .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  35·0 34·6 33·7 32·7 32·3 30·4
 Denmark .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  32·2 32·4 31·0 (1892, 29·6) 30·5 29·7 28·5
 Switzerland .   .   .   .   .   .   .  29·8 27·8 28·2 28·1 29·1 27·4
 United Kingdom .   .   .   .  32·5 31·5 (1890, 29·2) 30·4 29·0 28·0 26·8
 England .   .   .   .   .   .   .  33·9 32·8 (1890, 30·2) 31·4 29·6 28·5 27·1
 Scotland .   .   .   .   .   .   .  33·7 32·9 (1890, 30·4) 31.2 (1894, 29·9) 30·4 29·5 27·9
 Ireland .   .   .   .   .   .   .  24·5 23·2 (1890, 22·3) 23·1 (1892, 22·5) 23·7 22·7 23·6
 Norway .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  30·6 31·2 30·9 30·2 29·6 26·5
 Sweden .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  29·1 29·8 28·3 27·2 27·0 25·7
 Belgium .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  31·8 29·9 30·0 29·0 29·4 25·7
 France .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  24·9 23·9 22·6 22·5 22·0 20·6

The number of births in the United Kingdom in 1909 was 1,146,118, giving a rate per thousand of 25·5.
* Not including Finland.


The death-rate is similarly treated:—

1881. 1886. 1891. 1896. 1901. 1905. 1906.
 Denmark .   .   .  18·3 18·1 20·0 15·7 15·8 13·5
 Norway .   .   .  17·0 16·2 17·5 15·1 14·9 13·7
 Sweden .   .   .  17·7 16·6 16·8 15·6 16·1 14·4
 Holland .   .   .  21·5 21·8 20·7 17·2 17·2 14·8
 United Kingdom .  18·7 19·2 20·0 16·9 17·1 15·6
 England .   .   .  18·9 19·5 20·2 17·1 16·9 15·4
 Scotland .   .   .  19·3 18·9 20·7 16·6 17·9 16·0
 Ireland .   .   .  17·5 17·8 18·4 16·7 17·8 17·0
 Belgium .   .   .  21·2 21·3 21·2 17·5 17·2 16·4
 Switzerland   .   .  22·4 20·7 20·6 17·8 18·0 17·9
 Germany .   .   .  25·5 26·2 23·4 20·8 20·7 19·8
 France .   .   .   .  22·0 22·5 22·9 20·0 20·1 19·9
 Japan .   .   .   .  18·7 24·4 21·0 21·4 20·4 22·0
 Hungary   .   .   .  34·4 31·7 33·1 28·9 25·4 24·8
 Austria   .   .   .  30·5 29·5 28·1 26·3 24·0 25·0
 Russia in Europe* .  33·2 31·2 34·6 32·8 32·1

* Not including Finland.

The deaths in the United Kingdom in 1909 numbered 667,765, the rate per thousand being 14·8.

The number of marriages (a) and the proportion of persons married per thousand of the population (b) are thus shown:—

Year.  England and 
Wales.
Scotland. Ireland. United
Kingdom.
                 
(a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b)
1896  242,764   15·7   30,270   14·2   23,055   10·2   296,089   15·0 
1901  259,400   15·9   31,387   14·0   22,564   10·2   313,351   15·1 
1906  269,734   15·6   33,123   14·0   22,557   10·3   325,414   14·9 
1909  260,259   14·6   30,092   12·3   22,769   10·4   313,120   13·9 

Emigration.—The following table shows the number of passengers, distinguishing English and Welsh, Scottish and Irish, who left the United Kingdom for extra-European countries in 1895, 1900 and 1905, and the total for 1909, and in certain other years in which the numbers show marked fluctuations:—

Year.  English and Welsh Scottish. Irish. Total.
         
1895 112,538 18,294 54,349 185,181
1898 90,679 15,570 34,395 140,644
1900 102,448 20,472 45,905 168,825
1904 175,733 37,445 58,285 271,435
1905 170,408 41,510 50,159 262,077
1906 219,765 53,162 52,210 325,137

In 1909 the total number to British dominions was 163,594 and the total number to other extra-European countries was 125,167.

Occupations.—The following table shows the occupations (excluding children under ten years of age) as distinguished in five great orders, according to the census of 1901:—

 England and Wales Scotland. Ireland.
 Professional .  804,427 101,061 131,035
 Domestic .  .  1,994,197 201,230 219,418
 Commercial .  1,858,454 245,715 97,889
 Agricultural .  1,152,495 237,311 876,062
 Industrial .  .  7,534,994 1,197,495 69,413

Agriculture.—The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland:—

Percentage to total area
of area—
Great Britain. Ireland.
1890. 1909. 1890. 1909.
 Cultivated   .   .   .   .   .   .  57·7 56·6 73·1 70·3
 Under grain crops .   .   .   .  14·1 12·4 7·3 6·1
 Under green crops  .   .   .   .  5·8 5·4 5·8 5·0
 Under grasses and other crops .  8·5 7·9 5·9 11·2
 In permanent pasture   .   .   .  28·2 30·2 53·4 43·1