1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vladivostok
VLADIVOSTOK, the chief Russian seaport and naval station on the Pacific Ocean, situated at the southern extremity (43° 7' N. and 131° 55' E.) of the Maritime Province, not far from the point where that government touches both Manchuria and Korea (Cho-sen). It is connected by rail with Khabarovsk (479 m. N.N.E.), the capital of the Amur region, and with Chita in Transbaikalia (1362 m.) via Ninguta, Kharbin, Tsitsikar and Khailar. Pop. (1900) 38,000. The town stands on Peter the Great Gulf, occupying the northern shore of one of its horn-like expansions, which the Russians have called the Golden Horn. The depth of the Eastern Bosporus ranges from 13 to 20 fathoms, and that of the Golden Horn from 5 to 13, the latter affording a spacious harbour. The hills are covered with forests of oak, lime, birch, maple, cork, walnut, acacia, ash, aspen, poplar, elm, apple, pear and wild cherry, with a rich undergrowth of the most varied shrubs. Excellent timber is supplied by oak and cedar forests not far off. The climate, however, is severe, as compared with that of corresponding latitudes in Europe. Though standing in almost the same parallel as Marseilles, Vladivostok has an average annual temperature of only 40° F., and, although the gulf itself never freezes, a thin ice-crust forms along the shores in December and remains until April. The town has several handsome buildings, a monument to Admiral Nevelskiy (1897), a cathedral, a museum, an observatory, an Oriental institute (opened in 1890), professional schools, a naval hospital, mechanical and naval works, steam saw-mills and flour-mills. The drawback of Vladivostok is that it has not, and cannot have, a well-developed hinterland, despite the great efforts which have been made by the Russian government to supply the Usuri region (to the north of Vladivostok) with Russian settlers. The town of Vladivostok was founded in 1860–1861, and from 1865 to 1900 was a free port.