1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Murphy, Fred Towsley

MURPHY, FRED TOWSLEY (1872–), American surgeon, was born in Detroit, Mich., Oct. 23 1872. He was educated at Phillips Academy, Andover, at Yale (A.B. 1897), and the Harvard Medical School (M.D. 1901). He was assistant in anatomy at the Harvard Medical School, 1903–4; Austin teaching fellow in surgery, 1905; visiting surgeon to the clinic, 1909–11, and assistant in surgery 1910–11. From 1904 to 1908 he was assistant surgeon at the Infants Hospital, Boston, and from 1907 to 1911 surgeon to out-patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1911 he was appointed professor of surgery at the Washington University Medical School and, in 1914, chief surgeon of the Barnes Hospital and consulting surgeon of the City Hospital, St. Louis, but resigned in 1919 to become a practising surgeon in Detroit. During the World War he was director and commanding officer of Base Hospital 21 in France (1917–8), and later was director of the medical and surgical department of the American Red Cross, representing the chief surgeon of the A.E.F., with the rank of colonel. He was awarded the D.S.M.