1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Pennsylvania, University of
PENNSYLVANIA, UNIVERSITY OF (see 21.114). In 1910 the Henry Phipps Institute for the study, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis was transferred to the university. In 1912 the college was divided into three separate departments—the college, the Towne scientific school, and the Wharton school of finance and commerce. In 1914 the school of education was established, with a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education; since then there has been held every spring at the university “Schoolmen's week,” and teachers from all over the state assemble to take part in conferences and discussions. By a merger in 1916 the Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia became an integral part of the university as its graduate school of medicine, and in 1918 another merger was effected with the Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates in Medicine. In 1917 a course in military science was established to qualify students for commissions as reserve officers. In 1920 the laboratory of hygiene and public health became the school of hygiene and public health.
During the decade 1910-20 there were many developments in the widening of the university's usefulness to the community through the establishment of extension schools. In 1920-1 the university had 964 officers of instruction, of whom 302 were in the college, and 213 in the department of medicine. The enrolment was 11,182 students, including 2,652 women, of whom 753 were in the college (arts and science); 29 in biology; 780 in the college course for teachers; 1,281 in the summer school; 638 in the Towne scientific school; 2,277 in the Wharton school of finance and commerce; 1,439 in the evening school of accounts and finance; 996 in the extension schools; 760 in the school of education; 218 in the school of fine arts; 657 in the graduate school; 191 in the law school; 433 in the medical school; 101 in the graduate school of medicine; 735 in the school of dentistry; 30 in the school of veterinary medicine, and 6 in the school of hygiene and public health (duplications, 142).
Beginning with 1920 the tuition fees were raised from $200 to $250 in the college, the Towne school, the Wharton school, in education, law, dentistry, and hygiene; from $200 to $300 in medicine; and from $100 to $150 in veterinary medicine. In 1920-1 the income from tuition fees was $1,425,000; the payment for “educational salaries” amounted to $1,425,000, and for other salaries and wages $678,000. In June 1920 the excess of the university's assets over its liabilities was $26,000,000, and the donations for the year were $278,000. The total value of real estate (including the university's buildings) was $11,486,000; and libraries, museums, apparatus and furniture were valued at $3,645,000. The university library, including numerous special collections, contained about 500,000 bound volumes and 50,000 pamphlets. A question of paramount importance concerning the future policy of the university was settled in 1921, when the trustees, in accordance with the overwhelming sentiment of the alumni, resolved that the university should continue as a private institution and not surrender its independence, as had been proposed, by becoming a state university with consequent supervision by the official representatives of the state Government.
In 1921 Gen. Leonard Wood (q.v.) was elected “head of the university under such appropriate title as may be hereafter agreed upon.” Later in the year Gen. Wood was appointed governor-general of the Philippines, and was granted a year's leave of absence before assuming his duties at the university. During the World War 9,204 students and alumni of the university saw service, of whom 7,411 were in the army, 856 in the navy, 827 in auxiliary service, and 110 in the armies of America's Allies. Of these 212 died for their country's cause. (E. F. S.*)