1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vivian, Richard Hussey Vivian, 1st Baron
VIVIAN, RICHARD HUSSEY VIVIAN, 1st Baron (1775–1842), British cavalry leader, came of a Cornish family. Educated at Harrow and Exeter College, Oxford, Vivian entered the army in 1793, and less than a year later became a captain in the 28th foot. Under Lord Moira he served in the campaign of 1794 in Flanders and Holland. At the end of the expedition, the 28th bore a distinguished part in Lord Cathcart’s action of Gueldermalsen. In 1798 Vivian was transferred to the 7th Light Dragoons (now Hussars), and in Sir Ralph Abercromby’s division was present at the battles of Bergen and Alkmaar (19th September to 6th October 1799). In 1800 he received his majority, and in 1804 he became lieut.-colonel of the 7th. In command of this regiment he sailed to join Baird at Corunna in 1808, and took part in Lord Paget’s cavalry fights at Sahagun and Benavente. During the retreat of Moore’s army the 7th were constantly employed with the rearguard. Vivian was present at Corunna in 1808, and returned with the remainder of the army to England. It was not until late in 1813 that the 7th returned to the Peninsula, and Vivian (now colonel and A.D.C. to the prince regent) was soon taken away to command a cavalry brigade under Hill. With this corps he served throughout the fighting on the Nive (9th–13th December). At the beginning of 1814 he was transferred to a cavalry brigade of Beresford’s corps, and took a marked part in the action of Gave de Pau and the battle of Orthes. In the advance on Toulouse Vivian fought a brilliant action at Crois d’Orade on the Ers (8th April), when he was very severely wounded. At the beginning of 1815 he was made K.C.B.; he had been a major general for several months. In April Sir Hussey Vivian was appointed to command a brigade of Uxbridge’s cavalry, and at Waterloo his regiments, with those of Vandeleur’s brigade, made the final charge of the day between Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte, sweeping everything before them. This service was rewarded by the thanks of both houses of parliament, the K.C.H. and the orders of Maria Theresa and St Vladimir from the emperors of Austria and Russia. He sat in the House of Commons as member for Truro from 1821 to 1831; he was then made commander of the forces in Ireland, and given the G.C.H. In 1835 he became master-general of the ordnance. In 1837 he received the G.C.B., and in 1841, being then M.P. for East Cornwall, was created Baron Vivian in the English peerage. A year later he died at Baden-Baden. He was twice married (first in 1804), and the title descended in the direct line. His natural son, Sir Robert John Hussey Vivian (1802–1887), was a famous soldier in India, who in 1857 was made K.C.B. and in 1871 G.C.B., having previously attained the rank of general.