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NEW YORK (STATE) (see 19.594). The pop. of the state was 10,385,227 in 1920 as compared with 9,113,614 in 1910, a gain of 14% or 0.9% less than that for the United States. The average pop. per sq. m. in 1920 was 217.9 as compared with 191.2 in 1910 and 152.5 in 1900. In 1920 the urban pop. (in cities with 2,500 or more inhabitants) was 8,589,844 or 82.7% and the rural pop. 1,795,383 or 17.3 per cent.

The cities having a pop. of over 20,000 in 1920, and their percentage of increase 1910-20, are as follows:—

1920 1910  Increase 
per cent




 Albany 113,344  100,253  13.1 
 Amsterdam 33,524  31,267  7.2 
 Auburn 36,192  34,668  4.4 
 Binghamton 66,800  48,443  37.9 
 Buffalo 506,775  423,715  19.6 
 Cohoes 22,987  24,709  7.0[1]
 Elmira 45,393  37,176  21.9 
 Gloversville 22,075  20,642  6.9 
 Jamestown 38,917  31,297  24.3 
 Kingston 26,688  25,908  3.0 
 Lockport 21,308  17,970  18.6 
 Mount Vernon   42,726  30,919  38.2 
 Newburgh 30,366  27,805  9.2 
 New Rochelle 36,213  28,867  25.4 
 New York  5,620,048   4,766,883  17.9 
 Niagara Falls 50,760  30,445   66.7 
 Olean 20,506  14,743  39.1 
 Oswego 23,626  23,368  1.1 
 Poughkeepsie 35,000  27,936  25.3 
 Rochester 295,750  218,149  35.6 
 Rome 26,341  20,497  28.5 
 Schenectady 88,723  72,826  21.8 
 Syracuse 171,717  137,249  25.1 
 Troy 72,013  76,813  6.2[1]
 Utica 94,156  74,419  26.5 
 Watertown 31,285  26,730  17.0 
 White Plains 21,031  15,949  23.1 
 Yonkers 100,176  79,803  25.6 


According to the census report of 1916 there were 4,315,404

church members in the state, distributed as follows: Roman Catholic, 2,745,552, or 63.6%; Methodist Episcopal, 328,250, or 7.6%; Protestant Episcopal, 227,685, or 5.3%; Presbyterian, 222,888, or 5.2%; Baptist, 182,443, or 4.2%; Jewish, 113,924, or 2.6%; Lutheran, 73,581, or 1.7%; Reformed, 66,773, or 1.5%; Congregational, 65,021, or 1.5%; others, 289,287, or 6.7 per cent.

Agriculture and Stock-raising.—In 1919 New York ranked thirteenth among the states in the crops produced, the total value of farm products being $498,179,000. The state ranked first in the production of hay and potatoes. In 1910 the total number of farms in the state was 215,597 and the acreage 22,030,367, of which 67.4% was improved. In 1920 the number of farms had decreased to 193,060. In 1919 the state produced 6,579,000 tons of hay; 35,260,000 bus. of corn; 11,178,000 bus. of wheat; 29,580,000 bus. of oats; 2,486,000 bus. of barley; 1,932,000 bus. of rye; 5,126,000 bus. of buckwheat; 39,567,000 bus. of potatoes; 16,800,000 bus. of apples; 1,530,000 bus. of pears; 1,648,000 bus. of peaches; and 3,483,000 lb. of tobacco. The number of sheep in the state has been steadily decreasing. In 1910 there were 953,908; in 1920, 824,000. The state produced 4,022,000 lb. of wool in 1919. The dairy business is one of the most important. In 1920 there were in the state 1,493,000 dairy cows, a larger number than in any other state except Wisconsin. Other cattle numbered 909,000.

There were 560,000 horses and 920,000 swine.
Minerals.—In 1916 New York ranked twentieth among the

states in the value of minerals produced. The mineral products were valued at $45,783,230, as against $34,317,594 in 1911. The clay products were valued (1916) at $11,755,012; cement, $5,752,809; iron ore, $5,571,429; stone, $5,342,954; natural gas, $2,524,115; petroleum, $2,190,195; salt, $3,698,798; sand and gravel, $2,644,829. In 1918 the values were $6,568,746, cement; $5,673,131,

natural gas; $5,802,870, iron ore; $3,307,814, petroleum.
Manufactures.—New York ranks first among the states in the

value of manufactured products, and during the five years following 1909 the output increased rapidly. The 1914 census reported 48,203 establishments (1909, 44,935) with 1,057,857 wage-earners (1909, 1,003,981), receiving $631,042,000 and with a capital of $3,334,278,000. The cost of materials was $2,108,607,000 (1909, $1,856,904,000); the value of the product, $3,814,661,000 (1909, $3,369,490,000); and the value added by manufacture, $1,706,054,000 (1909, $1,512,586,000). The industries whose products were valued

at more than $100,000,000 were:—
Wage-earners Value


1914 1909 1914 1909





 Clothing  189,763   189,467   $583,942,000   $538,593,000 
 Printing and publishing 64,020  63,120  257,268,000  216,946,000 
 Foundry and machine shops   66,690  64,066  173,429,000  154,370,000 
 Slaughtering, meat-packing   6,641  6,110  148,105,000  127,130,000 
 Sugar refining 4,899  124,941,000 
 Bread and bakery products 27,002  109,227,000 


There were in 1914 17 industries with products exceeding $50,000,000

in value, 21 with products between $25,000,000 and $50,000,000 in value, and 25 with products between $10,000,000 and $25,000,000—a total of 63 industries each with products valued at more than $10,000,000. The report showed 161 industries, each of which had a product valued at more than $1,000,000. In 1914, 87%, in 1909, 86.8% of the value of the manufactured products of the state was reported from cities and villages with 10,000 or more inhabitants. Of the 48,203 industrial establishments in the state in 1914, 29,621, or 61.5%, were located in New York City. More than one-half of the wage-earners and more than three-fifths of the value of the state's manufactured products were in both 1909 and in 1914 reported from New York City. Other important manufacturing centres were: Buffalo, with products in 1914 valued at $247,516,000; Rochester, $140,696,000; Yonkers, $67,222,000; Syracuse, $52,163,000; Schenectady, $48,762,000; Niagara Falls, $44,816,000; Troy, $39,929,000; Utica, $30,490,000;

and Albany, $25,211,000.
Transportation and Commerce.—In 1915 the operated railway

mileage was 8,824, the most important lines being the New York Central; the Delaware and Hudson; the Lehigh Valley; the West Shore; the Erie; the New York, Ontario and Western; the Pennsylvania; the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western; the Rutland; and the Long Island. In 1917 there were in the state 4,893 m. of electric railway which gave employment to 61,434 persons. These lines carried 2,492,325,233 revenue passengers. In 1920 there were 13,453 m. of improved roads in the state. During the previous year $17,761,545 was spent for highway construction and

$6,219,190 for highway maintenance.
New York spent large sums for canal improvements. The

improved Erie Barge Canal was opened from Troy to Buffalo in May 1918. The Champlain and the Oswego Barge Canals have also been completed. Up to April 1 1920 the total expenditure for canal improvements, under bond issues, since 1902 amounted to approximately $150,252,499. The canal mileage of the state in 1920 was: Erie Canal, 361; Champlain Canal, 81; Black River Canal, 89; Oneida Lake and Canal Feeder, 7; Oswego Canal, 77; Cayuga-Seneca Canal, 23; total, 638. The commerce on the canals suffered a rapid decline during the decade 1910-20. In 1910, 3,073,412 tons of products valued at $59,042,178 were carried; in 1915, 1,858,114 tons valued at $30,610,670; in 1917, 1,297,225 tons valued at $24,757,077; and in 1919, 1,238,844 tons valued at $43,972,603. New York ranks first among the states in commerce. In 1920, 5,014 vessels, with a total tonnage of 15,049,744, entered the port of New York and 4,588 vessels, with a total tonnage of 14,275,455, cleared. In that year the value of merchandise imported was

$2,904,844,143. The value of domestic exports was $3,293,304,084.
Education.—The university of the state of New York, a

supervising and examining institution, not one for teaching, is the State Department of Education. It is governed by 12 regents, one elected each year for a 12-year term by a joint ballot of the two Houses of Legislature. The board of regents elects the president of the university and the commissioner of education, both offices being held by the same person. According to the 1910 census there were in the state 2,454,428 persons between the ages of 6 and 20. Of these, 1,563,374 or 63.7% were attending school. In addition to these there were in school 55,773 children under 6 years of age,

and 31,716 persons 21 years old and over, a total of 1,650,863.
The Thirteenth Annual Report of the Education Department,

for the school year ending July 31 1916 contains the following summary of school attendance: common elementary schools, 1,454,514; special elementary schools, 940; common high-schools, 171,263; special high-schools, 4,152; academies, 53,461; normal schools, 8,125; teachers' training classes and schools, 4,422; universities, colleges, professional schools and other higher institutions, 56,116; private schools of all grades, exclusive of academies as enumerated above, estimated, 275,000; Indian schools, 842; evening schools, 173,878; evening vocational schools, 27,688; trades and vocational schools, 17,861; total, 2,248,262. The total number of teachers was 63,954, of whom' 42,957 were employed in the common elementary schools. The net value of school property was estimated at $462,698,843.

During the school year ending June 1918 there were enrolled in the public schools 1,666,589 pupils. The daily average attendance was 1,299,535, and the average duration of school was 187 days. The total number of teachers was 59,187, of whom 52,508 were women. The total state expenditure for public schools was $81,058,361

(see also section History below).
Charities and Prisons.—The number of inmates in state

institutions, almshouses, homes, reformatories, and schools for the blind and deaf, for the year ending June 30 1919, was: number in all institutions, July 1 1918, 62,540; number received during the year, 96,082; total supported, 158,622, of which number 142,417 were supported by public funds and 16,205 by private funds. The number discharged was 97,842. The number in state asylums and reformatories on June 30 1919 was 9,545. The State Hospital Commission, consisting of three members appointed by the governor and the Senate for 6-year terms, has the supervision of the state hospitals for the insane. On June 30 1919 there were 37,607 patients in

the civil state hospitals; 1,422 in hospitals for the criminal insane;
and 916 in private institutions; a total of 39,945. Of the 37,607

patients in the civil hospitals, 33,721, or 89.7%, were entirely supported by the state. The State Commission of Prisons, consisting of seven members appointed by the governor and the Senate, has supervision of all penal institutions. The pop. of the state prisons, reformatories, penitentiaries, county jails, and New York City institutions, on June 30 1919, was 11,016, and the total number of commitments to the various institutions during 1919 was 85,175. The state appropriated $36,604,579.57 for penal, charitable and curative

institutions for the fiscal year ending June 30 1921.
Finance.—The total state debt June 30 1920 was $238,860,017,

and the sinking funds amounted to $69,499,475, making the net debt $169,360,542. In addition, authorization had been granted for bonds amounting to $76,800,000, consisting of $45,000,000 soldiers' and sailors' bonus bonds, $6,800,000 barge canal bonds, $20,000,000 highway improvement bonds and $5,000,000 state forest bonds. According to Gov. Miller's message to the Legislature in Jan. 1921, the financial operations for general budget purposes for the fiscal

year ending June 30 1920 were as follows:—
 Revenue:
 General property taxes  $  15,058,317.01 
 Special taxes 93,018,032.15 
 Other general revenues 7,515,257.83 

 Total  $115,591,606.99 
 Expenditures:
 Administration, maintenance and operation    $  47,902,427.19 
 Fixed charges and contributions 39,699,757.53 

 Capital outlays 6,422,030.75 
 Total  $  94,024,215.47 
 Excess of receipts over expenditure  $  21,567,391.52 
Early in 1921 the comptroller made the following estimate of revenues for the year 1921-2:—
 General property taxes:
 Sinking funds, etc.  $  13,702,340 
 School-teachers' salaries, etc. 19,935,000 
 Court and stenographers' tax   650,000 
 Special taxes:
 Excise (liquor tax)  $       200,000 
 Corporation tax 30,330,000 
 Personal income tax 16,500,000 
 Organization of corporations 1,500,000 
 Transfer (inheritance tax) 17,500,000 
 Stock transfer (stamp tax) 8,520,000 
 Mortgage tax 2,750,000 
 Motor vehicles 4,635,000 
 Other revenues and receipts 7,613,900 

 Total estimated revenue  $123,836,240 
 Estimated surplus, July 1 1921   18,745,595 

 Total estimated resources $142,581,835 
When the Legislature assembled in Jan. 1921 there were

submitted requests for appropriations amounting to the sum of $201,644,292.43. However, under the leadership of the governor, who demanded rigid economy, these estimates were materially reduced. The rapid increase in the cost of the state government during

1912-21 is shown by the following table of budget appropriations:—
 Appropriations   Per Capita 



 1912   $43,074,192.58   $4.61 
1913 52,366,582.35  5.53 
1914 59,465,690.97  6.21 
1915 47,899.527.74  4.94 
1916 63,997,271.86  6.51 
1917 59,103,450.08  5.93 
1918 79,742,834.21  7.89 
1919 81,525,271.31  7.95 
1920 95,840,983.77  9.22 
1921 145,219,906.60  13.79 
Two of the most important laws relative to financial administration

were the Sage-Maier budget law of 1916 and the income

tax law of 1919.

Government.—Although the constitution adopted in 1894 has been frequently amended, the government of New York underwent no fundamental alterations between 1910 and 1921. The most important change was the adoption in 1917 of the woman suffrage amendment. The Constitutional Convention of 1915 adopted far-reaching changes in organization, but all its proposals were disapproved by the electorate. The number of administrative boards and commissions has been greatly increased as the activities of the state have been extended into new fields. In 1919 these agencies, according to the governor's Reconstruction Commission, numbered 187. One of the pressing reforms advocated both by the Constitutional Convention and by the Reconstruction Commission was the reorganization of these miscellaneous administrative agencies into a smaller number of coördinated departments under the governor's control. Another movement was directed toward the establishment of an executive budget system. Neither of these reforms was adopted. One of the most important changes in local government was the adoption by the Legislature of an optional charter law for cities.

History.—On Oct. 6 1910 Gov. Charles E. Hughes resigned to accept a position as associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was succeeded by Horace White, the lieutenant-governor. Among the outstanding accomplishments of Gov. Hughes's term of office may be mentioned: the enactment of a progressive inheritance tax law; the creation of a Public Service Commission with large powers; the passage of a law prohibiting race-track gambling; and the strengthening of the state child labour laws. Gov. Hughes had persistently advocated the enactment of a thoroughgoing direct primary law, but because of the opposition of the leaders of his party to this reform, the convention system survived his term of office and furnished one of the most important issues of state politics throughout the following decade. In the elections of Nov. 1910 the Democrats elected not only the governor, John A. Dix, and the other state officers, but also a majority of the state Legislature. Dix received 689,700 votes; Stimson, his Republican opponent, 622,299.

The 1911 Legislature passed a direct primary law which was a

compromise, retaining the party convention for the nomination of the state ticket but providing for the nomination of most other officers by direct primaries. The Wagner-Levy election law provided that only registered and enrolled voters might make independent nominations by petition; that there be uniform registration days throughout the state; that bi-partisan election boards be established in each county; that the name of a candidate might appear only once on the ballot; and that in rural districts voters who had not voted at the previous election must register personally. Obviously one of the chief purposes of this law was to make fusion tickets and independent voting as difficult as possible. The two last-mentioned provisions were declared unconstitutional by the Court of Appeals. In the autumn elections the Republicans secured a large majority in the Assembly.

The 1912 Legislature passed a number of important measures. An amendment to the primary law allowed party organizations to make the Assembly district, instead of the election district, the unit of representation. This permitted absurdly long ballots and practically prevented everything but straight voting. Another amendment restricted the payment of money to any person for securing signatures to a designating petition. The Rapid Transit Act was amended so as to allow the building of new subways in New York City. Large appropriations were made for state and county highway construction. An amendment to the labour law

restricted the hours of labour; for minors in factories.

In the autumn elections of 1912 the Democrats carried the state. The vote for president was: Wilson, Democrat, 655,573; Taft, Republican, 455,487; Roosevelt, Progressive, 390,093; the vote for governor was: Sulzer, Democrat, 649,559; Hedges, Republican, 444,105; Straus, Progressive, 393,183. The Democrats elected a majority in both Houses of the state Legislature. The newly-elected governor was inaugurated Jan. 1 1913. He had for many years received the support of Tammany Hall, first as a member of the Assembly and then for 18 years as congressman.

Among the important laws enacted in 1913 were: several measures

designed to insure greater safety in factories; a law establishing an eight-hour day for employees on public works; a law limiting to 54 hours a week the time that women and children under 16 might work in certain industries; a law reorganizing the Labor Department and creating one of Efficiency and Economy.

Early in April 1913 the governor sent a special message to the Legislature urging the enactment of a direct primary law which would abolish the party convention. The disagreement between the governor and Tammany Hall, which had begun over the question of appointments, developed into an open conflict over this new issue. The Legislature by large majorities refused to pass the bill which the governor favoured and substituted a measure which he in his veto pronounced an insult to the electorate. The Senate refused to confirm many of the governor's appointments. After the adjournment of the Legislature on May 3, Gov. Sulzer entered on a strenuous campaign throughout the state to arouse public sentiment for his defeated primary bill. On June 16 he convened a special session of the Legislature, but his primary bill was again

defeated by large majorities and the substitute bills adopted were
promptly vetoed. In the meantime, a joint legislative committee,

appointed before the end of the regular session to inquire into the affairs of the several state departments, began an investigation into the governor's campaign fund. Witnesses testified that he had made false returns as to the campaign contributions he had received. Evidence was presented to the effect that a part of the fund collected had been used for speculation. When the Legislature took a recess, July 23, the governor declared the special session adjourned; but the Legislature reassembled Aug. 11. Two days later the Assembly voted, 79 to 45, to impeach the governor on eight counts. Mr. Sulzer denied the authority of the Assembly to impeach him during a special session and claimed that even a legal impeachment would not prevent his continuance in office during the trial. The governor's contentions were overruled by the Court of Impeachment composed of the 51 Senators and the 9 justices of the Court of Appeals. The trial lasted until Oct. 17, when the governor was removed from office by a vote of 43 to 12, having been found guilty on three counts: that he had filed false statements relative to his campaign receipts and expenditures; committed perjury by swearing to such false statements; and suppressed evidence before the joint investigating committee, thus committing a misdemeanour.

Martin H. Glynn, lieutenant-governor, succeeded.

The elections of Nov. 1913 resulted in an overwhelming defeat for Tammany. William Sulzer, nominated by the Progressives of the Sixth Assembly District in New York City, was elected by a large majority over his Democratic and Republican opponents. Many Democratic assemblymen who had previously voted for his impeachment were defeated.

A constitutional amendment authorizing the Legislature to pass

laws to protect the lives, health, or safety of employees, and permitting the enactment of workmen's compensation laws was approved by a large majority. The special session of the Legislature, which had taken a recess after the trial of Gov. Sulzer, reassembled on Dec. 18. Gov. Glynn recommended the enactment of five important measures: a direct primary law abolishing the state conventions; a ballot law modelled on that of Massachusetts; the enactment of measures to carry out the Federal constitutional amendment providing for popular election of U.S. Senators; the submission to the voters of the question of calling a state constitutional convention; and the passing of a workmen's compensation law. The Legislature adopted the entire programme. The new primary law, state-wide in character, provided for a primary ballot with the candidates grouped according to the office sought; no party columns or party emblems were allowed; designations were to be made by petition and the state convention was abolished. The new ballot law required the use of a modified Massachusetts ballot on which the first place in each office group was to be given to the candidate of the party which received the largest number of votes in the preceding election for governor. The party emblem was permitted. The workmen's compensation law was made to cover specified hazardous employments. It fixed rates and periods of compensation. A state workmen's compensation commission of five members appointed by the governor was created.

The 1914 Legislature enacted an optional charter law for cities of the second class (with pop. between 50,000 and 175,000) and of the third class (with pop. below 50,000). Among the seven types of charters authorized were those providing for the city manager and the commission. In accordance with a law enacted in Dec. 1913, an election was held April 7 1914 to determine whether a state constitutional convention should be called. Less than one-fifth of the qualified voters participated in the election, but of these a small

majority favoured a convention.

In the autumn elections of 1914 the Republican party was successful. The vote for governor was: Whitman, Republican, 686,701; Glynn, Democrat, 541,269. The new Legislature was strongly Republican in both branches. Of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, 116 were Republicans, 52 Democrats.

The new Legislature passed a widowed mothers' pension law

providing for the creation of county boards of child welfare, with authority to grant allowances to widowed mothers with dependent children under 16 years of age. The inferior criminal courts of New York City were reorganized and a board of city magistrates with one chief magistrate was created. The law gave a magistrate the right to sit as a judge of Special Sessions and to dispose summarily of minor misdemeanours. Another law authorized parole commissions

in cities of the first class (with pop. of 175,000).

The outstanding event of 1915 was the Constitutional Convention, which met at Albany on April 6 and lasted until Sept. 10. Elihu Root was chosen president. Although the proposed new constitution embodied many highly desirable reforms it was overwhelmingly rejected by the voters at the Nov. election. The vote was: for the constitution, 400,423; against, 910,462. Two amendments, relating to legislative apportionment and to taxation, were likewise defeated. The woman suffrage amendment proposed by the Legislature failed by almost 200,000 votes. The new Assembly was strongly Republican.

The Legislature of 1916 established a military training

commission to coöperate with the State Board of Regents in regard to physical training for pupils in elementary and secondary schools, and to give military training to boys between the ages of 16 and 19 during the school or college year. The Sage-Maier budget bill provided for a legislative budget. The Finance Committee of the Senate and the Ways and Means Committee of the Assembly were required, by the new law, to submit to the Legislature, not later than March 15, a detailed budget. The two committees were authorized to sit continuously and to appoint sub-committees to gather the data needed in the preparation of the financial programme. This work actually devolved on the clerks of the two committees. The Legislature passed also the Whitney-Brereton resolution providing for

the submission of a woman suffrage amendment in 1917.

In Nov. 1916 Gov. Whitman was reëlected. He received 835,820 votes as against 686,862 for Judge Seabury, Democrat. For president, the Republicans carried the state, Hughes receiving 869,066 votes as against 759,462 for President Wilson. The New York Legislature was strongly Republican in both Houses. The legislation of 1917 and 1918 was influenced decidedly by the entrance of the United States into the World War. On the governor's advice, the Legislature enacted a compulsory military training law for boys between the ages of 16 and 19. School-children were allowed to work on farms between April 1 and Nov. 1. A state constabulary was created; and, under authorization of law, a census and an inventory of the military resources of the state were taken. The governor was empowered to require the registration of aliens. Numerous changes were made in the public-health laws of the state. The Legislature accepted for the second time the woman suffrage amendment. In the autumn election 703,129 votes were cast for the amendment and 600,776 against it. Another amendment, providing that debts incurred by any first-class city for water-supply purposes shall not be included in determining the debt limit, was likewise approved. This amendment extended to Buffalo and Rochester, an exemption previously enjoyed by New York City alone.

The 1918 Legislature was in session from Jan. 2 to April 13. A considerable number of war-emergency measures were adopted.

It was made a felony to injure or destroy military stores. A

compulsory work law, applicable to able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 50, was passed. The Food Commission established in 1917 was authorized to limit the margin of profits in retail sales of the necessaries of life. Contracts for the building of state and county highways were suspended for the period of the war. Teachers in the public schools were required to be citizens, and text-books containing seditious or disloyal statements were excluded from the schools. Absentee voting by those in the army and navy was authorized. The provisions of the workmen's compensation law were extended to cover practically all employments except farming and domestic service. A Central Supply Committee was created to make purchases for state departments, boards, and commissions. The Legislature partly repealed the “pay-as-you-go” law enacted in 1916, which made necessary the financing of all non-revenue-producing improvements in New York City through the annual tax levies, by the passage of a law allowing the city to issue annually during the war and one year thereafter $15,000,000 of bonds for certain kinds of improvements. A law provided for the enrolment and registration of women to participate in the 1918 elections.

The Federal prohibition amendment failed of ratification.

In the Sept. primaries, 1918, Gov. Whitman was renominated for a third term. Alfred E. Smith, president of the New York City Board of Aldermen, was his Democratic opponent. Smith received 1,009,936 votes; Whitman, 956,034. The Republicans elected the other state officers except the lieutenant-governor. The Legislature remained Republican. In his message to the Legislature, Gov. Smith recommended important social and welfare legislation, most of which failed of passage because of the hostility of the Republican Legislature. The governor advocated health insurance, the minimum wage, and the eight-hour day for women and minors.

Several highly important laws were enacted. The income tax

law provided for a tax of 1% on incomes up to $10,000; 2% on incomes up to $50,000; and 3% on incomes of over $50,000. Single persons were exempt up to 1,000; and married persons up to $2,000. An additional exemption of $200 was allowed for each dependent.

The salaries of school-teachers were increased. An appropriation of
$1,000,000 was made toward the building of the proposed New

York-New Jersey vehicular tunnel. The employment of women on city railways was restricted. Children under 16 years of age were prohibited from working in factories longer than 48 hours in any one week. The Public Service Commission with jurisdiction over New York City was abolished and two new commissions were established in its place. One commissioner was given the regulatory functions of the former commission. The rapid transit construction work was transferred to a transit construction commissioner. The

Legislature ratified the Federal prohibition amendment.

Shortly after his inauguration, Gov. Smith appointed a non-partisan Reconstruction Commission to inquire into and report on retrenchment and reorganization in the state government. This commission in its report of Oct. 10 1919 recommended an executive budget and the reorganization of the administrative departments of the state, following closely the proposals of the 1915 Constitutional Convention. The 1920 session of the Legislature devoted itself largely to the suppression of radicalism. It expelled five Socialist members of the Assembly and enacted a number of repressive measures designed to curb “revolutionists.” These provided for the licensing of schools and school courses; additional certificates of loyalty from teachers; and machinery for testing the eligibility of members of the Legislature. All these measures were vetoed by Gov. Smith.

The most constructive work of the session was the passage of a

number of bills designed to relieve the rent situation. The more important of these laws prevented the recovery of premises by landlords from “hold over” tenants until Nov. 1 1922, except where the tenants were objectionable, the premises were needed as residences by the owners, or the owners were desirous of putting up new buildings. It was also provided that in proceedings for the non-payment of rent, where the rent had been raised, the tenant might defend on the ground that the new rent was excessive. In such cases the landlord was required to file a bill of particulars showing the reasonableness of the increase. The courts were to pass upon reasonableness. It was further made a misdemeanour not to furnish normal service. The Legislature made additional appropriations for the New York-New Jersey tunnel. The salaries

of school-teachers throughout the state were substantially increased.

The Republicans carried the elections in 1920 by overwhelming majorities. The vote for president was Harding, Republican, 1,868,240; Cox, Democrat, 781,485; Debs, Socialist, 203,400. The Republican candidate for governor, Judge Nathan L. Miller, was elected by a plurality of less than 75,000. Gov. Smith, his opponent, ran almost 500,000 votes ahead of the national Democratic ticket. The state Legislature for 1921 contained large Republican majorities in both Houses. The voters by a large majority approved a bond issue of $45,000,000 for a bonus to soldiers and sailors in the World War.

Gov. Miller, in his message to the 1921 Legislature, dealt chiefly

with finance, urging rigid economy, and opposing the creation of new positions and salary increases. He favoured the completion of authorized construction projects before undertaking others. Later the governor sent a special message to the Legislature in which he outlined a programme for the reorganization of the Public Service Commission and the solution of the traffic problem in New York City. He recommended that all public utilities be placed under the jurisdiction of one state commission, except that a commission of three be established with complete jurisdiction over the one subject of transit in New York City. The Legislature passed measures carrying out the governor's recommendation. Other laws of importance, many of them sponsored by the governor, provided for the enforcement of the prohibition amendment directly by local police officers; the repeal of the daylight saving law; the return to the convention system of nominating state and judicial officers; the reorganization of the State Industrial Commission; the reorganization of the State Tax Commission and the transfer to it of most state tax-collecting agencies; the creation of a Board of Estimate and Control consisting of the governor or his agent, the chairmen of the Senate Finance and Assembly Ways and Means committees and the comptroller; and a treaty with New Jersey for the development of the port of New York. The anti-sedition laws adopted were designed to compel teachers to take an oath of loyalty and to empower the state Department of Education to license all private schools. Provision was made for a legislative investigation into the affairs of the New York City administration and for another to study the problem of charter revision in that city. Although the Republicans elected a majority of the members of the Assembly in the autumn elections of 1921, their strength

was materially reduced by Democratic gains.

The World War.—New York led the states in the number of troops supplied for the World War. The total number from the state (including Regular Army, National Army, National Guard, navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and U.S. Guards) was 493, 8 92, or 10.37% of the total. The number of casualties was 40,222. The subscriptions to the Liberty and Victory loans in New York State were: First Liberty Loan, $1,112,389,700; Second, $1,413,107,150; Third, $985,559,600; Fourth, $1,826,448,250; Victory Loan, $1,607,199,250; total $6,944,703,950. (E. D. G.)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Decrease.