# 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Russell, Bertrand Arthur William

**RUSSELL, BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM** (1872-),
English mathematician and philosopher, second son of
Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was
born at Chepstow May 18 1872. Educated at Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical
tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he
remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known
as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent
of the views of the newer school of Realists. In June 1916,
Mr. Russell, who had taken a strong line against the Government,
and was a “conscientious objector,” throughout the
World War, was fined £100 and £10 costs for making statements
calculated to prejudice recruiting, and, in consequence,
Trinity College, Cambridge, deprived him of his lectureship.
His chief published works, on which his philosophical
reputation was based up to the outbreak of the World War, were
*German Social Democracy* (1896); *Essay on the Foundations of*
*Geometry* (1897); *Principles of Mathematics* (1903); *Principia*
*Mathematica* (with A. N. Whitehead, 1910) and *Our Knowledge*
*of the External World* (1914). Later he published *Principles*
*of Social Reconstruction* (1917); *Mysticism and Logic* (1918);
*The Analysis of Mind* (1920) and (after a visit to Russia) *The*
*Theory and Practice of Bolshevism* (1920).