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1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Ship and Shipbuilding

SHIP AND SHIPBUILDING (see 24.867). The period from 1910-21 was marked by great progress in shipbuilding; that progress was in some ways interrupted, in others stimulated, by the World War, which overshadowed every phase of develop- ment both in commercial and naval enterprise. The naval strengths during ten years after 1921 of the chief nations were restricted as a result of the decisions summarized in the article WASHINGTON CONFERENCE.

The great object of the Allied belligerents during the war being to obtain the maximum output both of war material and of merchant ships on which their supplies depended, those respon- sible for the building of all types of ships naturally turned their attention to standardization. This had the effect of retarding the adoption of new inventions on the one hand; but on the other the novel circumstances and continued development of material by Germany during the war, and the ruthless use made of that war material, continually called for novel devices and new types of ships to meet and defeat the continually changing and ever-increasing intensity of the campaign. This, whilst it produced many new types of warships and countless devices for their improvement in offence and defence, in the case of many classes of warships, but more particularly in the design of mer- chant ships, had the effect of developing standardized types, both in Great Britain and later in America, in order to increase the numbers of ships for transport purposes of all kinds and so counter the enormous losses due to the German submarine cam- paign. After the Armistice, although at first there was an enor- mous demand for ships of all classes, the slump in trade in 1920-1 and the very high prices of ships had the effect of reducing the demand. In Great Britain many of the warships building after the Armistice were broken up and no new ships had in 1921 been started. The output of merchant ships was in 1921 steadily de- clining, so that it could not be said that shipbuilding had yet re- sumed that steady advance which was being made before the war.

The outstanding features which have affected the design of all classes of ships specially are the gradual adoption of oil in lieu of coal as a fuel, the further development of the steam turbine, and, for certain classes of vessels, the progress made with internal- combustion engines (see INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES).

In the British navy, and to a great extent in other navies, during this period, oil most completely superseded coal for steam- raising. At first destroyers were the only type of vessel, apart from submarines, in which coal was altogether abolished as a fuel in the British navy. Then in 1912 light cruisers of the " Are- thusa " class had oil only. A little later in that year, in the " Queen Elizabeth " class of battleships oil was decided upon as the only fuel for the first time in a capital ship. Subsequently to that, no British warship proper, with the exception of the " Ra- leigh " class of io,ooo-ton light cruisers, which were destined for world-wide work, had anything but oil as a fuel, and in the " Raleighs " seven-eighths of the power was derived from oil. This change was a very momentous one to make, especially when it is considered that in Welsh coal Great Britain possessed the finest and then the cheapest steam coal in the world. In spite of this, however, the advantages of oil were so great that, when in use it had been found satisfactory, coal was relegated to be the fuel of none but special or auxiliary ships in the navy.

The advantages of oil may be summarized shortly as follows: For the same weight it has 50% more thermal value than coal. It occupies less space and can be stowed in spaces inconvenient for coal and other stores. Boilers with oil remain much cleaner for a long period, so that full power can be kept up indefinitely as long as the fuel lasts. Oil can be easily taken on board at any time, thus not calling upon the crew for the great exertion in- volved in coaling ship hurriedly, perhaps just before their ener- gies are required for fighting an action. The exertion of stoking is entirely done away with and far fewer men are required in the stokehold, which is always clean and comfortable. With oil also much larger boilers can be used, which saves space in the boiler-

rooms. Though there are other contingent advantages, those named are enough to show that the British Admiralty took a wise course in adopting oil for all fighting ships, and this was amply proved during the war.

Subsequently, owing to the very high price of coal and of wages for firemen, many of the advantages enumerated above induced merchant shipowners to adopt oil in place of coal for high-powered passenger vessels. In low-speed cargo-boats the great economy of internal-combustion engines as compared with steam-engines, makes the advantage of the adoption of oil still more paramount, and the number of these vessels has been largely increased. The comparatively low powers, however, which can be got with internal-combustion engines prevented their being adopted up to 1921 for fast merchant ships or for any warships, except submarines, which generally have compara- tively low power and moderate speed. In submarines a much lighter internal-combustion engine than that used for cargo vessels has been developed, with a high number of revolutions.

Another very important advance in marine engines has been gained by the used of toothed gearing. This gear enabling the high number of revolutions in turbines to be reduced, so that large slow-running propellers can be used in conjunction with very quick-running efficient turbines, a much higher efficiency has been secured and increased speed of ship and economy of working has resulted. In its present form this gearing was first introduced in 1910 by Sir Charles Parsons in connexion with the turbine engines of a merchant vessel named the " Vespasian." The success of the trials of this ship led to the further adoption of gearing, and for the British navy it was first tried in destroyers, then in some light cruisers, and was in 1921 gradually coming into use for most war ships and many mercantile ships. The largest ship in which it had been adopted was H.M.S. " Hood."

I. BRITISH WARSHIPS

Taking the first most important type of British warship, namely capital ships, the naval actions in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5 had demonstrated the capital importance of the heavy long-range gun, while the turbine system of propulsion had been sufficiently tested in high-speed passenger vessels and small warships to justify its adoption, at any rate experimentally, in warships of a larger size. These changes were, no doubt, bold ones, both as regards guns and machinery; but the wisdom of their selection for the design of the first " Dreadnought," in 1905, was sufficiently vindicated by subsequent experience, and by the general acceptance of these two features by other naval Powers.

Laid down in Oct. 1905, the original " Dreadnought " proved so successful that from 1907 onwards the designs of British capi- tal ships moved on progressive lines without departing from the essential principle of the " Dreadnought " type, viz. a ship carrying an all-big-gun armament, adequately protected for taking her place in the line of battle, and of a speed at least equal to that of any foreign ship of similar rank.

The next 10 years therefore saw a succession of post- " Dread- nought " battleships in which the primary armament passed from the ten iz-in. guns of the " Dreadnought " through the ten 13-5- in. guns of the " Orion " (all on the centre line of the ship) to the eight is-in. guns of the " Queen Elizabeth," an increase, within that brief period, of over 126% in the heavy projectile weight of discharge. There was no secondary battery, properly speak- ing. The " Dreadnought " carried 24 i2-pdrs. for repelling T.B.D. attack, but this armament was soon recognized as being too light for the ever-increasing size and power of destroyers, and in subsequent ships up to the " King George V." class (inclusive) batteries of 12 to 16 4-in. guns were mounted as high up as possible to repel the attack of destroyers. In the " Iron Duke " and " Queen Elizabeth " classes 6-in. Q.F. guns were substituted for the 4-in., as the latter weapon was then thought to be insufficient against destroyers and light cruisers.

The speed of these battleships was kept at the uniform level of 21 knots up to and including the " Iron Duke " class. The type of turbine machinery on four shafts, which had proved so satis- factory in the original " Dreadnought," became the standard,

but the growth in displacement necessitated a corresponding increase in power to attain the requisite speed. The use of oil fuel in association with coal was maintained until the " Queen Eliza- beth " class was reached, when the greater advantages of oil fuel and the improved methods of its combustion finally caused the abandonment of coal as fuel. A noteworthy feature of these remarkable vessels was the advance in speed to 25 knots, necessi- tating, on a slightly larger displacement than that of their pred- ecessors, an increase of about 150% in the power.

Concurrently with the development of the battleship proper, that of the British battle cruiser may be followed with advantage. Up to the inception of the " Dreadnought " design nothing more ambitious than an armament consisting of g-2-in. guns associated with 7'5-in. guns ("Warrior" and "Minotaur," 1903-4) had been attempted in armoured cruisers. But the same reasons which caused the evolution of the all-big-gun battleships from the mixed armament of the " King Edward VII." and " Lord Nelson " classes now called for a similar simplification in the armoured cruiser designs. The outcome of this policy was the production of the " Invincible " class of " cruiser battleships," now generally known as " battle cruisers."

In these vessels the additional power necessary for their 4 to 5 knots superiority of speed over the " Dreadnought " was obtained at the sacrifice of two i2-ih. guns and some loss of armour pro- tection. The value of speed, which in battleships had always been a debatable point, was, of course, incontestable for the battle cruisers, and the development of the type has, both before and since the outbreak of the war, kept pace with the insistent demands of the strategist for the highest speed obtainable. With- in the lo-year period referred to above, the increase in speed and power from the "Invincible" (25 knots for 41,000 H.P.) to the "Renown" (32 knots for 120,000 H.P.) required an increase in displacement from 17,250 tons to 26,500 tons, the relative increase in power being over 190 per cent. Finally in the " Hood " a speed of 32 knots with 144,000 H.P. on a displacement of 41,200 tons, an increase of 235% in power was involved.

The wisdom of the policy which initiated this new era in naval construction, relegating temporarily into the background the former British supremacy in capital ships, was naturally the sub- ject of much criticism. But evolution in warship construction is not the property of any one navy, and there is little doubt that, at the conclusion of the Japanese war, the world stood on the threshold of a new era in naval architecture. If British naval supremacy was to be maintained it had to be done by leading the world along the new path of warship design, without waiting for others to utilize the advantages that had been rendered possible by progress in armour, guns and machinery. How great an advance the " Dreadnought " represented on previous ships may be gauged from the particulars given in Table I.

TABLE I. Comparison between " Dreadnought " and the Best Previous Skips.


" Dread- nought " (as de- signed)

Best Pre- vious Ship

Number of 12-in. guns carried.

10

4

Length of line of battle for equal num-


ber of 12-in. guns on the broadside

Ratio

I tO 2

Total muzzle energy per broadside of

,

,

12-in. guns Length of line of battle for equal 12-in.

\ft.-tonsj

J I45,OOO

\ft.-tons

' broadside gun power ....

Ratio

I to 2-6

Tons displacement per 12-in. gun .

1,785

3-750

First cost per 12-in. gun in line of battle.

175,000

280,000

Annual upkeep of ship per 12-in. gun car-


ried. 1

34,800

62,300

Speed (knots)

21

19

Endurance :


At economical speed (nautical m.)

5,800

5,790

At 16 knots (nautical m.)

4,000

3,000

Other navies were not slow to follow the lead given by Great

1 This includes pay, victualling, repairs, coal, stores, etc., together with an addition of 15% per annum of first cost, for interest and depreciation, etc

Britain. The veil of secrecy in which the new types were closely shrouded whetted the emulation as well as the curiosity of other nations. Germany, ever ready to reap where others have sown, set about preparing for the change, and two years later produced the "Nassau" class, with 12 n-in. guns as main armament and 12 6-in. guns as anti-destroyer armament. At the rate of three a year She continued to lay down ships of this type improved in armament as time progressed each batch being accompanied by a battle cruiser of corresponding power and speed. Other nations fell into step, and, during the five or six years preceding the outbreak of war, produced, with variants appropriate to their several necessities, all-big-gun ships carrying a main armament of 10 or 12 primary weapons grouped in turrets shielding two, three, or even four guns each.

While the German output of capital ships had, once it got under way, continued with methodical regularity, British naval construction had suffered from the vagaries inseparable from divergent political views and aspirations.

Under the " Cawdor Memorandum " of Nov. 30 1905 it had been laid down that the minimum British requirements would be four large armoured ships a year, and the " Dreadnought " with the three " Invincibles " fulfilled this condition, but in each of the two following years only three battleships (and no battle cruisers) were laid down, while the 1908-9 programme only pro- vided for one battleship (" Neptune ") and one armoured cruiser (" Indefatigable "). Efforts had been made to induce Germany to curtail her naval expansion " a year's holiday in naval con- struction " being suggested but such hopes as were based on this contingency gradually faded before the inexorable German determination to challenge British sea supremacy. In the 1909- 10 estimates provision was therefore made for laying down four capital ships, two in July 1009 (" Colossus " and " Hercules ") and two in Nov. (" Orion " and " Lion "), while four " contin- gent " ships (" Monarch," " Thunderer," " Conqueror " and " Princess Royal ") were to be laid down in April 1910, if the German menace showed no signs of abating. So far from this latter being the case, there was an acceleration in the dates of laying down the .German ships, and the programme outlined above was therefore punctually carried out. The 1909-10 programme, it will be seen, was a memorable one in the history of British naval construction, and its adoption enabled Great Britain to maintain her naval supremacy, which otherwise would have been jeopardized.

Notwithstanding the atmosphere of uncertainty created by the delays due to hopes of a reduction of armaments, the rate of progress on warships under construction was well maintained, and, with a few exceptions, Great Britain was able to complete the largest battleships within 24 to 30 months of laying down, a performance which compared favourably with the best achieve- ments abroad, and which not even Germany with her methodical preparations was able to equal.

The disposition of the heavy guns in both battleships and battle cruisers had, during the first five years of this period, undergone several important modifications. In the " Dreadnought," " Bellero- phon " and " St. Vincent " classes the five two-gun turrets were placed as in the diagram : A being on the forecastle deck, the re- maining turrets on the upper deck, giving eight guns on each broad- side, six ahead and six astern.


The " Invincibles," which carried one turret (X) less, had the two middle turrets P and Q disposed en echelon, and the superstructure amidships was so arranged as to enable all eight guns to fire on either broadside. The middle turrets were, however, placed so near to one another that serious trouble was experienced from gun blast when firing across the deck. In the battle cruisers of the " Indefatig- able " class, and the battleships of the " Neptune " and " Colossus " classes, therefore, where a similar arrangement was adopted, the centre pair of turrets were spaced wider apart. A further change in the arrangement of turrets was adopted for the first time in these

battleships, where the after-pair were disposed at different deck levels to enable X turret to fire over Y. This arrangement, which now became the standard practice, while it introduced some diffi- culty in providing for stability, was economical of space, and simpli- fied many of the gunnery problems connected with the ship; it gave, moreover, a higher gun platform for some of the armament.

While the offensive qualities of the battleships had continued to increase in successive types, the need for improved defence, particu- larly against mine and torpedo attack, had not been overlooked.

The adoption of protective bulkheads against under-water attack as carried out in the " Dreadnought " and subsequent capital ships was the outcome of the naval engagements of the Russo-Japanese war. The Russian battleship " Tsareyitch," in particular, had been fitted with a protective deck which, instead of being continued to the side of the ship, was turned down in wake of the magazines, forming a heavy longitudinal bulkhead situated some distance from the ship's side. This protection had enabled her to resist success- fully the explosion of several torpedoes. It was decided to incor- porate in the " Dreadnought " design some under r water protection to the vitals. Within the limits of displacement available it was not possible to do' more than protect the magazines and shell-rooms. These were given 2-in. protective bulkhead plating at the three centre-line turrets, and 4-in. protective bulkhead plating outside the two beam turrets, as the latter, being situated nearer the sides of the vessel, were consequently much more vulnerable.

In the subsequent " Bellerophqn " and " St. Vincent " classes this side protection was developed in the form of a continuous longi- tudinal protective bulkhead terminated by protective transverse bulkheads completely boxing in the magazines and shell-rooms of the five turrets and the main machinery spaces enclosed between them. The thickness varies frorn ij in. to 3 in. according to the distance of the bulkhead from the outer shell of the ship. In a verti- cal direction the bulkhead ran from the outer bottom to just above the lower edge of the side armour. In the " Hercules " and " Orion " classes there was a reversion to the original " Dreadnought " sys- tem of isolated protection to the various compartments immediately below each of the three groups of turrets, the remainder of the ship's hull below water-line being unprotected. In the " King George V." and " Iron Duke " classes the under-water protection was extended by joining up the portions between the two foremost turrets to those below the centre turret, so that only the ends of the ship and something less than the middle third remained unpro- tected. Concurrently with the battleships this form of protection was also fitted in the battle cruisers, but limited to the magazines and shell-rooms.

Finally, in the " Queen Elizabeth " (the torpedo menace having increased) the continuous longitudinal protective bulkheads were once more incorporated, and with the transverse protective bulk- heads at each end, girdling the ship throughout nearly her entire length, so that not only shell-rooms and magazines, but engine- ana boiler-rooms had the protection of a bulkhead 2 in. thick some 10 ft. from the ship's side, with the addition of another longitudinal bulkhead of 17 Ibs. plating placed (at a distance of 7 ft. amidships and at varying distances at the ends) on the inner side of the pro- tective bulkhead, further minimizing the risk of damage to the vitals of the ship from the effects of an explosion.

The arrangement of the protective bulkheads in the " Royal Sovereign " class generally followed that of " Queen Elizabeth," but their thickness was l^ inches.

The efficiency of this system of protection, which a series of experi- ments had established, was demonstrated at Jutland, and it was further improved upon by the later forms of bulge protection.

The construction of British battle cruisers had proceeded con- currently with that of the battleships, although in smaller num- bers. The demands made upon the engineering staff to provide for the large increases of power already referred to involved many difficult problems, but the " Indefatigable " was neverthe- less completed (in 1911) within two years of laying down, and the later ships, "Lion," "Princess Royal," " Queen Mary," and " Tiger," followed on in succeeding years, each marking some advance in power and speed. Two other battle cruisers of the " Indefatigable " type, viz. " New Zealand " and " Australia," built for the Dominions from whence they took their names, had also been completed and were available for reinforcing the battle cruiser squadrons.

When the World War broke out in Aug. 1914 there were, more- over, four capital ships building in England for foreign Powers two for Turkey and two for the Chilean Government. The two Turkish ships had just been completed and commissioned, one at Armstrong's and the other at Vickers', and were on the eve of sailing when war was declared. As both vessels were subject to preemption in the event of war, the Government promptly took them over and added them to the British fleet under the names of " Agincourt " and " Erin " respectively.

Of the two Chilean ships building in England at Armstrong's, the " Almirante Latorre " (10 i4-in. guns and 16 6-in. guns) was the further advanced, and she was taken over and renamed " Canada." She was completed in Sept. 1915. The " Almirante Cochrane " was taken over in 1918 for conversion into an air- craft carrier, being renamed " Eagle."

There were thus at the outbreak of war the following com- pleted capital ships on the offensive British list:

" Erin " and " Agincourt " (purchased) .... 2 " Iron Duke " class . . . . . . . .2'

" King George V." class 4

" Orion " class 4

" Colossus " class 2

" Neptune " i

" St. Vincent " class 3

" Bellerophon " class 3

" Dreadnought " i

Battleships " . .22

" Queen Mary " i

" Lion " and " Princess Royal " 2

" Indefatigable," " Australia," and " New Zealand " . 3 " Invincible," " Inflexible," " Indomitable " . . .3

Battle cruisers 9

The total armament comprised in the above completed ships was as follows: 134 13'5-in. guns; 162 12-in.; 60 6-in.; 360 4-in., of which 18 were anti-aircraft 3 ; 62 3-in. and 12-pdr., of which 38 were anti-aircraft ; 46 6-pdr. and 3-pounder.

Of the older battleships, from the "Majestic" class (1895) onwards, the British navy possessed:

" Lord Nelson " class 2

" King Edward VII." class 8

" Swiftsure " class 2

" Duncan " class 5

" Formidable " class .2

" Canopus " class 6

" Majestic " class 9

These older ships, whose speeds ranged from 17 knots to igj knots, comprised a total armament of 152 1 2-in.; 8 lo-in. ; 52 9'2-in.; 28 7'5-in.; 4^16 6-in.; 28 14-pdr., and 530 12-pounder. They were, of course, not in a position to meet modern " Dreadnoughts " on equal terms, but they compared favourably in offensive and defensive qualities with contemporary German warships, while being numeri- cally in considerable superiority. They all rendered useful service during the war.

The old " Revenge," completed in 1894 (renamed "Redoubt- able " in 1914), the last available vessel of the old " Royal Sov- ereign " class, was commissioned and rendered useful service in the Belgian coast bombardments of 1914 and 1915.

In addition to the " Tiger " and the two remaining ships of the " Iron Duke " class which were approaching completion, there were five " Queen Elizabeths " in a more or less advanced state of construction, and five " Royal Sovereigns " laid down eight to ten months previously. The " Queen Elizabeth," being the far- thest advanced, was pushed on with all possible speed, and by Jan. 1915 she was sufficiently completed to be commissioned and sent out to the Mediterranean, where she took part in the bom- bardment of the Dardanelles forts.

With regard to the design of British capital ships in the past, a most serious limitation had been the restricted width of the graving- docks in Great Britain. This involved keeping the extreme beam of the ships within about 90 feet. Had wider docks been available, thus making it possible to have had a greater beam, the designs on the same length and draught could have embodied more fighting qualities, such as armour, armament, greater stability in case of damage, and improved under-water protection. This condition sub- sisted until the completion of the two big floating docks for Ports- mouth 4 and the Medway, the two locks at Portsmouth, and the large graving-docks at Rosyth ; but the shortage of wide docks was a serious handicap during the war, and it was necessary to make use of the Gladstone Dock at Liverpool and the dock at Avonmouth.

1 Two more nearly complete.

1 One more (" Tiger ") nearly complete.

3 The anti-aircraft armament was not provided until after the outbreak of war, when such provision became necessary.

  • Portsmouth floating dock was transferred to Invergordon in
1914, and the Medway Lock to the Tyne in 1915.

FIG. 14. H.M.S. Ceres.

FIG. 16. H.M.S. Danae.


FIG. 1 8. H.M.S. Hawkin


FIG. 29. H.M. Submarine Mi.


FIG. 22. H.M.S. Shakespeare.

FIG. 23. H.M.S. Torch.

FIG. 27. H.M. Submarine

FIG. 26. H.M.S. Primula.


FIG. 28. H.M. Submarine La.

FIG. 30. H.M.S. Argus. Even in 1921 there was a great need for more British floating docks of the largest description. This was more especially apparent on the Clyde, where there was no dock, either floating or graving, which could take capital ships.

The German ships were not handicapped in this way, and most of their later capital ships had widths of between 90 and 100 ft., which enabled them to carry more armour, and as far as it is possible to judge, they stood a good deal of battering without showing any lack of stability, while they proved to be good gun platforms, at any rate for work in the North Sea.

Immediately after war was declared great pressure was exercised to complete the ships then building for the British navy, and to order such other vessels as could be designed and finished in the shortest possible time. The view held in the early days that the war would only last a year necessarily coloured all that was done in the way of naval design and construction. Generally speaking, therefore, the construction of new battleships was ruled out. With the acquisition of the" Agincourt,"" Erin "and " Canada," which were building in England for foreign Governments in private yards, and in view of the certain early completion of the remaining two vessels of the " Iron Duke" class, shortly to be followed by the vessels of the " Queen Elizabeth " class, Great Britain had a great preponderance of heavier capital ships, or Dreadnoughts, over the enemy; and as this class of ship takes longer to design and construct than any other, it was obviously a prudent course to concentrate on such types as were specially needed and could be built more quickly.

It should also be remembered that the menace of the submarine, which was from the first beginning to loom as a vital factor in the war, pointed in the direction of large numbers of patrol boats, torpedo-boat destroyers, and smaller types of vessels to deal with this menace. No time, therefore, was lost in placing orders for additional British destroyers, submarines, light cruisers, sloops, mine-sweepers, patrol boats, etc.; and it very soon became clear that the Royal dockyards and the regular warship- building contractors would not be able to cope with the mass of new construction that was required. Accordingly, orders for many of the last-named classes were placed with builders who had hitherto only been accustomed to mercantile work. With the arrangements that were made, however, for superintending and overseeing the work by the Admiralty, with the assistance of the registration societies Lloyd's and the British Corporation

very little difficulty was experienced in getting the work satisfactorily carried out by the firms new to this class of shipbuilding, and success attended the arrangements made.

Table II. gives the number and tonnage of vessels added to the British navy during the war. The total number (including other classes besides those in the table) was 1,513, of approximately 2,356,000 tons displacement.

TABLE II. British Warships Completed and Lost Between Aug. 4 1914 and Nov. II 1918.

Completions Losses
No. Approx. Displacement No. Approx. Displacement
Battleships 15 395,ooo 13 201,000
Battle cruisers 3 81,500 3 63,000
Cruisers 3 56,500 13 158,500
Light cruisers .... 36 143,000 12 46,000
Monitors 40 126,000 6 14,000
Aircraft-carriers .... 8 67,500 3 27,500
Flotilla leaders .... 28 45,500 3 5,000
Torpedo-boat destroyers . 255 273,000 64 52,000
Submarines 146 151-500 54 43,500
P. and P. C. boats 63 40,000 2 1,000
Sloops 124 155,500 18 22,500
Paddle mine-sweepers . 34 27,500
Twin screw mine-sweepers . 55 43,000
Patrol gunboats .... 3 27,000
Oilers and petrol carriers . 67 436,000
Whalers, trawlers and drifters . 382 173.500

Battleships. To take ships added to the British navy during the war in the proper order, it is necessary to begin with battleships of the " Iron Duke " class. The particulars of Dreadnoughts built after the " Hercules " are given in Table III.

The " Iron Duke " class (see fig. i), of which there were four, followed the " King George V." class, both in sequence of time and in general characteristics. The same main armament, similarly arranged, with the five turrets all on the centre line of the ship, was adhered to, the chief difference in the " Iron Dukes " being that instead of the 4-in. guns forming the secondary armament, a battery of 12 6-in. guns protected by 6-in. armour was finally decided upon. The protection also was somewhat increased over that of the " King George V.," involving an increase in dimensions over any previous British battleships. Two of the class were laid down in Jan. 1912 and two in May, the four vessels being completed ,in March, June, Oct. and Nov. 1914, so that two were ready just

TABLE III. Particulars of British Battleships.

Vessel Date of Launch Length between perpendiculars; (length over all) Breadth Mean Draught Load Displacement: Tons Speed: Knots HorsePower Armament Thickest side of Armour
" Orion " 1910
"Thunderer" 1911 545 ft. (581 ft.) 88 ft. 6 in. 27 ft. 6 in. 22,500 21 27,000 10 13'5-in.
16 4-in.
32½-in. T. T.
12 in.
"Conqueror" 1911
" Monarch " 1911
" King George V." 1911
" Centurion " 1911 555ft- (597ft.6in.) 89ft. 27 ft. 6 in. 23,000 21 27,000 10 13'5-in-
16 4-in.
32 1 -in. T. T.
12 in.
"Ajax" 1912
" Audacious " 1912
" Iron Duke " 1912
" Marlborough ". 1912 580 ft. (622 ft. 9 in.) 90 ft. 28ft. 25,000 21 29,000 10 13'5-in.
12 6-m.
42 1 -in. T. T.
12 in.
" Emperor of India". 1913
" Benbow " . 1913
" Queen Elizabeth". 1913
" Warspite " 1913
" Barham " 1914 600ft. (643ft.9in.) 90 ft. 6 in. 28 ft. 9 in. 27,500 25 75,000 8 is-in.
12 6-in.
42i-in. T. T.
13 in.
"Valiant " . 1914
"Malaya " . 1915
" Royal Sovereign ". 1915
" Royal Oak " . 1914
" Revenge ". 1915 580 ft. (624ft-3in.) 88 ft. 6 in.
102 ft. with bulge.
28 ft. 6 in. 25,750 23 40,000 8 15-in.
14 6-in.
42 1 -in. T. T.
13 in.
" Resolution " 1915
" Ramillies " 1916
" Agincourt " 1913 632ft. (67ift.6in.) 89 ft. 27 ft. 27,500 . 22 34,000 14 12-in.20 6-in
32i-in. T. T.
9 in.
" Erin " 1913 525 ft. (559 ft. 6 in.) 91 ft. 7 in. 28 ft. 6 in. 23,000 21 26,000 10-13-5-in. 16-6-in
42i-in. T. T.
12 in.
"Canada". 1913 625 ft. (661 ft.) 92 ft. 28 ft. 6 in. 28,000 22¾ 37,000 10 14-in.i6 6-in
42l-in. T. T.
9 in.

before, and two shortly after, the declaration of war. Four torpedo- tubes were carried in lieu of three in the previous ships, and after the battle of Jutland a considerable amount of additional protec- tion was added over the magazines a course which was practically adopted in all British ships at that time as a precautionary measure. Only in one case was any portion of a shell found to have pene- trated below the protective deck; but with the ever-increasing range at which actions were fought, and the increasing penetration of improved shell, the danger of the decks being inadequate had to be considered. Special interest is attached to this class, as the " Iron Duke " was the fleet flagship during the whole time of Adml. Jelli- coe's appointment as commander-in-chief, and she was in action at Jutland with her sister ships.


FIG. i.

The " Marlborough," it should be specially noted, was the only British battleship of the post-" Dreadnought " type struck by a torpedo during the whole war, and the value of the longitudinal pro- tective bulkhead and of the subdivision and arrangements adopted was clearly shown, as the ship was able to remain in the line, no vital damage being done. She was afterwards safely docked in the Tyne and repaired. This is specially interesting, as many of the older ships, some with centre-line bulkheads and with other arrange- ments not so good for dealing with under-water damage, were sunk in the Dardanelles and elsewhere by enemy torpedoes.


FIG. 2.

The next type to note is the " Queen Elizabeth " class of the 1912-3 programme (see figs. 2 and 3). Three of these vessels, after taking a little more than two years to build, were completed in Jan., March and Oct. 1915. The other two were completed in Feb. 1916. A very considerable departure was made in the " Queen Elizabeth " from any previous " Dreadnoughts," the 15-in. gun taking the place of the 13'5-in., and the designed speed being increased by 4 knots over previous " Dreadnoughts," whilst the secondary armament was similar to that of the " Iron Dukes," consisting of 6-in. guns. Their very great increase of speed involved more than doubling the H.P. of the " Iron Duke " to give the 25 knots desired, and the great increase in the weight of the 15-in. guns and mountings over the 13-5-in. meant accepting only four turrets with eight 15-in. guns, as against five turrets with 10 13-5-in. guns in the previous ships, and even so the armament was consid- erably heavier. The further great departure from previous practice in battleships was the adoption of oil only as the fuel. This necessi- tated special arrangements of the oil bunkers, many of which were 30 ft. in height, and required special construction to withstand the head of oil. The armour and protection were fully maintained as compared with previous ships, but all these additions involved increasing the displacement to 27,500 tons.

In the battle of Jutland the Fifth Battle Squadron, consisting of four vessels of this class, were heavily engaged for several hours, and although they inflicted and sustained heavy punishment, espe- cially in the case of " Warspite," all the vessels gave a splendid account of themselves and were not seriously damaged or put out of action. After the battle of Jutland additional protection was added to the magazines. The oil fuel proved a complete success in

the stress of war conditions, it being found easier to keep up a high sustained speed, with the smaller complement carried.

It should be noted that Sir Philip Watts was responsible as Director of Naval Construction for the design of the " Iron Duke" and " Queen Elizabeth " classes, thus completing a series of 27 battleships of the " Dreadnought " type designed and built during his tenure of office at the Admiralty in addition to the large num- ber of battle cruisers, light cruisers, destroyers and other vessels built during that period truly a great record.

Following the " Queen Elizabeths " came the " Royal Sov- ereign " class of the 1913-4 programme (see figs. 4 and 5). These were the first capital ships built by the Admiralty to Sir Eustace d'Eyncourt's designs, he having succeeded Sir P. Watts in Aug. 1912. These vessels were to have the same armament as the " Queen Elizabeth," but as there was some question about the supply of oil fuel when the design was discussed, it was decided to revert to coal, ana also to accept the slower speed of 21 knots, which would make them more homogeneous with other " Dreadnoughts." Subse- quently, when the vessels were in process of construction and the great advantages of the use of oil fuel with other types of warships became apparent, it was decided to change from coal to oil, so enab- ling increased power, giving a speed of about 23 knots, to be obtained. When fully laden with about 4,000 tons of oil, the " Revenge " attained 22 knots, which was equal to about 23 knots in the designed load condition. A somewhat different disposition of deck and side armour was also adopted by which the thick protective deck at the


centre of the ship was brought up to the level of the main deck; this portion of the protective deck being thus well above the level of the deep load line, and giving more protected freeboard in the damaged condition than on any of our earlier battleships. This was an important feature, as a somewhat reduced metacentric height was decided upon for these ships with a view to making them steadier gun-platforms than some of the ships with more initial sta- bility. The vessels were provided with good under-water protec- tion, which was later reinforced by adding outside bulge protec- tion. This was done to " Ramillies " before her launch and to the other vessels of the class after they had been in commission some time. The addition of " bulges " was suggested first by Sir E. d'Eyncourt originally for the Edgar " class, for which this form of protection was added in 1914 after experiments had been made. The results proved the efficiency of the bulges.

The three battleships taken over by Great Britain from foreign Governments were of different types. H.M.S. "Agincourt" (see fig. 6) was commenced in Sept. 1911 for the Brazilian Government, from designs got out under Mr. Perrett at Elswick, but modified by Sir E. d'Eyncourt in Rio Janeiro, where he was then representing the Armstrong firm, before his appointment at the Admiralty. The Brazilian authorities, after much discussion, decided upon 14 12-in. guns, twin-mounted in seven turrets. This involved a ship with a length of 632 ft. between perpendiculars and 670 ft. over all. The main armour was somewhat lighter than that of British " Dread- noughts " and in other respects, such as fuelling facilities, the ship hardly came up to the British standard. However, she was well reported on, and the 14 big guns were liked by the gunnery officers, who preferred a large number of guns for their salvoes. Certain alterations had to be made to fit her for the British service, but in the main she was left as designed.

It should be mentioned that in 1914 the " Agincourt " was trans- ferred by Brazil to Turkey and she was on the point of leaving the Tyne for Constantinople when, on the declaration of war, she was taken over by the British Government.

The design of the " Erin " was settled by three firms, Armstrong's, Vickers and John Brown, in consultation with the Turkish authori- ties, for whom the vessel was built, being commenced in 1911. In general characteristics she more nearly followed the " King George V." class than any other British ship, except that the secondary armament consisted of 6-in. guns, as in the " Iron Duke " class. This vessel also was taken over by the British Government in Aug. 1914, and certain modifications made to fit her for the British service. In respect of quantity of fuel carried, the " Erin " was below the standard adopted for vessels designed for the British navy.

The third ship taken over from a foreign Government was ordered and commenced in 1911 at Elswick from designs prepared at Els- wick by Mr. Perrett for the Chilean Government. There were two . ships of the class, the " Almirante Latorre " (which became H.M.S. " Canada "), and the sister ship the "Almirante Cochrane" (now H.M.S. " Eagle "). The " Canada " had 10 14-in. guns, twin- mounted, in the centre line, and was originally designed to have 22 4-7-in. as the secondary battery, but this was subsequently altered to 16 6-in. guns. The protection again was somewhat lighter than that of the British " Dreadnoughts," but the speed was rather higher, viz. 22 f knots, and as a matter of fact this speed was con- siderably exceeded on trial. The ship was taken over by the British Admiralty in Sept. 1914, and completed, after certain necessary modifications, a year later. Her fuel consisted of coal, with the addition of a certain amount of oil, as in most British battleships. In 1920 the " Canada " was returned to the Chilean Government under her original name.

The sister ship, " Almirante Cochrane," remained in an uncom- pleted condition on the stocks at Elswick till early in 1918, when she was taken over by the British Government and rearranged as an aircraft-carrying ship. She was renamed H.M.S. " Eagle," and as a compliment to the U. S. navy, she was, at the request of the Admiralty, launched by Mrs. Page, the wife of the then Ameri- can Ambassador to Great Britain.

Battle Cruisers. As regards the British battle cruisers later than the " Princess Royal," particulars are given in Table IV.

The "Tiger" was included in the 1911-2 programme and fol- lowed on the " Queen Mary," the general features of the two ships being much alike, the chief differences being that the secondary armament of " Tiger " is 12 6-in. guns in lieu of 16 4-in. in " Queen Mary," and " Tiger " has two submerged torpedo-rooms, whereas " Queen Mary " had only one.

The " Tiger " was laid down at Clydebank on June 12 1912, and completed in Oct. 1914. In common with so many ships completed during the war, the early commissioning and joining of the fleet was so imperative that no exhaustive trials in deep water were car- ried out, but the runs made on the Polperro course showed that the designed power of 108,000 S.H.P. could be obtained with little diffi- culty, corresponding to a speed of 30 knots. In the early stages of the design the oil-fuel capacity was very largely increased from 1,000 tons originally intended to a maximum oil stowage of 3,480 tons, in addition to the 3,320 tons of coal.


FIG. 7.

At the commencement of the war two additional battleships of slightly modified " Royal Sovereign " type, viz. the " Renown " and " Repulse " (see figs. 7 and 8), had been laid down, but in view of the long time it would take to complete these ships, the construc- tion was not pressed forward. Immediately after the battle of the Falkland Is., in which the British battle cruisers " Invincible " and " Inflexible," in company with other smaller cruisers, annihilated Von Spec's fleet, the value of the battle cruiser type became very apparent, and on the initiative of Lord Fisher, then First Sea Lord, it was decided to stop the construction of " Renown " and " Re-

pulse " as battleships and to alter the design completely into that of very fast battle cruisers.

Instructions to redesign these ships were given about Christmas 1914. The new design had to give a speed of 32 knots, with the largest number of big guns possible for such a vessel, and with pro- tection similar to that of the " Invincible " class. A modified form of bulge was adopted in these ships to give additional under-water protection against torpedo attack. After the war further addi- tions were made to the bulge protection and to the armour.


FIG. 9.

The general outline design was completed and approved in ten days, and 6 15-in. guns adopted as the main armament, the second- ary armament consisting of 17 4-in. guns, of which 15 were mounted in five specially designed triple-gun mountings. It was necessary that the ships should be completed at the earliest possible date, and the "Tiger's " machinery was repeated with some additional boilers, with oil as the fuel, thus increasing the power to 120,000, which, with the extra length given to the ship, made it possible to obtain the desired speed of 32 knots.

Lord Fisher also insisted that the ships must be completed within 15 months an abnormally short time for an entirely new design this period of completion was not realized, although not greatly exceeded. By Jan. 21 1915 the two firms entrusted with the orders, viz. Messrs. John Brown and Fairfield, were supplied with sufficient information to enable them to proceed with the structure, and both keels were laid on Jan. 25, which was Lord Fisher's birthday. All the drawings and specifications were completed by April and the design finally approved in that month.

The arrangement of the whole ship, showing the protection, is given in fig. 7, the plating over the magazines having been consid- erably increased as a result of the Jutland fight.

" Repulse " was launched in Jan. 1916, less than a year from the laying -down, and "Renown" was launched three months later. " Repulse " went through her commissioning trials early in Aug., and " Renown " followed one month later and was completed in September. The speed of " Repulse " on trial was over 31 J knots in the deep condition, and the " Renown " obtained 32-6 knots mean speed in the normal condition.

The construction of these vessels in a little over one and a half years from the first order to get out the design constitutes a record in design and construction of two such important vessels, and reflected great credit, not only upon the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, but also upon the contractors and all concerned in the construction and completion of the vessels. In fact, the Admir- alty conveyed their appreciation of this to Sir E. d'Eyncourt, the Director of Naval Construction, in a letter dated Sept. 1916.

The battle cruiser H.M.S. " Hood " (see figs. 9 and 10), the latest addition up to 1921 to the capital ships of the British Fleet, was designed early in 1916, and had only just been ordered from Messrs. J. Brown & Co. when the battle of Jutland took place. This great event naturally led to a revision of the design and in view of the damage which was then done to British battle cruisers and also to

TABLE IV. Particulars of British Battle Cruisers.

Vessel

Date of Launch

Length between perpendiculars; (length over all)

Breadth

Mean Draught

Load dis- placement : Tons

Speed : Knots

Horse Power

Armament

Thick- est side Armour

" Lion "

1910)

660 ft.

88 ft. 6 in.

28 ft.

26,350

28

70,000

8 i3-5-in.

9 in.

Princess



16 4-in.

t: Royal " .

19" J

(700 ft.)



2 2 1 -in. T.T.

" Queen Mary " .

1912

600 ft.(703ft.6in.)

Sgft.

28 ft.

27,000

28

75,000

8 13-5-in.

9 in.




16 4-in.




2 -21-ift. S.T.

" Tiger "

1913

660 ft. (704 ft.)

90 ft. 6 in.

28 ft. 6 in.

28,500

30

108,000

8 13-s-in.

9 in.




12 6-1 n.




4 2i-in. T.T.

" Renown "

1916!

750 ft.

90 ft.

25 ft. 6 in.

26,500

32

120,000

6 is-in.

6 in.

" Repulse " .

1916;

(794 ft.)



17 4-in.




2 2 1 -in. T.T.

" Hood "

1918

810 ft. (860 ft.)

104 ft.

28 ft. 6 in.

41,200

32

144,000

8 15-in.

12 in.




12 5'5-in.




6 2i-m. T.T. the German ships of similar type, it was deemed advisable to increase the armour protection, if possible. As the result of very extensive investigations, it was found possible, by accepting a deeper draught and a slightly reduced speed, to add very considerably to the pro- tection of the vessel as already designed, without otherwise seriously affecting the design of the ship as a whole. The alterations were of a very radical character, the armour belt being increased from 8 to 12 in. and the barbettes from 9 to 12 in.; and certain increases were also made in the deck protection. At the same time the eight I5-in. gun mountings had their design modified to admit of an ele- vation of 30 degrees, and certain other modifications were made, both in the torpedo armament and also in the arrangements for pre- venting the flash penetrating to the magazines a form of protec- tion which was elaborated for all British ships at this time. All these increases involved an additional weight of nearly 5,000 tons, the legend displacement of the " Hood " becoming finally 41,200 tons when carrying 1,200 tons of fuel; the ship then having a draught of 28J ft., and a draught of 315 ft. with full fuel load, viz. 4,000 tons.

The original length and beam of the ship were maintained as before. Some extra plating had to be provided on the decks for strength purposes, but the under- water protection against torpedoes was retained as in the original design. With the modifications made, the " Hood " when completed was by far the most up-to-date capi- tal ship in existence.

The changes in the design and other circumstances militated against the quick construction of the ship, and it was about four years from the approval of the original design in April 1916 to the time of her completion, this being about double the time taken to build recent British capital ships, and nearly three times that taken to build the " Repulse " and " Renown." The modifications were, however, quite justified by the circumstances, and they made the ship a much more powerfully protected one, whilst increasing her displacement, and consequently the weight of material to be worked, to about 50% more than that of " Repulse " and " Renown."

The main machinery of the " Hood," consisting of geared tur- bines to develop 144,000 H.P., has the largest power which has ever been put through gearing, namely, 36,000 H.P. on each of the four shafts. The machinery is placed in three engine-rooms, of which the forward one contains two independent sets for the outer shafts; the middle and after engine-rooms contain one independent set for each of the inner shafts. This power, which was designed to give 32 knots for the earlier design of 36,300 tons displacement, was expected to give at least 31 knots in deep water with 210 revolutions of the propellers, at a displacement of 41,200 tons for the " Hood " as built. The 24 boilers represented the small-tube type with forced draught, arranged in four boiler-rooms. Such boilers were first adopted for large vessels in the " Courageous " class. Oil is the only fuel used in " Hood." On trials on the measured mile the "Hood" obtained a speed of 32-07 knots with 151,000 S.H.P. at 42,200 tons displacement, and 31-9 knots with 150,000 S.H.P. at 44,600 tons displacement.

It will be seen from the plan (fig. 9) that the main armament of eight 15-in. guns was mounted, as in recent British battleships of the " Queen Elizabeth " and " Royal Sovereign " classes, in four turrets, all on the centre line, with very large arcs of training, the forward ones training to 60 abaft the beam, and the after ones to 60 before the beam. The anti-torpedo-boat destroyer armament consists of twelve 5i-in. guns arranged on the forecastle deck and shelter deck. There are also four 4-in. anti-aircraft guns on the shelter deck aft. There are two 2i-in. submerged torpedo tubes, each in a separate compartment forward, and four 2l-in. above- water torpedo tubes between the upper and forecastle decks; these above-water tubes being a further addition since the original design was made. The distribution of armour is also shown. The 12-in. belt had a length of 562 ft. and a depth of 9 ft. 6 inches. Above the main belt was a strake of J-in. armour to the height of the upp^r deck, and above that again there was 5-in. armour between the upper and forecastle decks. The side armour all sloped outward from below, the shell being thus unable to hit the armour normally, so that the virtual thicknesses were somewhat greater. There was thick plating behind all the armour, varying from 2 in. over the greater portion to ij in. and I in. elsewhere. The torpedo protec- tion consisted of the bulge arrangement, with an outer compart- ment of air and an inner one specially strengthened with the neces- sary separating bulkheads, etc. This protection extended through- put the whole length of the machinery spaces and magazines, and it has been proved that it renders the ship as safe against attack from torpedoes under water as she is against gun attack above water. The oil fuel tanks are arranged along the sides, thus giving addi- tional protection. The " Hood " was successfully launched in Aug. 1918 at Clydebank, the ceremony being performed by Lady Hood, widow of Adml. Hood, who lost his life whilst gallantly leading into action the Third Battle-Cruiser Squadron at Jutland. The launching weight was about 22,000 tons. As the other three ships of the class which were commenced had none of them reached the launching stage at the time of the Armistice, it was subsequently decided not to proceed with them, in view of the international con- ditions, and the " Howe," " Rodney " and " Anson " were accord- ingly scrapped.

As regards the general design of the ship, the " Hood " may be

cited as an example of what can be achieved by going to a large size. Her design embodies the armament and armour protection of a first-class battleship, including also good under-water protect- tion against torpedoes, and at the same time gives the speed of the fastest battle cruisers. This involved great length and displacement. The under-water bulge protection, which has entirely superseded the provision of torpedo netting, is additional to anything pro- vided in pre-war " Dreadnoughts."

In connexion with the size of the " Hood " and general considera- tions of design, it is interesting to note the chief characteristics of the " Queen Elizabeth " and " Renown." The " Queen Eliza- beth " is a well-armoured ship of about 28,000 tons, with eight 15-in. guns and speed of 25 knots, while " Renown," of slightly less dis- placement, viz. 27,000 tons, though of greater length, is a vessel with 7 knots more speed than " Queen Elizabeth," but with only six 15-in. guns against eight, and approximately about half the armour protection provided in the " Queen Elizabeth." The "Hood" has the same armament, viz. eight 15-in. guns, as the " Queen Elizabeth," armour protection fully equal to and, in fact, rather heavier in the aggregate than that of the " Queen Eliza- beth," 7 knots more speed than the " Queen Elizabeth," which makes the speed about equal to that of " Renown," and in addition complete protection against torpedo attack.

FIG. 1 1 .

Large Light Cruisers. Early in 1915, as sanction was not given by the British Government for building more capital ships taking two years or longer to complete, while additional light cruisers had been already approved of, it was decided to build " Courageous " and " Glorious ' (figs. II and 12) on the lines of very large light cruisers mounting a few guns of heaviest calibre, so as to be able to annihilate any enemy light cruisers or raiders. They were to have light protection, similar to British light cruisers, and a speed of not less than 32 knots, the draught being restricted to about 22 ft., or about 5 ft. less than any existing battleships or battle cruiser carrying such heavy guns, the main armament of four 15-in. guns in two turrets, one forward and one aft, making them a match for any raider or light cruiser that might be encountered. At this time it should also be remembered that the armaments of ships, especially as regards heavy guns, had to be regulated by the guns and gun mountings which would be available or could be manufactured in a short time, and this condition applied to the 15-in. mountings which were adopted for these ships. The secondary armament consisted of eighteen 4-in. guns in six triple mountings, similar to the triple mountings of the " Renown " and " Repulse." The side arrrour consisted of 2-in. protective plating added to the I-in. shell plating, and a thin protective deck was worked all fore and aft, but this was considerably thickened over the magazines after Jutland. A modi- fied " bulge " was arranged for, as in " Renown " and " Repulse."

The machinery adopted for these ships was of the type fitted in the light cruiser " Champion." It consisted of a 4-shaft arrange- ment of geared turbines, the power being transmitted to the pro- peller shafts by double helical gearing. The eighteen boilers of Yarrow small-tube type were also similar to those of the light cruisers, and with all-oil firing a power of 90,000 S.H.P. at about 340 revolu- tions of propellers was aimed at. Such trials as it was possible to make showed that 32 knots could easily be obtained at the designed displacement, and on service this was actually exceeded.

It was intended that these vessels should be built in a year, or as near that as possible, but this was not realized, and the ships were both commissioned in Oct. 1916.

The " Furious " (see fig. 13), was similar to, but a modification of, the " Courageous " and " Glorious," having about the same length and the same machinery, but the form of midship section was some- what different, having a more pronounced bulge and a simpler form of main framing and structure of the hull. The armament also was different ; each turret, instead of having two 15-in. guns, was arranged to carry one big gun of i8-in. bore.

Early in the spring of 1917 the necessity for having fast aeroplane- carriers became very obvious, and it was approved to fit " Furious " for this purpose. This entailed the removal of the fore turret and making other considerable alterations. A large hangar was built on the forecastle deck, and a flying-off platform 160 ft. long was arranged on the roof of the hangar, which was designed to house about 10 machines. Later it was decided to remove the after-turret as well, and a flying-on deck 300 ft. long, extending from the funnel

aft, was constructed. The secondary armament, which had con- sisted originally of II si-in. guns, was retained, with the exception of one gun; the remaining 10 guns being rearranged. Four sets of triple 2i-in. torpedo tubes were fitted on the upper deck aft, and one pair each side on the upper deck forward.

After these alterations were completed, the ship was tried and commissioned in July 1917, a speed of 31^ knots being obtained with 94,000 S.H.P. at 330 revolutions. From the speed point of view the great advantage of size and length is clearly shown in these ships compared to T.B.D.s, since with about three times the H.P. of a destroyer it is possible to drive a ship of nearly 20 times the displacement at the same speed. This in smooth water; in anything of a head sea the T.B.D.s are left behind altogether by the great ships (see Table V.).

Light Cruisers. Following upon the previous light cruisers of the town classes, a very important departure was made in the light cruiser design in the programme 1912-3, when the " Arethusa " class (see fig. 14) was designed by Sir Philip Watts. The importance attached to speed was specially brought out in this design, and it was decided to install very powerful machinery of 40,000 S.H.P. and this could only be achieved by adopting engines and boilers closely approximating to those hitherto used only for destroyers.

In conjunction with high speed a good armament was provided, consisting of two 6-in. and six 4-in. guns, though in the original design the armament consisted entirely of 4-in. guns. The ship's sides up to the level of the upper deck were protected by a high tensile plating varying from 2-in. to ij-in. and i-in. in addition to the i-in. shell plating. This arrangement of plating also greatly added to the strength and stiffness of the ship. Further particulars of the class are given in Table V.

The " Arethusa " and other light cruisers were in the action off Heligoland on Aug. 28 1914.

In the 1913-4 programme the " Calliope " class, slightly larger vessels than the " Arethusas," but with the same power, were decided upon, the designs being made by Sir E. d'Eyncourt. After considerable discussion regarding the merits of mixed or homogeneous armament, it was decided to give these vessels two 6-in. guns, both on the centre line placed aft, and eight 4-in. guns. The protection consisted, as in the previous design, of a belt with a total thickness of approximately 3 inches. Most of this class had practi- cally the same machinery as the " Arethusa," but Parsons geared turbines were installed in two of them, the " Calliope " having four shafts and the " Champion " two shafts. This was at the time a very important experiment, the putting of 20,000 H.P. through gearing being a very bold departure from anything which had been hitherto contemplated. The final results obtained with "Champion" were, however, excellent, and she obtained a speed of 295 knots with 337 revolutions and about 41,000 S.H.P., this speed being slightly in excess of any of the other vessels of the class at corresponding displacement.

The " C " class are the first ships, other than battleships, to have superposed guns on the middle line, a sort of spoon-shaped bulwark being fitted to protect the crew of the lower from the blast of the upper gun firing over them.

For the subsequent vessels of the " C " class reference should be made to the tables, which show a gradual growth in size and power of armament; "Ceres" class (fig. 14) finally having a length of 425 ft. and a beam of 43 ft. 6 in., and a normal displacement of about 4,200 tons. These vessels carried five 6-in. guns, all on the centre line.

FIG. 15.

The next class were the " D's " (figs. 15 and 16), the general arrangement and protection of which followed that of the " Ceres," except that six 6-in. guns were carried on the centre line instead of five. The power was only slightly increased in these ships over the previous classes, but the revolutions were reduced to 275, all these later classes having the twin-screw geared arrangement, and ajthough the displacement of the " D's " increased to 4,650 tons, tfie addi- tional length and the reduction of revolutions enabled the speed of close upon 30 knots of the whole class of light cruisers " C's " and " D's " to be maintained.

In addition to these light cruisers, which were all to Admiralty design, two vessels the " Birkenhead " and " Chester " built at Messrs. Cammell, Laird's for the Greek Government, were pur-

chased in 1915. These vessels were considerably heavier than the "C " class and more closely resembled the British " Chatham " class. They carried an armament of ten sJ-in. guns. The boilers were modified to burn only oil in the " Chester," instead of coal and oil as in the " Birkenhead," and the resulting increase in power to 31,000 gave the former a speed of 26 J knots.

Designs were prepared in 1915 of the " Raleigh " class (figs. 17 and 1 8), a considerably heavier type of light cruiser, more especially suited for ocean work in any part of the world. They were to have a speed of 30 knots and a large radius of action. Various armaments were considered, and it was finally decided to adopt an armament of seven 7'5-in. guns with twelve 3-in. (four being on high-angle mountings). Five of the big guns were placed on the centre line,


FIG. 17.

and the other two were on the broadsides amidships. The bow and stern guns were superposed, thus giving a fire of four guns, both ahead and astern, and six guns on either broadside. These ships were originally designed to burn oil and coal, but the coal-burning boilers were subsequently altered in three ships of the class to burn a larger amount of oil, the original power of 60,000 S.H.P. on a four- shaft geared turbine arrangement being thus considerably increased up to about 70,000 shaft horse power.

These vessels also differed from the light cruisers referred to above in having modified bulges as protection against under-water attack. The protective plating was similar to that of the other light cruisers. One of these ships, the " Cavendish," was altered into an aircraft- carrier, and renamed " Vindictive."

Monitors (see Table V.). The first vessels of this type to be added (or reintroduced) to the British navy were the three ex- Brazilian river monitors built by Messrs. Vickers, Ltd., and taken over by the British Government in Aug. 1914^, and renaned " Hum- ber," " Mersey " and " Severn." The particulars of these vessels are given in the table, from which it will be seen that the armament consisted of medium-calibre guns, viz. 6-in. and 4'7-inches. These vessels, though designed for river service, did very good work in the war, both on the E. -African and Belgian coasts.

The need for vessels of the monitor type mounting heavy guns soon became apparent, and in Nov. 1914 it was decided to prepare designs of monitors of more substantial structure for sea-going service, but of light draught, with good protection and carrying some heavy guns, the light draught combining the advantages of being able to go close inshore and greatly reducing the risk of being struck by a torpedo.

The earliest design was that of the 14-in. gun monitors, four in number, which was commenced in 1914. Four twin-mounted 14-in. guns and mountings were available, and with the very simple form of structure adopted, these vessels were designed and built in six months. They were quickly followed by the 12-in. monitors, which were of similar design but carried pairs of 12-in. guns, taken from older battleships. These vessels were also built in about six months. They all had a complete bulge of a form which was of simple con- struction, with an air space outboard and a water space between that and the ship proper.

Following on the 12-in. monitors, early in Jan. 1915 two more vessels were ordered, mounting a pair of 15-m. guns. For these ships, internal-combustion engines, which were well under way, but designed for another purpose, were installed. These vessels were named the " Marshal Ney " and " Marshal Soult."

In Sept. 1915 two improved 15-in. monitors were ordered and named the "Erebus" and "Terror" (figs. 19 and 20). These were of finer form, of more horse power and a speed of 14 knots.

Following the earlier 15-in. monitors, some much smaller vessels, each carrying a g-2-in. gun, were designed, and others again which carried 6-in. guns. A good many of both large and small monitors went out to the Dardanelles in the early part of the war, and did very good work, and for a long time they seemed to bear a charmed life, as they enioyed complete immunity from torpedo attack. Later, however, the " Erebus " and " Terror " were both torpedoed ; the latter received three torpedoes, two hitting forward of the bulge with severe damage resulting; the third, which hit the bulge itself, did very little damage. The former ship was hit full amidships by a distance-controlled boat carrying a very heavy charge, but the bulge gave her complete protection and both ships were quickly re- paired. It is interesting to note in this connexion that some of the old

TABLE V. British Light Cruisers, Destroyers, Submarines, etc.


Length


Displace- ment : Tons

Speed: Knots

Horse- Power


LIGHT CRUISERS

Date of Launch

between Perps. (Length

Breadth

Draught

Armament

Side Armour


over all)



ft.

ft. in.

ft. in.




" Courageous " .

1916

735

81 o

21 6

17,400

32

90,000

4 15 in. 18 4 in.

3 in.


(786)




14 21 in. T. T.

" Raleigh "...

1917-21

565 (605)

65 o

17 3

9

750

30-1

60,000-70,000

7 7-5 in. 123 in. 621 in. T. T.

3 in.

" Chatham " Class .

1912-3

430

49 10

15 10

5

440

25*

25,000

8 or 9 6 in.

3 in.


(457)




221 in. T. T.

" Arethusa " " .

I9I3-4

410

39 o

13 6

3

500

30

40,000

3 6 in. 4 4 in.

3 in-


(436)




821 in. T. T.

" Calliope " " . .

I9H-5

420

41 6

13 6

3

750

30

40,000

4 6 in.

3 in.


(446)




421 in. T. T.

"Caledon" " .

1916-7

425

42 9

14 i

4

1 20

29

40,000

5 6 in.

3 in.


(450)




8 21 in. T. T.

"Ceres" " . .

1917

425

43 6

14 i

4

190

29

40,000

ditto

3 in.


(45)




" D " " . .

1918

445

46 o

14 3

4,650

29

40,000

6 6 in.

3 in.


(4/i)




1221 in. T. T.

"E" " .

1919-20

545

54 6

16 6

7,550

33

80,000

7 6 in.

3 in.


(570)




1221 in. T. T.

MONITORS:





" Erebus " ...

1916

405

88 o

II O

8,000

12

6,000

2 15 in.; 8 4 in.


9-2 in. Gun Monitors

1915

177

31 o

6 o

540

12

600

I 9-2 in.


6 in. Gun Monitors .

1915

177

31 o

4 o

355

10

400

2 6 in.


DESTROYERS:





" M " Class

1914

273

26 8

8 8

i

025

34

25

ooo

3 4 ^ o





421 in. T. T.

" R " & " S " Class

1916-8

276

26 8

9 o

1,065

36

27

ooo

34 in.





421 in. T. T.

"V"&"W" " . .

1917-9

312

29 6

9 o

i,

300

34

27,

ooo

4 4 in. or 4 7 in.





4 or 6 21 in. T. T.

DESTROYER





LEADERS:





" Kempenfelt " Class

1914

325

3i 9

IO O

1,650

34

36,000

44 in- ,


" Scott " & " Shake-




421 in. T. T.

speare "...

1917-9

3321

3i 9

10.

i,

800

36

42

ooo

54'7 in-





621 in. T. T.

PATROL BOATS:


573

22

4,000


"P " Class .

1915

224*

23 9

7 7

I 4 in.



214 in. T. T.

SLOOPS ....

1915

268

33 6

II O

i,

250

17

2,

400

2 4 in. or 4-7 in.


MINE-SWEEPERS:





Paddle ....

1916

246

29 o

6 9

810

15

I,

400

13 in.


Twin-screw

1916

231

28 o

7 o

750

16

1, 8OO

13 in.



Sur-

Sab-

Sur-

Sub-

Sur-

Sub-


SUBMARINES:


face

merged

ace

merged

face

merged


"E" Class

1912

181

22 6

12 6

660

800

15

IO

1, 600

840

i3 in.





5 1 8 in. T. T.

"J" " . . .

1915

275

23 o

14 o

1,210

1,820

I9i

9i

3,600

1,350

I 3 in. or 4 in.





6 1 8 in. T. T.

"K" "

1916

338

26 6

16 o

1, 880

2,560

24

9

10,000

1,400

I 4 in. i 3 in.





8 1 8 in. T. T.





I 4 in.

" L " "

1917

231

23 6

13 6

890

1,070

17*

toj

2,400

i, 600

6 18 in. T. T.


'-'M" " ...

1917

296

24 6

15 9

1, 600

1,95

16

9i

2,400

i, 600

I 12 in. I 3 in.





4 i8or2i in. T. T.

"R" "

1918

163

15 6

ii 7

420

500

9*

15

240

1,200

6 18 in. T. T.


"CHINA GUNBOATS:"





Large ....

1915

237*

36 o

4 o

645

14

2,000

2 6 in.


Small ....

Id 15

126

20 o

2 O

98

10

175

I 4 in.; I 3 in.


British cruisers of the " Edgar " class, which had had bulges added to them early in the war, were torpedoed in the Mediterranean, but the bulge gave them complete protection. They were taken to port and repaired. In fact, no bulged ship struck by a torpedo was sunk.

On the heavier monitors it may be remarked that of all ships carrying heavy guns these vessels were probably more often in action off the Belgian coast and elsewhere than any of our heavy- gun ships, and they no doubt gave the enemy in occupation of that coast a very anxious time.

Destroyers and Flotilla Leaders (Table V.). With regard to the development of British destroyers and flotilla leaders during the war reference may be made to the tables and plans (figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24). These vessels gradually increased in size and power, and war requirements continually added to the weights which they had to carry, including considerably more fuel, heavier armament both

of guns and torpedoes, depth charges, larger bridges, and other additions. In fact, some of the ships which before the war were 9oo-ton vessels, exceeded 1,000 tons towards the end. The intro- duction, however, of the geared turbine added enormously to the efficiency of the machinery and propellers.

.During the war nearly 300 T.B.D.'s and flotilla leaders, which are simply a larger form of T.B.D. with improved accommodation, were added to the British fleet, and the whole class of these vessels was called upon to do continuous work often in heavy weather. They came through the ordeal with very few breakdowns of n achin- ery or other parts of the ship, whilst the duties they were called upon to perform in combating the submarines, convoying, etc were continuous and varied. Numbers of these vessels were built by firms who had never built a warship before, but the work turned out by them fully met the Admiralty requirements. The flotilla leaders, with a deep load displacement of about 2,000 tons and an armament of five 4-in. or 4'7-in. guns, and with their very high speed, might well be described as fast scouts or third- class cruisers.

Patrol Boats (Table V. and fig. 25). Patrol boats were specially designed to relieve the T.B.D.'s of some of their duties such as patrolling, submarine-hunting and escort work, for which high speed was not a necessity. They had to be as small as possible, consistent with keeping the sea in all weathers, with sufficient speed to run down submarines, besides having shallow draught and all top hamper kept low to prevent their being seen at a distance. Economy of fuel was also an important feature, and it was desirable to have them built of mild steel rather than high-tensile steel, in order to simplify the construction. Some were provided with a special hard steel ram, with which a considerable number of ene_my submarines were sunk. The various features were combined in a vessel of something under 600 tons, with geared turbine engines of 3,800 H.P., giving a speed of over 22 knots, with 330 revolutions of the propellers. The boats had large rudder area and were cut up aft, so that they could turn very quickly upon the enemy a most important feature for ramming purposes. They proved very valuable boats

FIG. 19.

on service and did a great deal of work against the submarines in all weathers. They were armed with only one 4-in. gun, mounted in a commanding position on the forward superstructure, one 2-pdr. and two 14-in. torpedo tubes, and later it was arranged to carry depth charges. Their cost was, of course, considerably less than that of a modern destroyer.

Some of these boats were afterwards disguised to look like small mercantile craft a device which also proved quite successful.

Sloops and Mine-Sweepers. On the outbreak of war it became clear that there would be a great demand for mine-sweeping vessels. A good many coasting and cross-channel steamers were taken up for this purpose, but more were required, and it was decided in Dec. 1914 to build twelve single screw ships (fig. 26) of simple design to this end. With the view of hastening construction, it was decided to adopt mercantile practice as far as possible in both hull and machinery. The vessels, although of very fine form, were built of simple construction and under Lloyd's survey. The boilers were of ordinary Scotch type, and single screw machinery was provided.


CD

Liter Vessels have 4-4-7' Gun

FIG. 21.

in lieu of4t4Gun

In the end nearly 100 of these vessels were built, and the arma- ment, which at first was two 12-pdrs., was subsequently increased to two 4-in. or two 4-7-in. guns. A great many of these vessels were built in about six months from the order, and the first 36 averaged 25 weeks in building. They proved excellent sea boats, and were used not only for mine-sweeping, but also for submarine work and for convoying. At later stages some of these vessels were disguised as ordinary merchant ships. They were economical steamers, and were able to attain a full speed of 17 knots, with a H.P. of about 1, 800 to 2,000 in the earlier, which was increased to 2,500 in the later, vessels.

Several of the vessels were mined, but although the damage they sustained was very severe, they kept afloat and were repaired.

The Admiralty was asked to design and provide some vessels of this type for the French Government, and eight of these were designed by Sir E. d'Eyncourt and built for that purpose and armed


with somewhat heavier armament than our own ships. The French Government were very satisfied with the vessels.

In addition to this, at a later stage, for sweeping in shallow water, some paddle mine-sweepers were designed at the Admiralty. These were 15-knot boats, with draught just under 6 ft. 9 inches. They did good work, but were of course not such good sea boats as the sloops. As there was some danger of mines getting under the pad- dles, a further design of twin-screw mine-sweepers was got out. These were vessels of about 800 tons and about 16 knots speed.

Submarines (Table V. and figs. 27, 28 and 29). During the war the design of submarines was enormously developed. A very large number of these vessels were added to the British Fleet. There were some twelve different types, some embodying very special requirements and all being improvements on their predecessors. The Admiralty produced the fastest internal-combustion engined submarine in "J" class, which attained a speed of over 19 knots. As a still higher speed was wanted for fleet work, the " K " boats were designed with a surface speed of 24 knots. To arrive at this it was necessary to go to steam, and special arrangements had to be made for shutting down watertight the funnels, etc. However, all these difficulties were overcome.

It is an interesting point about these vessels that, besides the steam turbines for full speed on the surface and the electric drive when under water, they were provided with a Diesel engine for use just before diving or immediately after breaking surface, in order to quicken diving or getting away after coming up.

Although the Germans had the advantage of more power per cylinder in their Diesel engines, Great Britain produced submarines, faster and more heavily armed than theirs.

M. I. submarine was a monitor submarine armed with a 12-in. gun; she was an experimental boat, and proved quite successful.

" China Gunboats." For use in Mesopotamia or for river work two classes of so-called " China gunboats " were designed by Messrs. Yarrow. The smaller of these vessels, 120 ft. long and of about loo tons, were constructed in Great Britain in such a way that the parts could be sent out to Abadan, where they were assembled, and the vessels reerected and completed under the supervision of Admiralty officers. Some of the larger boats 230 ft. long and of 645 tons, were completed in England and went out to Mesopotamia, where all of them were of the greatest service in that campaign. Most useful work was also done by motor launches and many other types.

Other Auxiliary Craft and Aircraft Carriers. The Admiralty was called upon to design many other auxiliary craft notably some fast Fleet oilers which were able to carry 5,000 tons of oil and had a speed of 15 knots. There were also designed a great number of special smaller craft for all purposes, and a number of merchant ships were taken over and modified to meet diverse requirements.

The most important modifications were those made to vessels taken over and converted into aircraft-carriers, including " Cam- pania," "Ark," "Royal," " Engadine," "Riviera," etc.; the

Furious " was also altered, and the " Cavendish " (now named " Vindictive ") was converted into an aircraft-carrier. The " Argus" (fig. 30) was originally built as a passenger mail ship of 20 knots, and was taken over and converted into an aircraft-carrier with complete flush deck, the funnels being carried aft in long horizontal ducts, discharging the smoke astern. The " Eagle " was taken for conversion into a large aircraft-carrier with a somewhat different arrangement, with the funnels and all deck erections included on an " island " on one side of the deck. Aircraft-carrying ships are in fact gradually becoming more important for the Fleet.

Altogether during the four years more than 2,000,000 tons were added to the navy, at a cost between 250,000,000 and 300,000,000 sterling, exclusive of modifications to auxiliaries. Reference to the navy estimates shows that the aggregate sum spent during the four years before the war on new construction amounted to approximately 60,000,000. In fact, during the four years 1915-8, more tonnage was built for the British navy than during the previous 25 years.

II. NAVIES OF OTHER COUNTRIES

During the period 1910-20 foreign naval construction of all types generally followed the line of British designs, with one or two important exceptions which must not be overlooked.

The most important departure from the British practice was in respect of the number of guns mounted in the barbettes. Triple- gun mountings for the main armament have been adopted by several nations, viz. France, Italy, Austria, Russia and the United States, while in 1914 the French began the construction of quadruple-gun turrets, but neither these turrets nor the ships for which they were intended have been completed.

The British example in regard to the adoption of turbine ma- chinery for propulsion of the first " Dreadnought " battleship and battle cruisers was not followed by the other nations at once. In some cases, for example, Japan and the United States, sister vessels were built, one having turbine engines and the other reciprocating engines. Finally, however, turbine engines were almost universally adopted, while the United States made a fur ther advance by the adoption of the electric drive. The first American battleship in which this was installed was the " New Mexico," and it was arranged for all subsequent vessels to be propelled similarly.

In the adoption of oil only as the fuel the British again took the lead, and up to Aug. 1921 this had only been followed by the United States. The German authorities had considered that their sources of supply were not sufficiently reliable to justify their depending on oil alone.

On the whole, therefore, it may be said that the designs, apart from the above features, of foreign warships did not differ essen- tially from the British types, as can be seen from the notes and tables which follow.

Of the minor navies, many of which depended on British or other foreign builders for the design and construction of their warships, little need be said, as with the war the development of their navies practically ceased, and some of the most important vessels, such as the battleships building for Chile and Turkey, were taken over for the British navy.

At the Armistice both the German and Austrian navies ceased to exist as factors in the general naval situation, all their prin- cipal ships being surrendered to the Allies, the great majority of the vessels being finally destroyed, either being broken up or used as targets, with the exception of a few of the less important units, such as light cruisers and destroyers, which were incorpor- ated in the French and Italian navies.

Battleships

(i) United States. The first vessels of the " Dreadnought " type constructed for the U.S. navy were the " Michigan " and " South Carolina," launched in 1908. These vessels, carrying only eight 12-in. guns, were of about 2,000 tons less displacement than the " Dreadnought," and 2 knots slower than this vessel. The main armament of the U.S. vessels was disposed, however, in an original manner, constituting a bold departure in that they were all mounted on the centre line of the vessel in two superposed twin- gun turrets forward, and two aft, with large arcs of training on each beam. This arrangement of turrets gave an ahead and astern fire of four guns and a broadside fire of all the eight guns. The water- line armour belt was II in. thick with 8 in. above. Cage masts constructed of a large number of steel tubes were fitted in these vessels and such masts have been fitted in all later U. S. capital ships and also in some of the earlier vessels in substitution of their original masts. The " Michigan " and " South Carolina " were propelled by twin screws driven by reciprocating engines, thus differ- ing from the " Dreadnought."

The next battleships built were the " North Dakota " and " Delaware," launched respectively in 1908 and 1909. These vessels were a considerable advance in size over their predecessors, being more than 60 ft. longer, 4,000 tons heavier, and two knots faster, while they carried two additional 12-in. guns. The 10 guns were mounted all on the centre line, the two turrets forward being super- posed as in the previous class, while the three turrets aft were arranged so that one could fire over the other two, which were both on the same deck so that one could only fire on either broadside. The arrangement of guns thus increased the broadside fire but left the ahead and astern fire as before. The armour belt consisted of a tier of II in. at the water-line, with a tier of 8 in. above. The advance in speed involved an increase of 50% in the H.P. of the engines, viz. from 16,500 to 25,000. Turbines of the Curtis type were installed in the " North Dakota " for the first time in a U. S. capi- tal ship, but the " Delaware " was fitted with reciprocating engines. An important departure in these vessels was the fitting of 14 5-in. guns as secondary armament in a battery amidships, protected by 5-in. armour.

The next pair of battleships, named the " Utah," launched in 1909 and the " Florida," launched in 1910, were enlarged " North Dakotas," but both had Parsons turbine engines of 28,000 shaft horse-power. The tonnage was increased to 21,800 tons on the same draught, and the speed remained practically the same. The length was increased slightly to 521 ft. and the beam to 88 ft. The main armament was the same in number of guns and arrangement of turrets as in the " North Dakota," but the secondary armament was increased to 16 5-in. guns, protected by 5-in. armour. The armour was practically the same as in the previous vessels.

The succeeding pair of battleships, " Arkansas " and " Wyo- ming," launched in 1911, were characterized by another large increase in dimensions, the length being increased to 562 ft. and the beam to 93 ft., while on the same draught as previous vessels the displacement was 26,000 tons. The engines were Parsons turbines of about 28,000 S.H.P., the speed being about J knot less than the " Utah," of the same power but 4,000 tons less displacement. The greatly increased displacement enabled 12 12-in. guns to be mounted in six twin-gun turrets arranged all on the centre line in three super- posed groups, one group forward, another just abaft of amidships and the remaining group aft. The ahead and astern fire thus remained as in previous vessels at four guns, hut all 12 guns could be fired on either broadside. The secondary armament was 16 5-in. guns in a 6-in. armoured battery. The protection was generally similar to the' previous vessels, the water-line belt and barbette armour being II in. thick. The turrets and conning tower were of 12-in. armour.

These vessels were the last U. S. battleships mounting 12-in. guns. The example of the British in fitting 13'5-in. guns in the " Onon " class was followed by the adoption of 14-in. guns in the next vessels laid down by the United States. These were the " Texas " and " New York," launched in 1912, the dimensions of which were slightly greater than those of the " Arkansas " and the displacement 1,000 tons greater. Ten 14-in. guns constituted the main armament and was mounted in five twin turrets, arranged generally in a similar manner to the British " Orion," four guns firing ahead and astern and all 10 on either broadside. The secondary armament remained as before, 16 5-in. guns being mounted in an amidships battery protected by 6-in. armour. The water-line belt was 12 in. thick with a 9-in. belt above it, and the protection gener- ally was somewhat greater than that of the previous vessels. An important feature in these vessels was the return to reciprocating engines, which on a power of 27,000 gave the vessels a speed of 21 knots. The reintroduction of this type of engine was made chiefly to obtain greater economy at cruising speeds.

The next pair of battleships, " Nevada " and " Oklahoma," launched in 1914, were of slightly increased length and tonnage. The main armament was the same numerically as the " New York's," but was arranged in four turrets, two containing two guns each and the other two three guns each. The twin-gun turrets were superposed above the triple-gun turrets at each end of the vessels. The secondary armament, of the " Nevada " and " Oklahoma " consisted of 12 5-in. guns arranged in an unprotected battery farther forward than in previous vessels. Turbines were again adopted for the propulsion of the " Nevada," but reciprocating engines were fitted in the " Oklahoma." The reduced power of the machinery, viz. 24,800 H.P. of both vessels, resulted in a reduced speed of 2OJ knots.

The British example of adoption of oil only as the fuel for the " Queen Elizabeth " class was followed by the United States in the " Nevada " and " Oklahoma," the total quantity of fuel arranged for, however, being 2,000 tons, compared with 3,400 tons in " Queen Elizabeth."

The saving in weight resulting from the adoption of triple-gun turrets and oil fuel enabled considerable additions to be made to the armour protection of the " Nevada " and " Oklahoma." The belt amidships was 13^ in. thick and extended from 8$ ft. below to 9 ft. above the water-line. The conning tower was protected by l6-in. armour, this being also the thickness of the front plates of the twin-gun turrets, those of the triple-gun turrets being of l8-in. armour. The vessels are further distinguished from their predeces- sors in that only one funnel, instead of two, is fitted. The uptakes are protected by I3j-in. armour.

The " Nevada " and " Oklahoma " were succeeded by the " Pennsylvania " and " Arizona " (fig. 31), launched in 1915, in which the dimensions were further increased and the displacement became 31,400 tons. The main armament was increased to 12 14-in. guns arranged in four triple turrets in two superposed groups for- ward and aft. The secondary armament originally consisted of 22 5-in. guns, but has been reduced to fourteen. The protection of the vessels was generally similar to that of the " Nevada " and " Oklahoma," but the side armour was increased to 14 in. maximum. Turbine engines were fitted in both vessels of the class, the " Penn- sylvania ' ' having geared cruising turbines in order to secure economy.

The " New Mexico," " Idaho " and " Mississippi," launched in 1917, were similar in general design, protection, and main arma- ment to the " Pennsylvania." .The displacement was slightly increased to 32,000 tons. The main armament of 12 14-in. guns was again arranged in four triple turrets, with front plates of i8-in. armour, side plates 9 in. to 10 in. and roof plates 5 inches. The secondary battery of 14 5-in. guns was fitted a deck higher than in " Pennsylvania " and was unprotected.

The " New Mexico " was distinguished from her sister vessels by the adoption of electric motors for her propulsion, the other two vessels having turbines arranged as previously; she had two turbo- electric generating sets of 11,400 kw. capacity installed, and this electric power was transmitted electrically to four motors of, nomi- nally, 6,600 H.P., one on each of the four propelling shafts. These motors were reversible, thus avoiding, as in the ordinary turbine method of propulsion, the necessity for astern as well as ahead prime movers. The electric drive appears to have been successful, especially as the " New Mexico " was not originally designed for this method of propulsion; the accommodation for the machinery being obtained by modifications in the arrangement of the spaces provided in the original design for turbines, without affecting the other features of the design. The vessel was put through exhaustive trials with satisfactory results, a maximum speed of just over 21 knots being obtained at 31,200 H.P. on a displacement of 32,800 tons, with economical steam and fuel consumption. An advantage con- ferred by the electric drive at cruising ship speeds arises from the ability to obtain the necessary power from only one of the electric generating sets, which can thus be worked at nearly full power and therefore give very good efficiency. The " New Mexico " escorted President Wilson across the Atlantic, and on both eastward and westward voyages only one turbine generating set was used. The weight of the machinery was greater per H.P. than that of turbine machinery of about the same power in British warships, but it was considered that this was capable of improvement in the future, especially in the case of vessels intended from the outset to have the electric drive. The electric drive has been adopted for all suc- ceeding U.S. capital ships.

The " Tennessee " and " California," launched in 1919, were practically repeats of the " New Mexico," the displacement being 32,300 tons. These vessels, however, have two funnels. Also a new system of under-water protection (which has since been adopted for all U.S. battleships) was introduced. This consists of five verti- cal longitudinal bulkheads extending parallel to the ship's side from the forward to the after magazines, thus protecting the whole of the vitals of the ship. The innermost bulkhead is about 17 ft. inboard, the other bulkheads being approximately equidistant from one another; the bulkheads next to the skin bulkhead and innermost bulkhead are all thin plating, the other three being of thicker plating ; the middle three of the five spaces formed by this arrangement are utilized as oil-fuel bunkers.

In Aug. 1915 Congress approved the first building programme ever drawn up for the U.S. navy, according to which 10 battle- ships, 6-battle cruisers, 10 scouts (or light cruisers), 50 destroyers, 9 fleet and 58 coast submarines were to be added in three years to the U.S. navy, in addition to a number of auxiliary vessels.

The first battleships to be built under this programme were the "Colorado" (launched 1921), "Maryland" (launched 1920 and completed 1921), " Washington " and " West Virginia." The dimen- sions of these vessels are not greatly different from the " Tennessee," except that the displacement is slightly greater, being 32,600 tons, the H.P. of the electric propelling machinery being increased to 28,- 900 to maintain the speed of 21 knots. The chief departure in the new vessels was the adoption of 8 i6-in. guns as the primary arma- ment, arranged in four twin-gun turrets superposed in pairs forward and aft. The secondary armament consists of 14 5-in. guns. The armour protection is generally as in the " New Mexico " class.


FIG. 32.

The remaining six battleships of the 1916 programme had not yet been launched in 1921. Their names are " South Dakota," " Indiana," " Montana," " North Carolina," " Iowa," and " Mas- sachusetts " (fig. 32). They are a very great advance on their prede- cessors, being 684 ft. long, 106 ft. wide and displacing 43,200 tons on a draught of 31 feet. An increased speed, 23 knots, is aimed at, the electric drive being of 60,000 horse-power. The main arma- ment is increased by 50%, consisting of 12 i6-in. guns mounted in four triple-gun turrets, and the secondary armament comprises 16 6-in. guns. The torpedo armament was two submerged 2i-in. torpedo tubes throughout all the battleships described in the fore-

going. In 1919 a second three-year programme was considered, to consist of 156 vessels in all, including a further batch of 10 battle- ships and six battle-cruisers.

(2) France. The French navy did not immediately adopt the single-calibre main armament, their first vessels, designed after the " Dreadnought " era had begun, being the " Danton " class, which resembled the " Lord Nelson " in armament, 12 9'4-in. guns being carried in addition to the usual 4 12-in. guns. They were about 2,000 tons heavier than the " Lord Nelson " and were fitted with turbines of 22,500 H.P., giving a speed of 20 knots.

The first French battleships of the " Dreadnought " type were the " Jean Bart " class, launched in 1911 and 1912. These vessels, " Jean Bart," " Paris," " France " and " Courbet," were a consid- erable advance on the " Danton " class, being 546 ft. long, as against 481 ft., with increased beam and draught, and displacement of 23,100 tons. Turbine machinery of 28,000 fl.P. was fitted, giving a speed of 20 knots. The main armament comprised 12 12-in. guns mounted in six twin-gun turrets arranged in two superposed groups forward and aft, with the remaining two turrets on the broadsides amidships. The ahead and astern fire was thus 6 guns and broad- side 10 guns. The secondary armament was very numerous, con- sisting of 22 5-5-in. guns protected by y-in. armour. The side armour was ioj in. thick, tapering to 7 in. at the bow and stern, the turret armour being also lof in. thick.

The " Jean Bart " successfully withstood torpedo attack by an Austrian submarine in 1915, being struck well forward. Compart- ments were flooded, but the vessel proceeded under her own power to Malta, where she was repaired in H.M. Dockyard.


The next battleships built by the French were the " Bretagne " (name ship of the class) (fig. 33), " Lorraine " and " Provence," all launched in 1913, practically repeats of the " Jean Barts," except that the main armament consisted of ip 13'4-in. guns mounted in five twin-gun turrets, all on the centre line of the vessels, the usual superposed groups of two turrets forward and aft, the fifth turret being amidships. The secondary armament again consisted of 22 5'5-in. guns, arranged slightly differently from the " Jean Bart," but this number was decreased after the war to 18, during a partial reconstruction when director-firing was installed on a new tripod foremast.

These vessels were the last battleships completed for the French navy, the completion of the five vessels of the "Normandie" class, launched in 1914 and 1915, having been abandoned, with the exception of the " Beam," which has been converted into an air- craft-carrier. The " Normandie " class were designed to carry 12 13'4-in. in three quadruple-gun turrets, a unique arrangement. The four guns in each turret were arranged on two mountings, so that virtually they comprised two twin guns. The secondary arma- ment was to have consisted of 18 5'5-in. guns. The machinery in- tended for these vessels was of an interesting type, consisting of a combination of turbine and reciprocating engines, the two inner shafts being driven by turbines and the two outer shafts by recipro- cating engines, which alone were powerful enough to have given the vessels a speed of 16 knots, the full power of 35,000 H.P. being designed to give a maximum speed of 21 knots.

It was intended to have laid down in Oct. 1914 four battleships of the " Duquesne " type, but the outbreak of the war caused this intention to be abandoned. The vessels were designed to carry 16 13'4-in. guns in four quadruple-gun turrets, arranged in two super- posed groups forward and aft. The displacement was to have been 29,500 tons, and, with combination turbine and reciprocating engine, a speed of 23 knots was anticipated.

It should be noted that during the whole war period the French Government dockyards, and many private yards also, devoted their whole capacity to the production of munitions of all kinds for the army ; naval work being almost entirely relegated to the background.

No provision was made in the French naval budget for 1921 for the construction of any capital ships.

(3) Japan. The " Satsuma " and " Aki " were the first battle- ships built in Japan after the " Dreadnought " era had begun. They were a development of the " Kashima " class, and therefore resembled in type the "Lord Nelson." Launched in 1906 and 1907, they mounted 4 12-in. and 12 to-in. guns on a displacement of about 19,500 tons. Turbine machinery of 24,000 H.P. was fitted in the " Aki," giving a speed of 2Oj knots. The " Satsuma," with reciprocating engines of 18,500 H.P., was 2 knots slower.

The first Japanese battleships of the " Dreadnought " type were the " Settsu," launched in 1911, and the " Kawachi," launched in 1912. The latter vessel was blown up in 1918 in a Japanese har- bour by the explosion of her magazines. These vessels were of 20,800 tons and mounted 12 12-in. guns, arranged in six twin-gun turrets, one forward and aft on the centre line and the other four on the broadsides. The ahead and astern fire was thus 6 guns and broadside fire 8 guns. The secondary armament was 10 6-in. guns, mounted in an amidship battery protected by 6-in. armour. Eight 4'7-in. guns were also mounted. The armour belt was 12 in. thick amidships at the water-line and 9 in. above, with 5-in. armour for- ward and aft, the 12-in. guns were protected by n-in. armour, and the conning tower by 12-in. armour. Turbine machinery of 25,000 H.P. was fitted, giving a speed of 2Oj knots.


FIG. 34.

Large increases in dimensions and power characterized the next class (fig. 34) of Japanese battleships, 14-in. guns being adopted. These vessels were the " Fuso " and " Yamashiro," of 30,600 tons and 40,000 H.P., launched in 1914 and 1915 respectively, and the " Ise " and " Hyuga," of 31,260 tons and 45,000 H.P., launched in 1916 and 1917. The mam armament consisted of 12 14-in. guns mounted in twin-gun turrets all arranged on the centre line of the vessel. Two turrets are superposed forward, with a similar arrange- ment aft, the remaining two turrets being abaft the forward and after funnels respectively. The first pair of vessels named mount 16 6-in. guns, and the second pair 20 55-in. guns, as the secondary armament in an amidships battery protected by 6-in. armour. The belt and turret armour is 12 in. thick. The speed of the vessels is about. 22 j knots.


FIG. 35.

The next class of Japanese battleships are characterized by the fitting of l6-in. guns. These vessels were " Nagato " (launched 1919 and completed 1920) and " Mutsu " (launched 1920), of 33,800 tons displacement, and " Tosa " and " Kaga " (building 1921) of 40,600 tons displacement. The former pair of vessels mount 8 i6-in. guns in four twin-gun turrets arranged in the now usual manner, with 20 5'5-in. guns as secondary armament. The latter pair of vessels were probably to mount 10 i6-in. guns. The torpedo arma- ment, which in previous vessels consisted of five or six submerged tubes, was increased to eight tubes, four of which are mounted above the water-line. The vessels were slightly faster than pre- vious vessels, a speed of 23^ knots being intended, geared turbines providing the requisite power, which was about 46,000 in the ' Nagato " and " Mutsu " and 60,000 in the " Tosa " and " Kaga."

Under the 1920-8 Navy Law four battleships were projected.

(4) Germany. The " Dreadnought " type of battleship was adopted at once by Germany, the advance from the " Deutschland "

class (of the " Formidable " type) being made without trial as wasdone in some other navies, of vessels of the " King Edward VII." or " Lord Nelson " types. The first German " Dreadnoughts " were the four vessels of the " Nassau " class, launched in 1908. Shorter but wider and somewhat heavier than the " Dreadnought," the " Nassau," on a displacement of 18,600 tons, carried 12 n-in. guns in six twin-gun turrets, mounted one at each end on the centre line, and two on each broadside, thus giving an ahead and astern fire of six guns and broadside fire of eight. The secondary armament consisted of 12 s-g-in. guns, mounted m a battery protected by 7-in. armour. A large torpedo armament of six i77-in. submerged tubes was fitted. The water-line armour belt was ll in. thick, with an 8-in. belt above, and tapering to 5 in. forward and 4 in. aft. The speed was 19 knots, the requisite H.P. of 20,000 being developed by reciprocating engines.

The " Nassau " class was followed by the four ships of the " Hel- goland " class (fig. 35), launched in 1909 and 1910. These vessels marked a considerable increase in dimensions and displacement. The 12-in. gun was adopted for the first time in these vessels, the Germans claiming that this weapon was the equivalent of the 13-5-in. gun then being adopted by the British in the " Orion " class. The " Helgoland " carried 12 12-in. guns arranged similarly to the n-in. guns in the " Nassau." The secondary armament was increased to '4 5'9-in. guns and the six submerged tubes were of ig-7-in. diam-


eter. The protection was generally the same asthat of the " Nas- sau " class. The speed was increased to 20-5 knots. The various increases involved a displacement of 22,440 tons and engines of 25,000 H.P., but the reciprocating type was still adhered to.

The " Kaiser" class (five vessels), launched in 1911 and 1912, were slightly larger and faster than the " Helgoland " class, being of 24,300 tons and 21 knots, but the main armament was reduced to ip 12-in. guns without loss of broadside fire, as they were arranged similarly to the British " Neptune " (designed two years pre- viously), with one turret forward, two superposed aft and two broad- side turrets en echelon, all guns thus being able to fire on either broadside. The secondary armament was unaltered and the bow torpedo tube was omitted. The armour protection was considerably increased, the water-line belt being of 13$ in. maximum thickness


tapering to 9 in., with an upper belt of 7j in., the secondary battery above and both ends of the ship being protected by a like thick- ness. Turbine engines were installed for the first time in German battleships, the power being 28,000 for a speed of 21 knots, which was somewhat exceeded on trials.

The four ships of the " Konig " class (see fig. 36), launched in 1913 and 1914, were, with the exception of slightly greater dimensions and displacement, generally repeats of the " Kaiser " class in respect of number and calibre of guns and torpedo tubes and of protection. The main armament was arranged all on the centre line, as in the British " Orion " class, the amidship turret being, however, between the two funnels. An important advance lay in the increased oil- fuel (700 tons) capacity, previous vessels having only 200 tons.

The last battleships built by the Germans were the " Baden " and " Bayern " (see fig. 37), launched in 1915, two others of the class not being completed at the time of the Armistice. A very complete description of the " Baden " was given in a paper read by Mr.,S. V.

Goodall before the Institution of Naval Architects in March 1921. The " Baden^" and " Bayern "were about 3,000 tons heavier than the " Konig " class, the dimensions being increased proportionately. The chief difference, however, was in the main armament, 8 15-in. guns being mounted in four turrets on the centre line in two super- posed groups forward and aft, as in the British " Queen Elizabeth." The secondary armament was increased to 16 5-g-in. guns, and the torpedo armament consisted originally of 5 23-6-in. submerged tubes, one forward in the stem and the other on the broadside for- ward and aft. The forward torpedo room was damaged by an under-water explosion and when repairs were made the torpedo tubes were not replaced. Turbine machinery of about 50,000 H,P. total was fitted, driving three propellers, and a speed of about 22 knots was obtained on trials. The main armour belt was 135 in. thick, tapering to 6f in. at the lower edge. Above was a belt of lo-in. armour extending to the upper deck. The secondary battery was protected by 6|-in. armour. Forward the side armour was 6 in. thick and aft 7 inches. The latter and a deck of 4! in. thickness provided protection to the steering gear. The maximum thickness of armour for the barbettes, turrets, and conning tower was 13! inches. Protection against under-water attack was provided by a longitudinal bulkhead 2 in. thick, set in about 13 ft. from the side.

(5) Italy. The first Italian " Dreadnought was the " Dante Alighieri," of 19,200 tons, launched in 1910. This vessel was then remarkable for the high designed speed of 23 knots and the adoption of triple-gun mountings for the main armament of 12-in. guns, of which 12 were carried in turrets all fitted on the centre line of the vessel. The turrets, funnels and masts were so disposed that the vessel could practically be described as " double-ended." The ves- sel was protected by a water-line belt of lo-in. (maximum) armour amidships and 4-in. at the ends, with an upper belt of 6-in., by which 12 of the secondary battery of 20 4-7-guns were protected. The remaining 8 4'7-in. guns were mounted in four twin-gun tur- rets on the upper deck. The i2-in.-gun turrets had a maximum thick- ness of lo-in. armour. Turbine engines of 26,000 H.P. were fitted; these developed 35,000 H.P. on trial, when 24 knots were attained. Three torpedo tubes were fitted.

The " Dante Alighieri " was followed by the " Conte di Cavour," "Leonardo da Vinci" and " Giulio Cesare," launched in 1911. These vessels were 3,000 tons heavier than their predecessor and mounted an extra 12-in. gun, making 13 in all, four of which were in two twin-gun turrets superposed above triple-gun turrets forward and aft, a further triple-gun turret being fitted amidships. This arrangement enabled an increased all-round fire to be obtained over the previous vessel. The secondary armament of 18 4'7-in. guns was carried in an amidships battery protected by 5-in. armour, which was above the upper belt of g-in. armour, the water-line belt being lo-in. amidships and 4-in. at the ends. Turret armour was lo-in. and conning tower 12-inches. Turbine engines of 24,000 H.P. were fitted to give a speed of 22 knots.

FIG. 38.

The " Andrea Doria " and " Caio Duilio " (see fig. 38), launched in 1913, were slightly longer and heavier than the " Conte di Cavour," but except for an improved secondary armament of 16 6-in. guns fitted abreast the forward and after turrets, the changes were of a minor nature.

The " Leonardo da Vinci," blown up at Taranto in 1916 by the explosion of her magazine, was refloated and dry-docked upside down in 1919. After repairs she was floated out of dock still upside down and then righted. This operation reflects the greatest credit upon the Royal Italian Corps of Naval Constructors, who conducted the operations throughout. The vessel, will, however, not be restored as a warship, but utilized for a subsidiary service.

The last four battleships laid down in 1914 and 1915 for the Italian Navy, the " Caracciolo " class, have not been completed. They were to have been generally similar in size, armament, speed and protection to the " Queen Elizabeth."

(6) Russia, The Russian navy has ceased to exist as an impor- tant factor, but technically the various classes of battleships built are of interest.

Following the construction of two vessels of the intermediate " Lord Nelson " type, four battleships of the " Petropavlovsk "

class were launched in 1911 and three of the " Imperator Alex- ander III." class (for the Black Sea Fleet) in 1914. The first four were slightly heavier, longer and faster than the others, but their general characteristics are similar. They all mount 12 12-in. in four triple-gun turrets on the centre line of the vessel, arranged similarly to the Italian " Dante Alighieri," the speed of which, 23 knots, was the same as that of the " Sevastopol," the Black Sea vessels being 2 knots slower, all the vessels having turbine engines. The " Imperatritza Marie " was blown up by an internal explo- sion at Sevastopol in 1916, and refloated and docked upside down in 1919, similarly to the " Leonardo da Vinci."

(7) Austria. Three battleships of intermediate (" Lord Nel- son ") type were completed in 1910 and 1911. Following these vessels four " Dreadnoughts " of the " Viribus Unitis " class were completed in 1912-5. On a displacement of 20,000 tons, 12 12-in. guns in four triple-gun turrets (of n-in. armour maximum) were carried in two -superposed groups forward and aft with 12 5-g-in. guns as secondary armament in an amidships battery protected by 6-in. armour. The water-line belt was n in. amidships and 5 in. at the ends. An upper belt of 8 in. was fitted amidships. Turbine engines of 25,000 H.P. gave a speed of about 20 knots.

Two vessels, the " Szant Istyan " of this class and the old battle- ship " Wien," were sunk during the war as the result of daring attacks by Italian fast motor-boats. The " Viribus Unitis " sank in 1918, due to the explosion of a mine placed in contact with the vessel by two Italian officers in a small torpedo-like motor-boat.

A contemplated programme of four battleships of 25,000 tons, carrying eight 15-in. guns, did not materialize owing to the war.

(8) Argentina. The only " Dreadnought " battleships are the " Moreno " and " Rivadavia," launched in the United States in 1911 and completed in 1914; 12 12-in. guns, in six twin-gun turrets, and 12 6-in. guns are carried on a displacement of 27,600 tons, tur- bine engines of 39,500 H.P. giving a speed of 22^ knots.

(9) Brazil. The " Rio de Janeiro," laid down at Armstrong's, Newcastle, in 1911, was sold later to Turkey, from whom the vessel was requisitioned by the British on the outbreak of the World War, and renamed " Agincourt." The " Minas Geraes " and " Sao Paulo " are thus the only two " Dreadnought " battleships possessed by Brazil.

(10) Chile. The " Almirante Latorre " and " Aljnirante Coch- rane " were building at Armstrong's in 1914 for the Chilean navy. The former vessel, after service during the war as H.M.S. " Can- ada," was sold back to Chile, but the latter vessel remains as H.M.S. " Eagle." Chile thus possesses only one " Dreadnought."

(n) Greece. -The " Salamis, ' of 19,500 tons and 23 knots speed, building in Germany at the outbreak of war in 1914, had not been completed. The four twin-gun turrets constructed in the United States for this vessel were purchased by the British and fitted in the first four large monitors.

(12) Norway. The " Nidaros " and " Bjorgvin " (coast-defence battleships), launched by Armstrong's in 1914, were taken over by the British during the war and completed, with the addition of bulges, as H.M.S. " Glatton " and " Gorgon."

(13) Spain. The smallest " Dreadnought " battleships ever de- signed have been completed for the Spanish navy. On a displace- ment of 15,500 tons, the " Alfonso XIII.," " Espana," and " Jaime I." carry 8 12-in. guns in four turrets (the amidships tur- rets being en echelon) and 20 4-in. guns. Turbine engines of 15,000 H.P. give a speed of 195 knots. Armour protection consists of a 9-in. water-line belt, with lo-in. armour for the turrets and con- ning tower. The vessels were built in Spain from designs and under the supervision of British firms.

(14) Sweden. Three small battleships, the " Sverige " (com- pleted in 1917), and the " Drottning-Victoria " and the " Gustav V." (which in 1921 were nearing completion), are of 7,600 tons displace- ment. They mount four n-in. and eight 6-in. guns, and with tur- bine engines of 22,000 H.P. a speed of 22 knots is expected.

(15) Turkey. Two battleships completing in England for the Turkish navy were taken over by the British Government on the outbreak of war and renamed " Agincourt " and " Erin."

Battle Cruisers

Up to 1921 battle cruisers had been built only for Japan, Ger- many and Russia, besides Great Britain (see Table VII.). The United States had six vessels building.

United States. The " Lexington " class (fig. 39) were designed in 1916, but no progress was made in their construction during the war. After the Armistice their design was reconsidered. The dis- placement was increased from 35,300 tons to 43,500 tons, the n ain armament being changed from 10 14-in. guns to 8 i6-in. guns. The S.H.P. was 180,000 total, driving four propellers, and this was esti- mated to give 35 knots as the original design displacement and 33i knots for the final design. This enormous H.P. (the maximum so far contemplated for any ship) is developed by the electric drive, on generally similar but improved lines to that of the " New Mexico." Oil fuel only is burnt in the boilers. The changes made included considerably increased protection against gunfire and under-water attack. The result of all the changes made is that the vessels will be powerful battle cruisers, with good offensive and defensive qualities as compared with the initial design. The torpedo

TABLE VI. Non-British Battleships, 1921.

Country and Class

No. in Class

Date of Launch

Length Ft. In.

Breadth Ft. In.

Draught Ft. In.

Displace- ment : Tons

Speed : Knots

Horse- Power

Armament

Side Armour

UNITED STATES: " South Carolina "

2

1908

453 o

8oi

27

16,000

18}

16,500

8 12 in. 12 3 in.

II in.




2 21 in. T. T.

" Delaware "

2

1908-9

519 o

85*

29

20,000

21

25,000

10 12 in. 14 5 in. 2 21 in. T. T.

II in.

" Florida "...

2

1909-10

521 6

88J

29}

21,825

20|

28,000

10 12 in. 16 5 in.

II in.




2 21 in. T. T.

" Arkansas " .

2

1911

562 o

93i

29}

26,000

20}

28,000

12 12 in. 165 in.

II in.




2 21 in. T. T.

" New York " .

2

1912

573

95i

29}

27,000

21

28,000

10 14 in. 16 5 in.

12 in.




4 21 in. T. T.

" Nevada "...

2

1914

583 o

.95*

29}

27,500

20}

24,800

10 14 in. 12 5 in.

13* in.




2 21 in. T. T.

" Pennsylvania " .

2

1915

608 o

97

3

31,400

21

34,000

12 14 in. 14 5 in. 2 21 in. T. T.

14 in.

" New Mexico " .

3

1917

624 o

97*

30

32,000

21

27,500

12 14 in. 14 5 in.

14 in.




32,000

4 21 in. T. T.




32,000


" Tennessee "

2

1919

624 o

97}

30

32,300

21

28,500

12 14 in. 14 15 in. 221 in. T. T.

14 in.

" Maryland "

4

1920 & bldg.

624 o

97}

30}

32,600

21

28,900

8 16 in. 14 5 in. 221 in. T. T.

14 in.

" South Dakota ".

6

Bldg.

684 o

106

31

43,200

23

60,000

12 16 in. 16 6 in.

14 in.




2 21 in. T. T.

FRANCE:




"Jean Bart".

4

1911-2

544 6

88}

29!

23,100

2O

28,000

12 12 in. 22 5-5in. 418 in. T. T.

loj in.

" Bretagne " .

3

1913

544 6

88}

29!

23,200

2O

29,000

12 13-4 in. 22 5-sin.

loj in.




4 18 in. T. T.

" Normandie "

5

I9I4-5

574 o

89

29

24,800

21

35,ooo

12 13-4 in. 24 5-5in.

12 in.


not completed.



621 in. T. T.

JAPAN:




fi Aki " .

2

1907

460 o

83}

27}

19,800

20}

24,000

4 12 in. 12 10 in.

9 in.




518 in. T. T.

" Settsu "...

2

I9II

500 o

84

27

20,800

20}

26,500

12 12 in. 10 6 in. 5 T. T.

12 in.

" Fuso '.' ...

4

1914-7

640 o

94

28}

31,000

23

45,000

12 14 in. 20 5-5 in.

12 in.




6T. T.


1919




" Kaga "...

4

and

700 o


40,600

23!

8 16 in. 20 5-5 in.

13 >i.


bldg.




GERMANY:




" Nassau "...

4

1908

478 o

88 4

26 7

18,600

19

20,000

12 II in. 12 5-9 in. 6 17-7 in. T. T.

1 1 -4 in.

" Ostfriesland " .

4

1909-10

546 3

93 6

26 ii

22,440

20-5

25,000

12 12 in. 14 5-9 in.

n-8 in.




6 19-7 in. T. T.

" Kaiser "...

5

1911-2

564 4

95 2

27 3

24,310

21

28,000

10 12 in. 14 5-9 in.

13-8 in.




.

5 19;7 in. T. T.

" Konig "...

4

I9I3-4

573 2

96 9

27 4

25,390

21

28,000

10 12 in. 14 5-9 in.

13-8 in.




519-7 in. T. T.

" Baden " .

4

1915

588 7

98 5

27 8

28,070

21

50,000

8 15 in. 16 5-9 in.

13-8 in.




3 23-6 in. T. T.

ITALY:




" Dante Alighieri "

i

1910

549 6

87 6

28 6

19,200

23

26,000

12 12 in. 20 4-7 in.

lo in.




318 in. T. T.

" Giulio Cesare " .

3

1911

576 o

92 o

29 o

22,000

22

24,000

13 12 in. 18 4-7 in.

10 in.




318 in. T. T.

" Caio Duilio "

2

1913

576 o

92 o

29 o

22,6OO

22

25,000

ditto

IO in.

" Caracciolo "

4

laid down.

691 o

97 o

29 o

30,000

25

70,000

8 15 in. 16 6 in.

13 in.


I9H-5




not completed.




RUSSIA :




" Petropavlosk "

4

I9II

590 o

87 o

27 3

23,000

23

42,000

12 12 in. 16 4-7 in.

9 in.




418 in. T. T.

" Imperator




Alexander III."

3

I9I3-4

550

89 6

29 o

22,600

21

23,000

12 12 in. 20 5-1 in.

12 in.




4 18 in. T. T.

AUSTRIA :




" Viribus Unitis "

4

I9II-4

530

89 3

27 o

2O,OOO

2O

25,000

12 12 in. 12 5-9 in.

II in.




421 in. T. T.

ARGENTINA:




" Moreno "...

2

I9II

585 o

95 o

28' o

27,6OO

22}

39,500

12 12 in. 12 6 in.

12 in.




221 in. T. T.

BRAZIL:




" Minas Geraes " .

2

1908-9

543 o

83 o

25 o

I9,2OO

21

23.500

12 12 in. 22 4-7 in.

9 in.

CHILE:




10 14 in. 16 6 in.

" Almirante Latorre " .

I

1913

661 o

92 o

28 6

28,OOO

22?

37,ooo

421 in. T. T.

9 in.

SPAIN:




" Alfonso XIII." .

3

I9I2-4

459 o

78 9

25 6

15,500

19}

15,000

8 12 in. 20 4 in.

9 in.

SWEDEN :




" Sverige "...

3

1914

397 o

61 o

21 6

7.OOO

22

22,000

4 ii in. 8 6 in.

8 in.




2 18 in. T. T.


FIG. 45. White Star (ex-German) Liner Majestic.

FIG. 51. Richborough Train Ferry (Kent, England).


FIG. 48. U.S. (ex-German) Liner George Washington.

FIG. 52. Cunard Liner Aguitania (as Hospital Ship).

FIG. 49. American Liner Centennial State


FIG. 46. White Star Liner Britannic.

FIG. 53. White Star Liner Olympic (as Troopship).


FIG. 47. Cunard Liner Samaria.

FIG. 54. Castle Liner Llandovery Castle (sinking).

FIG. 32a. U.S. Battleship Xorth Carolina Class.



FIG. 393. U.S. Battle-Cruiser Lexington and Class.


FIG. 423. U.S. Scout Cruisers Nos. 4-13.


FIG. 313. U.S. Battleship Pennsylvania. armament is very large for a U.S. vessel, consisting as it does of four submerged and four above- water 21 -in. torpedo tubes. None of the vessels had yet been launched in 1921.

Russia. Four battle cruisers were launched in 1915, but they had not been completed up to 1921. On a displacement of 32,200 tons, with a length of 750 ft., 12 14-in. and 24 5-in. guns and 6 torpedo tubes were to have been carried, turbine engines of 66,000 H.P. using estimated to give a speed of 27 knots. The side armour had a maximum thickness of 12 inches.

Japan. The " Tsukuba " and " Ikoma " were laid down in 1905 and the " Kurama " and " Ibuki " in 1907. These vessels are classed as battle cruisers, but they lacked the high speed consid- ered an essential feature of the battle-cruiser type. The " Tsu- kuba " was blown up in a Japanese harbour in 1917. The next


battle cruisers built by Japan were the four vessels of the " Kongo " class, launched in 1912-3, the name ship being constructed by Vick- ers at Barrow, and her sisters in Japan. These vessels resemble the " Lion " class, having an armament of 8 14-in. and 16 6-in. guns on a displacement of 27,500 tons, a speed of 27 knots being obtained with turbines developing 64,000 horse-power. The vessels are well 'tected by lo-in. (maximum) armour, and they carry a power-

ful torpedo armament of 8 submerged 2i-in. torpedo tubes. Four battle cruisers of the " Amagi " class were in 1921 under construc- tion. They were reported to be vessels of 40,000 tons displacement and 30 knots speed, with a main armament of 8 i6-in. guns.

Germany. As with the " Dreadnought " type of battleship, the Germans followed the British in their battle cruisers. The first vessel of the type, " Von der Tann," was launched in 1909. On a displacement of 19,100 tons she carried 8 n-in. and 12 5'9-in. guns. The armour belt was of lo-in. (maximum) thickness and her designed speed was 24 knots, the turbine engines developing about 45,000 horse-Dower. This speed and H.P. were exceeded on trials. The " Moltke " (1910), " Goeben " (1911), of 22,600 tons and 25 knots, and " Seydlitz " (1912), of 24,600 tons and 26 knots (fig. 40) were generally improvements on the " Von der Tann." The main arma- ment consisted of to ll-in. guns arranged as in the British " Nep- tune " (of two years earlier design), as compared with 8 13-5-in. guns in contemporary British battle cruisers. The " Goeben " was transferred to Turkey early in the war, having been in the Mediter- ranean when the war broke out. Return to Germany being impos-


sible, she escaped to Constantinople. The " Seydlitz " was badly damaged at the battles of Dogger Bank (1915) and Jutland (1916). Her return to harbour after the latter was only effected with great difficulty, and probably only the close proximity of the German coast enabled her to reach port in time. The " Derfflinger " (1913) and " Liitzow " (1913) were the first German battle cruisers to mount 12-in. guns, of which they carried eight on a displacement of 26,200 tons. The speed was 26J knots and maximum armour 12 in. thick. The " Lutzow " was sunk at the battle of Jut- land. The " Hindenburg " (fig. 41), launched in 1915 and com- pleted in 1917, and " Mackensen, ' launched in 1917 but not com- pleted, were virtually repeats of the " Lutzow," with the same arma- ment, but improved speed of 28 knots. The " Graf von Spee," also launched in 1917 but not completed, was of 27,000 tons, with six 15-in. guns as the main armament. A sister vessel, " Prinz Eitel Friedrich," had not been launched at the Armistice. The last three vessels were dismantled, as well as other battle cruisers whose construction had not been far advanced.

Light Cruisers

The light cruiser type of warship has in recent years been con- structed by very few nations (see Table VIII.). The United Stales

TABLE VII. Battle Cruisers of Non-British Navies.

Country and Class

No. in Class

Date of Launch

Length

Breadth

Draught

Displace- ment : Tons

Speed Knots

Horse- Power

Armament

Side Armour

UNITED STATES:


ft. in.

ft. in.

ft. in.


in.

" Lexington "

6

Bldg.

874 o

105 6

31

43,500

33l

180,000

8 16 in. 16 6 in.

8




421 in. T. T.

RUSSIA:




" Navarin " .

4

I? 15 Not

750 o

IOO O

3

32,200

27

66,000

12 14 in. 24 5 in. 6 1 8 in. T. T

12


com-




pleted.




JAPAN:




4 Kongo "

4

1913

653 6

92 o

27*

27,500

27i

64,000

8 14 in. 16 6 in.

8




8 21 in. T. T.

" Amagi "

4

Bldg.

850 o

IOO O

40,000

30

8 16 in.

GERMANY:




" Blucher " .

i

1908

528 6

80 5

26*

15,500

24

32,000

12 8'2 in. 8 5-9 in.

7




417-7 in. T. T.

" Von der Tann "

i

1909

562 8

87 3

26 7

19,100

24

43-6oo

8 ii in. io 5-9 in.

9-8




4 17-7 in. T. T.

" Moltke " .

2

1910-1

610 3

96 10

26 ii

22,640

25

52,000

io ii in. 12 5-9 in.

II




4 19'7 in- T. T.

" Seydlitz " . " Derfflinger "

I

2

1912 1913

656 2

689 o

93 6 95 2

27

27i

24,610 26,180

26*

26J

63,000 63,000

ditto. 8 12 in. 12 5-9 in.

n-8

12




4 19-7 in. T. T.

" Hindenburg "

2

I9I5-7

697 o

96 3

27 *

26,640

28

85,000

8 12 in. 12 5-9 in. 6 19-7 in. T. T.

12

TABLE VIII. Light Cruisers of Non-British Navies.

Country

Date of Launch

Length Ft.

Breadth Ft.

Draught Ft.

Displace- ment Tons

Speed Knots

Horse- Power

Armament

Side Armour In.

UNITED STATES:




" Omaha " . . .10

1920

5555

55

Hi

7-500

33 1

90,000

12 6 in.


and



421 in. T. T.


bldg.




JAPAN:




" Yahagi "... 3

1911

475

465

I6J

4-950

26

22,500

86 in.

3




3 18 in. T .T.

" Tatsuta "... 2

1918

44

4i

13

3-500

31

51,000

45-5 in.

3




621 in. T. T.

" Tama " ... 20

1919

500

46?

15!

5,500

33

90,000

75-5 in.

3




8-21 in. T. T.

ITALY:




" Basilicata " . . . 2

1914

272

42

I6J

2-450

I6i

5,000

6 6 in.




2 T. T.

GERMANY:



\

"Stralsund" ....

1912

446

43 i

16

4,480

27

24,000

75-9 in-




217-7 in- T. T.

" Regensburg "...

1914

456

45

17

4,850

27*

26,000

75-9 in.

(now French " Strasbourg ")



2 19-7 in. T. T.

" Konigsberg "...

1915

45

43*

16

4,200

28i

45,000

75-9 in-

(now French " Metz ")



419-7 in. T. T.

" Frankfurt " .

1915

465

45i

17

5.120

28

45,000

85-9 in-




219-7 in. T. T.

" Brummer " .

1915

43

4'

I5i

4,000

30

46,000

45-9 in. 300




mines 4 19-7 T. T.

"Coin"

. 1918

489

47

I6J

5,600

27*

29,000

85-9 m.




423-6 in. T. T.

RUSSIA:




Admiral class ....

1915

535

51

18

7,600

30

55.000

155 in.




2 1 8 in. T. T-


did not construct 'any after the completion of the " Salem " class in 1908 until after the World War, when the construction of 10 light cruisers of the " Omaha " class (fig. 42) was commenced. These vessels were designed in 1916 and their construction authorized by the Act of Congress o 1917. The chief characteristics of these vessels, which are classed as " Scouts " by the U.S. navy, are an over-all length of 555* ft., a displacement of 7,100 tons, S.H.P. of turbine engines 90,000, giving an estimated speed of 35 knots. The armament at first consisted of eight 6-in. guns arranged in double-


FIG. 42.

storied batteries of four guns each, forward and aft, but recently this armament has been augmented by the addition of a twin 6-in. gun turret on the centre line forward and aft. The torpedo arma- ment is to consist of two 21 -in. above- water torpedo tubes. Pro- tection, consisting of 3-in. total, is provided amidships to the machin- ery compartments. With the exception of some protection to the steering gear, the side protection does not appear to be so extensive as that provided for British light cruisers. Oil fuel only is burnt in the boilers of these vessels, the machinery arrangement of which is of considerable interest. The turbine engines drive four propellers, the engines for the outer shafts being accommodated in an engine- room situated between two groups of boiler-rooms, the engines for the inner shafts being in another engine-room abaft the second group of boilers. The turbines are geared, the reduction gears being of the Westinghouse floating-frame type. Cruising turbines are fitted to obtain economy at cruising speeds.

Japan. Three light cruisers were completed for Japan in 1912. These vessels, of about 5,000 tons displacement, 26 knots and carry- ing eight 6-in. guns, are very similar to their British contemporaries of the " Newcastle " class. No other light cruisers were built by Japan until the " Tatsuta " and " Tenryu " were laid down in 1917 and completed in 1919. These vessels are in general characteristics

similar to the British " Arethusa " class, with higher speed and reduced armament. On a displacement of 3,500 tons, a speed of 31 knots is obtained with 51,000 H.P. and four 5'5-in. guns are carried. Following these vessels were eight light cruisers of the " Tama " class, some of which have been launched. Twelve additional light cruisers of the 1920 programme will follow. It is understood that these 20 vessels are generally of the same class and are a consider- able improvement upon the " Tatsuta." On a displacement of 5,500 tons, seven 5'5-in. guns will be carried and engines of 90,000 H.P. will be fitted to give a designed speed of 36 knots.

Germany. The German naval programme provided for a small number of light cruisers to be built each year. The four vessels of the " Coin " class, completed in 1910 and 1911, were of 4,280 tons, 25J knots and carried 12 4-i-in. guns. They were an advance in size and speed on their predecessors. In 1912 and 1913 six vessels of slightly greater displacement and speed than the " Coin," but with the same armament, were completed. The next 14 vessels, completed 1914-5, were of 5,000 tons, 27 knots, 30,000 H.P., and had an im- proved armament of 2 S-g-in. and 10 4-i-in. guns. During the World War a number of light cruisers were built, the chief characteristics of which were their improved armaments, 6, 7, and 8 5-g-in. guns

Jinn

3-e-

FIG. 43.

being carried. Some of the earlier cruisers were rearmed with s-g-in, guns in lieu of 4-i-in. guns originally fitted. The "Brummer' and " Bremse," two of the surrendered vessels, were interesting ships. They were mine-laying cruisers of 4,000 tons, and, with tur- bine engines of 46,000 H.P., were generally credited with a speed of 34 knots, but this was at least 4 knots higher than the actual spc-rd. They were arranged to carry about 300 mines. One of the chief differences between British and German light cruisers lay in the

protection. British vessels, after the " Weymouth " class, were protected by side plating of 3-in. total thickness, the German ves- sels having less or no side protection, but with decks of i-in. or 2-in. thickness. A number of light cruisers were under construc- tion at the Armistice. The " Coin " is typical of them. On a water- line length of 489 ft. and displacement of 5,600 tons, she was to have carried 8 s-g-in. guns (five of which could be fired on the broad- side), 3 32-in. H.A. guns and 4 revolving 23-6-in. torpedo tubes. Turbine engines of 29,000 S.H.P. were to have been provided for a speed of 27^ knots. The protection consisted of about 2j-in. side and j-in. deck.

Four of the German light cruisers were incorporated, with new names, in the French navy, and three in the Italian navy.

Austria. In 1910 the light cruiser " Admiral Spaun " was com- pleted and in 1914 three similar but slightly improved vessels. These were of 3,500 tons, 27 knots, and mounted 9 3'9-in. guns. Two of these vessels were taken into the Italian navy, and one into the French navy, all with new names.

Italy. Six small light cruisers were completed between 1912 and 1916. The most interesting were the " Quarto " class (three ves- sels), of 3,400 tons and 28 knots, carrying 6 4'7-in. and 6 3-in. guns (see fig. 43).

Russia.. At the outbreak of the World War two small light cruisers, which were taken over by Germany, were under construc- tion in German yards. One is now in the French navy, and the other was lost at Jutland. Eight light cruisers of a larger and more pow- erful type were under construction in Russia, but were not com- pleted. They were designed to be 520 ft. long, of 7,600 tons dis- placement, armed with 15 5-in. guns, and, with turbines of 55,000 H.P. a speed of 30 knots was expected.

Holland. Two light cruisers of 7,000 tons and 30 knots, with 10 5-9-in. guns, were under construction for a long time, but had not yet been completed in 1921.

Spain. A light cruiser of 5,600 tons, generally similar to the British " Birmingham," was being completed in 1921, and others of this class were projected.

France. Six light cruisers of 5,000 tons, 30 knots speed and 8 5-5- in. guns, were projected in the 1920 programme.

Torpedo-Boats and Submarines

Specifications of the torpedo-boats and flotilla leaders and sub- marines of foreign navies are given in Tables IX. and X., and the reader is referred to the Transactions of the Institute of Naval A rchi- tects, 1920, for further information.

(3) MERCHANT SHIPS

The ordinary course of mercantile shipbuilding development, which continued from 1910 until the autumn of 1914, was

abruptly checked by the World War. As the result, merchant shipbuilding was practically stopped in France, Germany, Italy and Austria, and it was very much reduced in the United Kingdom owing to men joining the colours. At the same time a great fillip was given to shipbuilding in the United States and neutral countries. In England many of the best ships building were requisitioned and fitted out for war services, or for auxil- iary services with the fleet. Large numbers of vessels were also withdrawn from the mercantile fleet for similar purposes, and this, together with the great losses due to submarines, very quickly created great demands for new ships. Shipbuilding resources were developed with great rapidity all over the world, leading up to: (i) a vastly increased output; (2) new types of vessels which could be constructed quickly; (3) development of new methods of construction. At the same time a vast increase took place in the plant of all kinds for the manufacture of armament, etc. The services rendered by the mercantile marine during the war were invaluable (see SHIPPING), while, broadly speaking, the ships themselves stood the brunt of war with very remarkable success. In some cases, however, large pas- senger ships were quickly sunk because of the existence of passages, or doors in bulkheads, which permitted the sea to find access to compartments other than those directly damaged, thus leading to the foundering of the vessels. This caused renewed attention to be given in all maritime countries to matters of life-saving and subdivision.

Many very notable vessels were lost. Some of the best known are shown in Table XI. Among these losses, the " Britannic " and " Justicia " (formerly " Statendam ") were the largest vessels building in the United Kingdom in 1014.

After the war the German ships which had been seized or interned were distributed among the Allies. Germany also had to surrender all ships above 1,600 tons afloat or on the stocks, many smaller ones, floating docks, cranes, and other craft, amounting to about 3,000,000 tons. These were divided chiefly between Britain and the United States, with smaller shares to France and Japan. She also had to undertake to build 1,000,000 tons for the Allies if required, but this was not enforced. Table 12 gives the names of some of the most noteworthy vessels thus distributed.

TABLE IX. Torpedo-Boats and Flotilla Leaders.

Navy

Date of Launch

Length Ft.

Dis- place- ment Tons

Horse- Power

Speed Knots

Armament

Chile

1912

320

1, 800

30,000

31

2 4-7 in. 2 4 in.



4 21 in. T. T.

France <

1914 1917

269 272

880 675

17,000 10,000

3 29

2 3-9 in. 4 18 in. T. T.

I 4-7 in. 43 in. 418 in. T. T.

Italy . .

TQT-Z

2l8

77O

18,000

W

4 4 in.



418 in. T. T.

Japan ........ .

IQl6

-1*6

I ^OO

08 OOO

\A.

3 4-7 in.



6 21 in. T. T.

United States

1917

314

1,200

27,000

35

44 in. 12 T. T.

Germany

1914 1917 1917

1918

322 280 200

360

1,35 1,000

350 2,400

40,000 24,000 6,000

54,000

37 33 26

35

4 4' i in. 24 mines 619-7 in. T. T. 34-1 in. 6 19-7 in. T. T. 23-4 in - 117-7 in- T. T. 45-9 in. 423-6 in. T. T.

Russia

1917

315

1,260

30,000

35

44 in. 918 in. T. T.

Austria

1912

266

787

17,000

33

2 4 in. 4 3 in. 2 T. T.

Italy

I9l6

"*IO

i 4.60

40 ooo

7C

5 4-7



4 21 in. T. T. Table XII. includes a number of very fine vessels which Ger- many was building in 1914 to compete with the " Aquitania," " Olympic," and such types of British ships, in order to gain a still larger proportion of the Atlantic trade. Amongst them were the largest vessels afloat in 1921. In certain cases German companies were afterwards enabled to repurchase from the Allies some of the surrendered ships, which then reverted to German ownership. Austria had to surrender all her shipping, about 1 1 million tons. This was handed over to Italy, with the excep- tion of about 70,000 tons for France.

Statistics. The world's output had reached a maximum of 3,330,000 tons in 1913, and was falling again in 1914. The tonnage

launched in the United Kingdom reached the record total of approxi- mately 2,000,000 tons in 1913, and in 1914 it had decreased by over 10 per cent. Great efforts had been made in France, Germany, Holland, Japan and Norway, and the totals in these countries showed distinctly upward tendencies. In the United States very great fluctuations occurred ; the output on the coast had fallen to 95,000 tons, and on the Great Lakes to 75,000 tons in 1911, while in 1913 228,000 tons were launched on the coast and only 48,000 tons on the Lakes.

Table XI 1 1. shows the tonnage of ships launched in various coun- tries from 1910-20. The diagram Fig. 44 has been prepared on the basis of these figures. The striking results obtained in the British colonies and Japan will be noted, and the overwhelming influence of U.S. shipbuilding. Many of the American yards which were specially constructed for war purposes were in 1921 being closed,

TABLE X. Submarines of Non-British Navies.

Navy

Date of Launch

Length Ft.

Displacement : Tons

Horse-Power

Speed: Knots

Armament

Surface

Submerged

Surface

Submerged

Surface

Sub- merged

BRAZIL ....

1913

150

250

3/0

800

14

8^

2 18 in. T. T.

CHILE ....

1915

ISO

35

470

480

640

. 13

n

418 in. T. T.

FRANCE ....

1916

173

410

560

1,300

900

I3i

8

13 in.




8 18 in. T. T.

1917

243

850

1,180

2,900

1,650

17

I0j

23 m.




8 1 8 in. T. T.

ITALY ....

1915

207

700

1,000

2,600

1,300

18

10

2 14 V'dr.




6 1 8 in. T. T.

JAPAN

1917

215

700

1,070

2,600

1,300

18

IO

13 >n-




6 18 in. T. T.

UNITED STATES

1918

1 86

570

680

880

900

i3i

I0|

13 in.




4 21 in. T. T.

1918

264

1,100

1,500

4,000

1,500

20

II J

23 m.




8 21 in. T. T.

GERMANY

1914-8




Class:




U86

41

230

800

940

2,400

1,180

i6i

8

14-1 in. 13-5 m-



or 2 4-1 in. 4 T. T.

Ui42 ....

it

320

2,160

2,760

6,000

2,600

18

8

25-9 m. 6T. T.

UBi

ii

92

128

143

60

1 20

6J

si

I machine gun.




2T. T.

UB48 ....

ii

181

521

657

1,100

760

I3l

7i

I 4-1 in. ST. T.

UCi

i

in

176

185

90

138

6*

5

I machine gun.




12 mines.

UCgo ....

ii

184

496

575

650

600

12

6i

I 4-1 in. 14 mines.




3 T. T.

UE7I ....

ii

1 86

762

846

900

800

ioi

8

I 3-5 in. 36 mines. 2 T. T.

UEnr ....

ii

267

1,170

i,5i5

2,400

1,150

15

71

I 5-9 in. or 2 4- 1 in.




42 mines. 4 T. T.

Deutschland (Ui52>

214

1,525

1,885

800

800

IO

5h

2 rf. 9 T in -

TABLE XI. Merchant-ships lost in the War.

Name

Tonnage (Gross)

Country

Name

Tonnage (Gross)

Country

' Alcantara "

.

15,831

U.K.

' Koningen Emma " .


9,181

Dutch

' Andania " .


I3-4 5

"

' Laconia "


18,099

U.K.

' Arabic "


15,801

"

' La Provence " .


!3>753

French

' Aurania "


'3 >93 6

"

' Laurentic "


14,892

U.K.

' Avenger " (ex. " Ao 1 Ballarat "

earc

a")'

13.441 11,120

ii ii

' Llandovery Castle " ' Lusitania '


ii,493 30,096

ii

' Britannic "

.

48,158

ii

' Medina "


12,350

"

' Bonheur "

.

7,132

Norway

1 Minnehaha "


13,714

"

' Calgarian " ' Cameronia " .


17,515 10,963

U.K.

' O. B. Jennings " ' Oceanic " .


10,290 17,274

U.S.A.

U.K.

' Campania "

.

12,884

"

'Otaki" .


9,575

H

' Cap Trafalgar "


18,710

German

' President Lincoln " .


18,168

U.S.A.

' City of Adelaide " ' City of Paris "


8,389 9,239

U.K.

' Principe Umberto". ' Rotorua " .


7,929 11,140

Italian U.K.

' Covington "


16,339

U.S.A.

' Royal Edward "


11,117

i i

' FranConia "

.

18,150

U.K.

' San Hilario " .


10,157

' Gallia " ' Glenart Castle "


14,966 6,824

French U.K.

' Transylvania " . .


14-315 7,562

..

' Hirano Maru "

.

W|WMB

7,936

Japan

' Tubantia " . .


13.9"

Dutch

' Ivernia " .


14,278

U.K.

' Tuscania "


14,348

U.K.

' Justicia " .


32,234

'

' Volturno " .


1 1 ,496

Italian

' Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse "

13,952

German

' Yasaka Maru "


10,932

Japan while others were falling back rapidly to pre-war conditions (see SHIPPING: United States).

In the United Kingdom, from the middle of 1915, a committee of the Board of Trade, in conjunction with the Transport Department of the Admiralty, assumed control of the British mercantile marine, including shipbuilding. A Merchant Shipbuilding Advisory Com- mittee was formed, with Sir George Carter as chairman. In Dec. 1916 the Ministry of Shipping was set up, under Sir Joseph Maclay. The Shipbuilding Advisory Committee was enlarged, and on its advice steps were taken to standardize the types of merchant ships to be built, and to simplify the details of construction both of hull and machinery to secure the greatest and quickest output possible.

Five types of " standard ships " were designed, varying from 3,000 to 8,000 tons deadweight, and between Dec. 1916 and April 1917 considerable numbers of these vessels were ordered. In order to harmonize the work of shipbuilding for the Admiralty and the mer- cantile marine, the whole was placed under one authority, Sir Eric Geddes, in June 1917, when he assumed office as controller of the Navy. Arrangements were made for setting up new shipyards with a view to producing " fabricated " ships, which could be put together with very much reduced amounts of skilled labour; but the results were disappointing, and at the end of 1918 the output in the United Kingdom was still only at the rate of 1,500,000 tons per annum. In March 1918 Lord Pirrie was appointed controller-general of

TABLE XII. Ownership of Some Notable ex-German Ships.

Old Name

Gross Tons

New Name

New Owners

" Amerika " ....

22,622

" America "

U.S. Government.

" Barbarossa " ....

10,984

" Mercury "

U.S. Government.

" Batavia " . c . . .

1 1 ,464

" Batavia "

French Government.

" Berlin " . ' ....

17,324

" Arabic "

White Star Line.

' Bismarck " ....

56,000

" Majestic "

White Star Line.

' Bliicher " ....

12,350

" Leopoldina "

Brazilian Government.

' Bremen " ....

11,540

" Bremen " ....

Shipping Controller (P. & O. S. Nav. Co.)

' Bulgaria " ....

11,440

' Philippines "

U.S. Shipping Board.

' Cap Arcona "...

9,832

' Cap Arcona "

U.S. Shipping Board.

' Cap Finisterre " .

14,503

' Cap Finisterre " .

Japanese Government.

' Cap Ortegal " ....

7,818

' Cap Ortegal " .

French Government.

' Cap Polonio " ....

20,597

' Cap Polonio " .

P. & O. Steam Nav. Co.

' Cleveland " .

15,746

' King Alexander "

\

(ex " Mobile ")

Byron S. S. Co. Ltd.

" Columbus "

35,ooo

" Homeric "

White Star Line.

" Friedrich der Grosse" . " Fritz "

10,688 3,o83

" Huron " " Assyrian "

U.S. Shipping Board. Ellerman Line.

" George Washington " . " Graf Waldersee " .

25,570 I3J93

" George Washington " "Graf Waldersee "

U.S. Shipping Board. Shipping Controller (P. & O. S. Nav. Co.)

" Grosser Kurfiirst "...

12,642

" Aeolus " '

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Imperator "

52,022

" Berengaria " . . . .

Cunard S. S. Co.

" Johann Heinrich "...


" Burchard "

19,980

" Limburgia " ....

(Koninklyke Hollandsche Lloyd).

" Kaiserin Auguste "...

24,58l

" Empress of Scotland "

Canadian Pacific.

" Victoria "


" Kaiser Wilhelm II." .

I9,36i

" Agamemnon " .

U.S. (Navy Dept.).

" Kigoma "

8,156

" Algeria "

Anchor Line.

" Coin "

7,409

" Amphion "

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Konig Albert "

10,643

" Ferdinando "

Italian Government.


" Palasciano " . . . .

" Konigin Luise "

11,103

" Omar " . . . . .

Orient S. N. Co.

" Konig Wilhelm II."

9,410

" Madawaska "

U.S. Government.

" Kronprinzessin Cecilie "

18,372

" Mount Vernon "...

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Kronprinz Wilhelm " .

14,901

" Von Steuben " ' .

U.S. Government.

" Main "

10, 1 86

" Main "

French Government.

" Moltke "

12,335

" Pesaro "

Italian Government.

" Neckar "

9,709

" Potomac "


(ex " Antigone ") .

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Patricia "

14,466

" Patricia "

Shipping Controller (Ellerman Line).

" Pennsylvania "

13,333

" Nansemond " .

U.S. Shipping Board.

" President Grant " .

18,072

" President Grant "...

U.S. (War Dept.).

" Pretoria "

13,234

" Pretoria "

Shipping Controller (Ellerman Line).

" Princess Alice " . . . .

10,421

" Princess Matoika " .

U.S. (War Dept.).

" Prinz Eitel Friedrich " .

8,170

" Mount Clay " .


(ex " De Kalb ") .

American S. & C. Nav. Corp.

" Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm " .

17,099

" Empress of China " .

Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Ltd.

" Prinzess Irene " .

10,352

" Pocahontas " .

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Rhein "

9,959

" Susquehanna " .

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Tirpitz "

19,300

" Empress of India " .

C.P.O. Services Ltd.

" Vaterland "

54,282

" Leviathan "

U.S. Government.

" Wm. Oswald "-....

20,200

" Brabantia " '.

Kon. Holl. Lloyd.

" Wittekind "

5,640

" Freedom " . _ .


(ex " Iroquois ") .

U.S. Shipping Board.

" Ypiranga "

8,103

" Assyria "

Anchor Line.

" Zeppelin "

14,167

" Ormuz "

Orient S. Nav. Co.

TABLE XIII. Tonnage Launched in 1910-20 (in thousands of tons).

Year

U.K.

Brit. Dom.

U.S.

Japan

France

Germany

Holland

Other Countries

Total

1910

i,H3

26

331

30

Si

159

7i

116

1,957

1911

,804

20

172

44

125

256

93

137

2,651

1912

,737

35

284

58

in

375

99

2OI

2.900

1913

,932

48

276

65

176

465

104

266

3,332

1914

,684

47

2OI

86

114

387

118

216

  • 2,8 5 3

1915

651

22

177

49

25

(No returns)

113

163

  • I,2OO

1916

608

32

504

146

43

do.

1 80

175

  • i,688

1917

,163

94

998

350

19

do.

149

165

  • 2,938

1918

-348

280

3,033

490

H

do.

74

2O9

  • 5,448

1919

,620

359

4,075

612

33

do.

137

308

  • 7,H4

1920

2,056

204

2,476

457

93

do.

183

393

  • 5,862

'Returns not complete. merchant shipbuilding and given extraordinary powers. The new shipyards were pushed on during 1918, but had scarcely come into active production when the Armistice was signed.

TABLE XIV. Gross Tonnage of Shipping owned in 1910-21 (in millions of tons).

Country

1910

1914

1919

1920

1921

United Kingdom and Colo-



nies

19-0

21-0

18-6

2O-6

22-1

United States

5-i

5-4

13-1

16-0

17-0

Germany ....

4'3

5-5

3-5

0-7

0-7

France

1-9

2-3

2-2

3'2

3-7

Japan

i-i

1-7

2-3

3-o

3-4

Norway

2-0

2-5

1-9

2-2

2-6

Denmark ....

0-7

0-8

0-7

0-8

I-O

Sweden

9

i-i

I'D

I-I

1-2

Italy ....

i'3

1-7

1-4

2-2

2-6

Holland. ....

I-O

i-5

1-6

1-8

2-2

All other Countries

4-5

5-6

4-6

5-6

5-5

Total, World's Shipping.

41-8

49-1

50-9

57-2

62-0

Largely as a result of the efforts of the United States, by the end of 1918 ships were being built at the rate of 7,000,000 tons per annum, against the pre-war record of 3,330,000 tons per annum. In June 1920 the steam tonnage of the world amounted to about 54,000,000 tons, notwithstanding the losses of the war. The total losses had amounted to about 9,000,000 tons of British ships and 6,000,000 tons others, making a total of 15,000,000 tons. Of the total, 2,000,000 tons were due to ordinary marine risks.


FIG. 44.

Motor-Ships. The period 191021 saw immense changes in the means of propulsion. In 191 1 the " Selandia " and " Jutlandia " were launched, and a number of other vessels were being built, in which internal-combustion engines of a more or less experimental character were being fitted. Lloyd's Register reports that by 1914 there were 290 motor-ships of 234,000 tons gross, while in 1921 there were no fewer than 1,447 ships of 1,263,000 tons gross, so that in 1921 there were nearly five times as many motor-ships in existence as there were in 1914, and the tonnage ol these ships was nearly six times as great. In these seven years motor-vessels increased from 47 to 2-1 per cent of the world's tonnage.

Dr. Diesel's master patents expired in 1909 and 1910, and since then many successful types of internal-combustion engines have been established in Europe and in America (see INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES), and the proportion of motor to steam vessels building rapidly increased. In June 1921 183 motor-vessels of 502,944 tons were under construction, and out of this number 57 of 241,003 tons were being built in the United Kingdom.

Oil Burners. Another very great improvement is in the use of oil instead of coal under steam boilers. Lloyd's Register reports that in 1914 364 vessels of 1,310,000 tons were fitted to burn oil, but in 1921 these had increased to 2,563 ships of 12,797,000 tons, or from 2-62 to 20-65% f the world's tonnage. In the United States four vessels burn oil to every three vessels burning coal. This use of oil fuel has demanded a large increase in the number of oil-tank steamers. In 1914 there were 385 tankers of 1,479,000 tons, while in 1921 there were 861 tankers of 4,419,000 tons, an increase from 2-94 to 7-16 per cent of the world's tonnage.

Electric Drive. It has been the almost universal practice for submarines to be propelled by electric motors when submerged. In a few cases of small surface vessels electric drive had also been used prior to 1910. The earliest recorded appears to be Nobel's tank vessel " Sarmat," fitted with the system in 1904. About 1910 a small vessel named the " Electric Arc " was built on the Clyde to test the method of electric transmission devised by Mavor, using Squirrel cage motors. The experiment was not altogether a suc- cess, but it gave a good deal of experience. Mavor proceeded to America and discussed his ideas with Emmet, and no doubt assisted Emmet in the great undertaking carried out for the American navy in the collier " Jupiter " (now aircraft-carrier " Langley "). The American navy built three colliers at this time of identical dimen- sions, about 20,000 tons displacement, 7,500 H.P., 15 knots full speed, and cargo 12,000 tons. The " Cyclops " has two recipro- cating engines, the " Neptune " has Parsons turbines and a West-

inghouse floating frame mechanical gearing, while the " Jupiter " was fitted with a Curtis turbo-electric generator, running at 2,000 revolutions, giving alternating current at 2,200 volts, and motors driving two propeller shafts at no revolutions. The reported engine room weight of the " Jupiter " is 223 tons, compared with 343 tons in " Cyclops " and 189 tons in " Neptune."

Mavor's next step was to fit up an installation of 1,500 S.H.P. in the " Tynemount," built by Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Co. in 1913. This vessel was 250 ft. long, 1,644 tons gross, and of about 8 knots speed. This system, however, did not admit of development on a large scale.

The next important progress was made in Sweden, where two sister vessels were built, 225 ft. x 36 ft. x 15^ ft., 2,250 displacement, 975 tons gross. Each was provided with 900 H.P. for nj knots. In the " Mimer " triple expansion reciprocating engines were fitted. In the " Mjolmer " Ljungstrom turbo-generators running at 800 r.p.m. were fitted, with two motors of 450 H.P. each, and geared to a single propeller shaft running at 85 r.p.m. It was reported that fuel con- sumption was reduced by over 40%, to -89 Ib. per I. H.P. per hour, and that a saving of 74 tons in weight was effected. A large number of other vessels have since been fitted on the " Ljungstrom " sys- tem. These include the " Turbinia, " of 2,259 tons and 1,020 H.P., built in 1916 in Sweden, and the " Wulsty Castle," of 3,566 tons and 1,500 S.H.P., built in 1918 by Blumer of Sundcrland. It was reported that in 1921 there were 40 vessels building in different countries on this system with the aggregate of 70,000 horse power.

The success of the " Jupiter " was so great that electric trans- mission was adopted by the U.S. navy for a great many of their later ships, even of the highest power. The next great experiment in electrical propulsion was put in hand by the U.S. Shipping Board, who decided to remove the mechanical gearing in 12 vessels and fit an electric drive instead. The first vessel taken was named " Eclipse," the next three vessels " Archer," " Independence " and " Victo- rious." The " Eclipse " is 440 x 56 x 35-2., of 7,589 tons gross and 11,900 dead- weight. The boilers are fitted with Dahl oil burners, steam 215 Ib. and 200 super heated. One turbine of the Curtis Impulse type is fitted to run at 2,000 r.p.m. A three-phased genera- tor supplies current at 2,300 volts. An induction motor is fitted directly on the propeller shaft working at 2,300 volts and running at 100 r.p.m. for 3,000 H.P. The speed may range from 20 to 1 10% of the normal. The result of the trials was very gratifying. The reports as to the first voyage were not quite so good. The other three vessels named had not yet gone on service in 1921.

Another very interesting case is that of the " Cuba," a vessel 310 x 40 x 26-9 of 2,963 tons gross. This vessel has also been fitted with a turbine electric drive by the General Electric Co., Schenec- tady, but in this case a synchronous motor is fitted. Steam of 190 Ib. with 200 super heat is supplied to an 8-stage Curtis turbine, as in " Eclipso" This runs at 3,000 r.p.m. and 1,150 volts. The motor gives 3,000 H.P. at 100 r.p.m. and 1,150 volts, and is fitted directly on the shaft. The trials of this vessel were well reported on. Both vessels are of 1 1 knots speed.

The question of the efficiency and economy of the electric drive was being very much discussed in 1921. On the one hand it was said that the transmission loss of the electrical system was 8% instead of 3% with the mechanical current, but the other ships with electrical current reported very good economy of fuel.

Wood Vessels. In 1914 wood vessels amounted to I % of the total steam tonnage, but owine to the special building during the war it had risen to nearly 4% in 1921. Of this large increase the United States owns one million tons.

The Emergency Fleet programme provided for ordering 1,067 wooden and composite ships, of 3,227,200 tons; but only 607 of 1,948,250 tons, were actually produced. In June 1921 288 cargo carriers remained in the possession of the U.S. Shipping Board, 15 being on active service and 27^5 tied up. The board also had 14 tugs, of which 9 were on active service. Up to this date 21 1 had been sold, 12 of which had been built for service as cargo carriers and 61 as tugs. One had been fitted for carrying oil in bulk. Seventy-four were incomplete when sold. In Aug. 1921 the remaining wooden vessels were reported to be sold to the Ship Construction and Trading Company.

Concrete Ships. Prior to the war a number of small vessels for harbour or river service had been built of ferro-concrete in Italy, Norway and France. During the war a few experimental vessels of small size were built in various places, and the system was adopted to an increasing extent, practically all over the world. As larger vessels were built, the methods received careful consideration, and by proper development vessels up to 7,500 tons dead-weight were successfully produced. The complication of rods and ties in the larger vessels became very great, and sectional or panel systems were introduced, as contrasted with the usual monolith system. The reports as to results varied. The weight of hull was reported to be from 50 to 100% more than for steel, or about equal to wood; while the saving of steel for carrying a given dead-weight amounted to 55 to 66% of the steel ship. This was an enormous advantage during the steel shortage, and a further advantage was the power to build by a new class of labour, giving a greater aggregate of labour for shipbuilding. The most notable vessel was perhaps the S.S. " Faith," built by the San Francisco Shipping Co. in 1918. This vessel, 320 ft. long, 3,427 tons gross, and fitted to burn oil fuel, was a great success. On arrival in England with a cargo the holds were found to be absolutely dry. Table XV. gives the total tonnage recorded of vessels of this type.

TABLE XV. Ferro-Concrete Vessels Included in " Lloyd's Register,"

1921-2.

Country

Steam and Motor Vessels

Sai Ves No.

ing sels

Total

No.

Tons

Tons

No.

Tons

United Kingdom

13

4,222

46

31,625

59

35,847

Canada (coast) .

I

320


i

320

United States



(sea) . .

15

73,894


15

73-894

Denmark

3

2,413


3

2 4I3

France .

3

2,383

I

816

4

3,199

Italy .


3

602

3

602

Norway

u

6,093


14

6,093

Spain .

I

273


i

273

Total

50

89.598

50

33,043

IOO

122,641

Large Liners. Particulars of notable Atlantic liners of recent construction are given in Table XVI. When the " Lusitania " was sunk during the war, the " Mauretania " (30,704 tons) was the only pre-war 25-knot Atlantic liner left. She was followed, how- ever by the " Aquitania " (45,647 tons), of 24 knots, launched by John Brown & Co., for the Cunard Co., in 1914, and the " France," of 23,666 tons gross, launched at St. Nazaire for the Cie. Generate Transatlantique in 1912. The " France " had turbines of 45,000 H.P. on four shafts for her 24 knots, and carried 1,926 passengers besides her crew of six hundred. The " Aquitania " was completed during the war as a hospital ship, but saw very little service as such. After the war she was overhauled and fitted to burn oil fuel, so as to carry 3,250 passengers.

In 1917 another great French liner was launched, the " Paris," of 33,700 tons; it was not completed until June 1921. She could carry 98 passengers in cabins de luxe, 468 first-, 464 second-, 1,100 third-class (in cabins), also 1,100 steerage in open berths the total, including crew, amounting to 3,900 persons. She was fitted with four screws driven by Parsons' turbines, manufactured at Havre. During completion she was modified to burn oil fuel on the Wall- send-Howden system. On her first trip, with 12 boilers out of 15 in service, she averaged 21 knots.

Of the great White Star liners, the " Adriatic," of 24,541 tons gross, capable of carrying a total dead-weight of cargo and fuel of 19,710 tons, at a speed of i8J knots, may be taken as typical. A later ship, the " Belgic," of 24,547 tbns gross, which was put prematurely into service during the war (1917), could carry 22,025 tons at the same speed. The " Adriatic," " Baltic," " Cedric " and " Celtic," averaging 22,600 tons gross, with a total dead-weight capacity of over 55,000 tons, became well known to Atlantic passengers as the " Big Four."

The White Star policy of combining comfort for passengers with a large cargo-carrying capacity found its highest expression, how- ever, in the " Olympic," of 46,359 tons, launched by Harland & Wolff in 1911. She could carry a total of 12,770 tons dead-weight on a draught of 34 ft. 7 in., with a displacement of 52,300 tons, and could take 2,400 passengers, besides her crew of 900, across the Atlantic at 21 knots. Having been altered to burn oil fuel, she could take sufficient at New York (7,500 tons) to provide for the double journey. Her maximum speed is 22j knots at 55,000 horse power. The " Olympic " was in 1921 the biggest British-built vessel, but her dimensions had been exceeded by the " Britannic," of 48,158 tons, which was launched by Harland & Wolff in 1914, and was sunk in Greek waters while serving as a hospital ship in 1916.

Still larger, however, were the three great liners built in Germany during 1912-4. The largest of these (and in 1921 the largest in the world), the " Majestic," (fig. 45) launched by Blohm & Voss in 1914, and acquired by the White Star for entering service in 1922, is of 56,000 tons gross. Turbines of about 100,000 H.P. on four shafts, the greatest installation yet fitted in any merchant vessel, give her an ocean speed-capacity of 23 knots. She is 956 ft. in length, 100 ft. in width, and 102 ft. in height from keel to boat deck. Parsons' turbines, arranged for triple expansion, are fitted on four shafts, and steam is supplied by Yarrow water-tube boilers at 260- Ib. pressure. The machinery weighs 8,500 tons, and 5,700 tons of fuel are consumed on one trip. The funnels come up at the side of the ship, joining together above, and thus leave the central part clear for dining-halls, etc. The ventilation involves 18 m. of piping, while there are 15,000 electric lamps, and 225 electric motors for various purposes, requiring a total of 1,565 horse-power. She can carry 4,000 passengers, while the food for one voyage includes 12 tons of fresh meat, 12 tons of vegetables, 14 tons of milk and about 5 tons of eggs.

Amongst the latest additions to the White Star line up to 1921 was the " Homeric," of 35,000 tons, carrying 2,700 passengers at 21 knots; she was launched at Danzig in 1913 as S.S. " Columbus." The " Homeric " is notable as being the last Targe ship propelled by reciprocating engines only, of which she has two sets, triple expan-

sion, cyls. soj in., 86 J in. (2), 96 in. and 70 in. stroke; but these were exceeded in size by those of " Britannic," (fig. 46) which were 54 in., 84 in. (2), 97 in. and 75 in. stroke, to give 32,000 I. H.P. on two wing shafts, and in addition " Brittannic " had l.p. tur- bines to give 18,000 S.H.P. on two central shafts. The engines of " Britannic " were probably the most powerful single sets made for an ocean liner, while the " Kronprinzessin Cecilie " (now " Mount Vernon ") had the greatest total I.H.P., as she had two sets of 4-cyl. engines on each shaft; they were 37! in., 49 in., 75 in., and 112 in. (quadruple expn.) and 71 in. stroke. Other new vessels being added by the White Star line are: " Regina " (16,314 tons), and " Rim- ouski " (9,281 tons) for Canadian service; " Laurentic " (18,000 tons), " Doric " (16,600 tons) and " Pittsburgh " (16,600) for U.S. services.

The Cunard Co. acquired the " Berengaria " (formerly " Impera- tor ") of 52,022 tons, launched by Vulcan Works, Hamburg, in 1012. This vessel has Parsons' turbines of 60,000 H.P. on four shafts and can attain a speed of over 22 knots with 185 revolutions. She carries 4,000 passengers and a crew of 1,200.

The Cunard Co. decided immediately after the war to build a large number of intermediate vessels somewhat of the " Olympic " type, but smaller and of less speed. The first four were 600 ft. ships of about 21,000 tons gross and 27,000 tons displacement, at 3O-ft. draught, and were named " Scythia," " Samaria," " Franconia," " Laconia." The " Samaria," (fig. 47) which may be taken as typical, was built by Cammell Laird & Co. in 1921. Her engines (turbines) are fitted with double helical speed reduction gear, to drive the propellers at an economical speed. The boilers are of the cylindrical type, fitted to burn oil fuel with forced draught on the Wallsend-Howden combined system. They will give steam at 220 Ib. with 200 F., superheated by means of Schmidt's smoke- tube type of superheater. Her twin screws are operated by Brown- Curtis turbines, which run at 2,750 revolutions. Triple expansion is arranged for as follows: On each side of the ship a H.P. and I. H.P. turbine are fitted in tandem on the shaft of the first driving pinion, and the l.p. turbine is fitted on the shaft of the second driving pinion of the first reduction gear, both then operate through the second reduction gear and give the propeller shafts a speed of 90 revs, per minute. The total S.H.P. of 13,500 gives a sea speed of 16 knots. The astern turbines are compound, and are incorporated in the exhaust casings of the intermediate and low-pressure ahead turbines, and give a total power equal to about 70% of the ahead power. This may be taken as typical of the best turbine arrange- ments of 1921. The " Samaria " can carry about 350 first-, 350 second- and 1,600 third-class passengers. Her deck machinery is driven by electric power through hydraulic variable-speed gear at each of the machines. Two large sets of turbo-driven generators are provided for this purpose, and an oil-driven emergency dynamo is also fitted. A gyro-compass installation is fitted, the master com- pass being on one of the lower decks, with three separate controlled compasses at suitable positions for navigation. Her subdivision is on the most approved principle, with increased numbers of water- tight bulkheads, the water-tight bulkhead doors being operated on the Stone-Lloyd hydraulic system. She is further subdivided by fireproof bulkheads-, and the " Gronwald " system of fire extinguish- ing is installed. Electric passenger hoists are provided.

Among great pre-war German liners which came into the service of U.S. shipping companies were the " America," of I^J knots and 22,622 tons, launched by Harland & Wolff, Belfast, in 1905, and the " George Washington," (fig. 48) of 18 knots and 25,570 tons, launched by the Vulcan Works, Stettin, in 1908. In addition, the " Leviathan," of 54,282 tons, and 21 knots, launched by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg, in 1914, was still in 1921 awaiting renovation and allocation to service. During the war these great vessels were util- ized to transport immense numbers of American troops across the Atlantic. For this service they were specially prepared and ballasted, and, on sailing, the " Leviathan" had what may perhaps be a record draught for a vessel leaving port, viz. 40 ft. II in. " Leviathan " carried as many as 1 1,000 troops on a single trip.

Among American liners the place of the old " St. Paul " has been taken by ships of the " State " class, which were started as 522-ft. troopships (fig. 49). The first on the Atlantic service were the " Panhandle State," and the " Old North State," vessels of 10,500 tons, completed in 1920. There were five other vessels also of the same type, 522 ft. overall, with 502 ft. between perpendiculars. Supplemented by the great ex-German ships named above, they enabled the Shipping Board to send their faster (535 ft.) State type of vessel to the Pacific.

Germany in 1921 retained the old " Deutschland," which had now only machinery for 15! knots, and was named " Hansa." Just prior to the war Germany was building a series of splendid vessels, most luxuriously fitted out, and supplied with every modern device for the attraction and comfort of passengers in order to cap- ture the S. American trade. They were fitted with a combination of reciprocating engines and turbines. The best-known vessel, " Cap Trafalgar," 18,710 tons, 17^ knots (1913), was, as an armed merchant cruiser, met and sunk after a stiff fight by the Cunarder " Carmania," also fitted out as an armed merchant cruiser. Other vessels of the type were the " Cap Finisterre," 14,503 tons, 17 knots, (1911) (now the " Taiyo Maru '), and the " Cap Polonio," 19,500

tons, 18 knots (1914). The last had specially luxurious apartments to fit her for the use of the ex-Kaise/, but after the war British owners could not run her at a profit, and she was sold back to Germany, and was, in 1921, far the best and fastest German steamer.

France replied with the " Lutetia," 14,654 tons (1913), and the " Massilia," 15,147 tons (1914), both having a combination of recip- rocating engines and turbines for 20 knots.

The " Esperia," of 11,393 tons, the finest passenger vessel built as such in Italy, was launched at Genoa in 1921. She is fitted with Parsons' turbines, of 19,600 H.P., on two shafts, with mechanical reduction gearing, for 21 knots, and carrying 480 passengers in addi- tion to a crew of three hundred. Italy also ordered two fine vessels in Great Britain. One, the " Conte Rosso," built by Beardmore, Dalmuir, was requisitioned by the Admiralty, razeed to give an uninterrupted flat deck, with no funnels, and fitted out as' the air- craft-carrier " Argus." She was finished just before the Armistice. To take her place another vessel of the same name was launched in 1921 by Beardmore, 15,500 tons, l8J knots speed, dimensions 570 ft. x 74-2 ft. x 36-1 feet. The second vessel, " Giulio Cesare," laid down by Swan, Hunter & Co. at Wallsend, stood half plated during the war, and was finally completed in 1920, 21,500 tons, i8J knots sea speed. In her the fitting-out of the German " Cap " ves- sels was rivalled by a combination of British and Italian art, and this vessel was in 1921 the largest and finest Italian liner, and the

finest vessel trading to S. American ports. She has four sets of turbines of 21,900 H.P. with single reduction gearing driving four propellers, giving a speed of 19^ knots speed on trial, and carries 243 passengers in de luxe state-rooms, 306 second-class, 800 steerage and a crew of 520, giving a total of 1,869.

Spain had two fine vessels built just before the war, the " Infanta Isabel de Borbon," of 10,348 tons, 175 knots, launched by Denny at Dumbarton (1913), and the " Reina Victoria Eugene," 10,137 tons, launched by Swan, Hunter & Co. (1913), 175 knots, and of about the same general dimensions. Both are fine well-fitted ves- sels, and both have a combination of reciprocating engines and turbines of 10,000 H.P. for propulsion at \l\ knots speed. Spain also built herself vessels of a steadily improving class. The " Alfonso XIII." (of 10,137 tons gross), built in 1921 at Bilbao, was the finest vessel yet constructed in Spain. Her dimensions are 480 ft. x 61 ft. x 41 feet. She is fitted with two sets of geared steam turbines of 10,300 S.H.P., giving 14 r.p.m. at the propellers, and a speed of about 17 \ knots.

Particulars of notable recent Pacific liners are given in Table 17. The wonderful development of what might be spoken of as secondary liners is illustrated by the new vessels built for the Canadian Pacific railway (now Canadian Pacific Ocean services). The " Empress of Canada," of 22,000 tons and 22 knots, built in 1920 by Fairfield will be the finest vessel on the Pacific Ocean.

TABLE XVI. Particulars of Notable Atlantic Liners.

Name

Tons

gross

Speed Knots

Owners

Date of

buil.l.

Dimensions Builders LED

Dead- weight Tons

Horse- power

No. of

screws

Types of Machinery and Makers

Steam pressure Ibs.

" Mauretania "

30,704

26.6

Cunard Co.

1907

762.2 \ 88 K 57.1

12,280

70,000

4

Parsons' turbines

195



Swan Hunter, Newcastle.


Wallsend Slipway Co.

" Aquitania " .

45,647

24

Cunard Co.

1914

868.7 i QT x 49.7

12,913

60,000

4

Steam turbines

IQJ



}. Brown, Clydebank,


J. Brown, Clydebank.



Glasgow.



" Berengaria " .

52,022

22/4

Cunard Co.

1912

882.9 x 98.3 x 57.1

12,000

60,000

4

Steam turbines

(ex " Imper-


Vulcan Werke, Hamburg.


Vulcan Werke, Hamburg.

ator ")




" Scythia "

19,503

if

Cunard Co.

1921

600.7 x 73.8 x 40.7

1 2,400

2

Steam turbines



Vickers, Barrow


Vickers, Barrow.

" Samaria "

20,937

it

Cunard Co.

1921

601.5 x 73.7 x 40.7

12,400

13.500

2

Brown Curtis turbines with

220



Cammcll Laird,


double reduction gear.



Birkenhead.


Cammcll Laird.

" Britannic " .

48,158

White Star Co.

1014

852.5 X 94 X 59.5

50,000

3

Reciprocating & l.p. turbine

(lost in World


Harland & Wolff,


Harland & Wolff.

War).


Belfast.



" Olympic " .

46,439

31

White Star Co.

IQII

852.5 x 92.5 x 59.5 Harland & Wolff,

12,770

50,000

3

Reciprocating & l.p. turbine Harland & Wolff.

215



Belfast.



" Majestic " .

56,000

23

White Star Co.

1914

012 x 100 x 57.1

....

100,000

4

Steam turbines

(ex " Bis-


Blohm & Voss, Hamburg.


Blohm & Voss, Hamburg.

marck ").




" Belgic " .

24,547

i8!>i

....

1917

670.4 x 78.4 x 44.7

22,025

3

Reciprocating & l.p. turbine



Harland & Wolff,


Harland & Wolff.



Belfast.



" Homeric "

35,000

19

White Star Co.

1913

750 x 83 x 48.9


2

Reciprocating

....

(ex " Colum-


F. Schichau, Dantzig.


F. Schichau, Elbing.

bus ").




" America "

22,622

16.7

U.S. Government

1005

668.8 x 71..) x 47.8

20,765

17,500

2

Reciprocating

2IO

(ex " Amer-


(War Department)

Harland & WolJf,


Harland & Wolff.

ika ").


Belfast.



" Leviathan " .

54,282

22>i

U.S. Government

1914

907.6 x 100.3 x 58.2

15,000

65,000

4

Steam turbines

240

(ex " Vater-


(Navy Department)

Blohm & Voss, Hamburg.


Ulohm & Voss.

land ").




" George Wash-

25,570

17

U.S. Shipping Board

1908

699.1 x 78.2 x 50.1

13,4*5

18,000

2

Reciprocating

215

ington ")


A. G. Vulcan, Stettin.


A. G. Vulcan, Stettin.

" Agamemnon " (ex " Kaiser

19,361

21^

U.S. Shipping Board

1902

684.3 * 72.3 x 40.2 A. G. Vulcan, Stettin.

8,700

43.000

2

Reciprocating A. G. Vulcan, Stettin.

213

Wilhelm II.")




" Panhandle

10,533

14

U.S. Shipping Board

1920

SO2.I x 62.2 x 28.3

1 3, ODD

7,ooo

2

Reciprocating

220

State" .


New York S. B. Corp.


New York S. B. Corp.

" France ".

23,666

24

Cie. Gen. Transatlantique

1913

689.0 x 75.6 x 51.4

6,384

45,000

4

Steam turbines



Ch. & Atel. de St. Nazaire,


Ch. & Atel. de St. Nazaire.



St. Nazaire.



"Paris" .

32,000

22

Cie. Gen. Transatlantique

1917

734.9 x 85.2 x 50.1


4

Steam turbines



Ch.& Atel.de St. Nazaire,


Chant, de Penhret. St. N.



St. Nazaire.



" Massilia "

15,147

2O

Cie. de Nav. Sud- Atlantique.

1916

574.0 x 64.0 x 40.2 Forg. & Ch. dc la Mdit.,


4

Reciprocating & 2 l.n. turbines Forg. & Ch. de la Me"dit.,M.S.L.



La Seyne.



" Rotterdam " .

24,149

17

Holland-Amerika Line

1908

650.5 x 77.4 x 43.5

2,451

2

Reciprocating

215



Harland & Wolff,

N.H.P.

Harland & Wolff, Belfast.



Belfast.



" Limburgia " .

19,980

17

Koninkl.-Hollandoche

1914

592.0 x 72.3 x 30.7


3

Reciprocating & l.p. turbine


Lloyd

J. C. Tecklenborg, A. G.,


J. C. Techlenborg, A. G., Geest.



Geestemunde.



" Giulio

21,500

jgr^

Nav. Gen. Italiana

1920

601.4 x 76.0 x 51.0


4

Steam turbines

Cesare "


Swan Hunter, Newcastle.


Wallsend Slipway Co. Ltd.,




Newcastle.

" Conte Rosso " .

15.550

Lloyd Sabaudo Socy.

1921

570.0 x 74.2 x 36.1 Beardmore, Glasgow.


2

Steam turbines W. Beardmore, Glasgow.

" Esperia "

11,393

20

Soc. Italiana di Servizi

Marittimi

1918

492.1 x 61.7 x 34.1 Soc. Esercizio Bacini

10,600 H.P.

2

Geared steam turbines N. O. dero fie A Seotui. P.



Riva Trigoso.



" Infanta Isabel de Borbon " .

10,348

Cia. Transatlantic*

1913

481.9 x 61.3 x 32.7 W. Denny Bros.,

6,229

22,186

3

Reciprocating & i l.p. turbine Denny & Co., Dumbarton.

20O



Dumbarton.



" Stavenger- fjord" .

12,977

ISX

Den Norske Amerika Linje

1918

532.5 x 64.2 x 29.3 Cammell Laird & Co.,

7,2OO

1.567 N.H.P.

2

Reciprocating Cammell Laird & Co.

2 2O



Birkenhead.



" Bergens-

10,709

Den Norske Amerika

1913

512.4 x 61.2 x 29.4

7,300

1,460

2

Reciprocating

2 2O

fjord " .


Linje

Cammell Laird & Co.,

N.H.P.

Cammell Laird & Co.



Birkenhead.



" Campania " . (lost in World

12,884

22

Cunard Co.

1893

601.0 x 65.2 x 37.8 Fairfield Co. Ltd.,

N'H'P'

2

Reciprocating Fairfield Co. Ltd., Glasgow.

165

War).


Glasgow.



" Great East-

18,915

13

Great Eastern S.S. Co.

1858

680.0 x 82.8 x 48.2

II.OOO

S. screw & paddles.

30

ern "


Millwall.

I.H.P

The U.S. Shipping Board has allotted many of its best vessels to various companies for service on the Pacific. The " Wenatchee " and " Creole State " are typical of the 535-ft. vessels so appropri- ated. These vessels are 535 ft. overall, 516 ft. between perpendicu- lars, with a beam of 72 ft., and moulded depth 27-8 ft., and to "A" deck 50 ft.; about 14,000 tons gross. When loaded to a draught of 30-6 ft. their total dead-weight is 10,000 tons, and total displace- ment 21,250 tons. They have accommodation for 257 first-class and 300 second-class passengers, besides 200 of ship's company. They can also carry 6,700 tons of cargo, and can maintain 17 J knots for long distances, having obtained over 19 knots in some cases on trial. They are fitted with water-tube boilers 265 lb., and 75 superheat. Westinghouse double-flow type turbines are fitted, run at 3,650 revolutions, with double reduction gearing, to drive two propellers at no revolutions. The smaller vessels of the same type are 522 ft. overall, 502 ft. between perpendiculars; breadth 62 ft. and depth to " A " deck 42 ft. They only carry 78 passengers, but they can take another 1,000 tons of cargo. They are fitted with cylindrical boilers 220 lb., and two sets of four-cylinder triple expan- sion engines giving 6,000 H.P. for 14 knots at 105 revolutions.

For service between Europe and Australia, via The Cape, the " Ceramic," of 18,481 tons and 17 knots, triple screw, of the White Star line, was the finest and largest vessel running in 1921. She was built by Harland & Wolff in 1913, and can carry 19,590 tons cargo, and bunkers, at a sea speed of 17 knots, with a maximum of l8| knots. For the India and Australia service of the P. & O., a new series of " N " class of steamers was being built. The first of these " Naldera," 15,825 tons, was built by Caird, and used by the Government during the war. " Narkunda," 16,118 tons, was the first liner to be completed by Harland & Wolff at Belfast after the war. These are vessels of 18} knots speed. For the India service direct a new series " M " class was being built. Typical of these is the " Mongolia," built by Armstrong, 550 ft. x 72 ft. x 42-3 ft. When loaded to a draught of 30 ft. they will have a displacement of 24,500 tons, and 15,550 tons gross, and carry a dead-weight of about 13,000 tons. They can carry over 400 first- and second-class passengers, and of seven cargo-holds two are insulated. Two later vessels " Maloja " and " Mopltan " are 20,700 tons gross.

The Cunard Co. has also built a number of vessels of the " Auso- nia " type for the Cape and Australia services. These vessels are 519 ft. x 65-3 ft. x 43 ft., and 13,000 tons gross at a draught of 29-6 feet. Their displacement is 20,420 tons with a dead-weight of 10,120. Geared turbines of 8,500 H.P. are fitted for a speed of 15 knots. They can carry over 500 cabin passengers and about 1,200 third- class. The " Ausonia " is remarkable, as making a record of 1,000 ships built by Messrs. Armstrong, of a total of 3,000,000 tons. Of these, 800 were merchant ships and 200 were warships.

The Australian Government was in 1921 providing itself with seven liners of 12,500 tons, 15 knots full speed, built on the Isher- wood longitudinal system. The " Largs Bay," built by Messrs. Beardmore, may be taken as typical of all five. She is 530 ft. long, breadth 68-3 ft., depth 39-8 ft., 12,500 tons gross tonnage, and can carry 12,000 tons dead-weight at a draught of 29 ft. 9 in. and dis- placement 23,120 tons. She can carry 730 third-class and about a dozen first-class passengers. Machinery, of 9,000 S.H.P. on two shafts, is provided for a speed of 15 knots; Parsons' geared turbines are fitted in two complete sets. The h.p. turbines run at 3,200 revolutions, and l.p. turbines at 2,100. They are independently connected to the shafts by double reduction gearing 35-5 to I, and 23-4 to I respectively, giving a speed of propellers of 90 revolutions per minute, and on each ship astern turbines are provided equal to 60 to 65 % of the full power ahead.

South Africa. For the direct service to the Cape the Union Castle line added the " Balmoral Castle," of 13,361 tons, of 18 knots maxi- mum speed, in 1911. Two very fine vessels had in 1921 been recently added: the " Arundel Castle," and "Windsor Castle," 650 ft. x 72 ft., and of 19,000 tons gross. They were the first four-funnelled ships on the Cape line, and were fitted with 15,000 H.P., and single reduction gear, to two shafts, for a sea speed of 17 knots. They could carry 273 first-, 224 second- and 566 third-class passengers, besides the crew of 400, and a large cargo, the total dead-weight being 14,000 tons.

Coast and Channel Steamers, etc. The finest recent vessels of these types have been built in America. Two remarkable vessels, the " Great Northern " and " Northern Pacific," built by Cramp in 1915 for service between San Francisco and Astoria, are 8,255 tons gross and 24 knots speed. They are 500 ft. x 63 ft. x 50-5 ft., moulded, to promenade deck. When loaded to 2l-ft. draught they have dead-weight of 2,185 tons and displacement of 9,700. They carry 550 first-class passengers and 316 second and third-class passengers. They are fitted with 12 water tube boilers of the Mosher type, and Parsons turbines driving three screws, and giving 22,000 S.H.P. These were, perhaps, the finest vessels that had yet been built in the United States, though not the largest.

New Channel steamers have continued to be built in England, France and Belgium. The fastest steamer on the English Channel service in 1921 was the " Versailles," built in France and completed in 192 1 , 305 ft. long and 36 ft. in breadth ; she had obtained 25 knots on speed.

An important type of cross-channel steamer is the train ferry. During the war such vessels were used by England for the first time. These vessels are 363-5 ft. long, 61-5 ft. broad, draught 9 ft. forward and 10 ft. aft. They displace 3,654 tons, and have 12 knots speed. Two were built by Messrs. Armstrong and one by Messrs. Fair-

TABLE XVII. Particulars of Pacific, etc., Liners.

Name

Tons gross

Speed knots

Owners

Date of

build

Dimensions Builders L. B. D.

Dead- weight Tons

Horse- power

^*- us

'

6 Z&

Type of machinery and makers

Steam pres- sure, lb.

" Wenatchee "

14,127

15

United States

1921

516-5 x 72-2x27-8


2

Steam turbines,


Shipping

New York S. B.


Westinghouse Electric &


Board.

Corp., N. J.


Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.

" Aeolus " (ex

12,642

Hi

United States

1899

560-6x62-3x35-9

. .

1,016

2

Reciprocating,

. .

" Grosser


Shipping

F. Schichau,

N.H.P.

F. Schichau, Elbing.

Kurfiirst ")


Board.

Danzig.



" Arundel

19,600

18

Union Castle

1921

630-0x72-5x41-5

. .

. .

2

Steam turbines.

. .

Castle" . .


S.S. Co.

Harland &


Harland & Wolff.



Wolff. Belfast.



" Balmoral Castle" . .

I3-36I

17*

Union Castle S.S. Co.

1910

570-0x64-5x38-9 Fairfield, Glas-

N^P 4

2

Reciprocating, Fairfield & Co.

220



gow.



" Ceramic".

18,481

17

White Star Line

1913

655-1x69-4x43-8

19,590

3

Reciprocating and I L.P.

. .


(Australian

Harland &


turbine,


Service).

Wolff, Belfast.


Harland & Wolff.

" Empress of Canada ".

22,000

22

Canadian Pacific Ocean Serv-

1920

627-0 x 77-7x42-0 Fairfield, Glas-


2

Steam turbines, Fairfield, Glasgow.


ices, Ltd.

gow.



" Empress of Asia "

16,909

21

Canadian Pacific Ocean Serv-

J9I3

570-1 x 68-2 X42-O Fairfield, Glas-

9,135

  • $?.

4

Steam turbines, Fairfield, Glasgow.

190


ices, Ltd.

gow.



" Niagara "

13,415

18

Union S. Ship- ping Co. of

1913

524-7x66-3x34-5 J. Brown, Clyde-


12,000

3

Reciprocating, J. Brown, Clydebank,

22O


New Zea-

bank, Glas-


Glasgow.


land, Ltd.

gow.



" Narkunda " .

16,118

i8J

P. & O. Line.

1920

581-4x69-4x27-7

1,428

2

Reciprocating,



Harland &

N.H.P.

Harland & Wolff.



Wolff, Belfast.



" Ausonia ".

13,050

15

Cunard S.S. Co.

1921

519-0x65-0x43-0

10,120

8,500

2

Parsons geared turbines,

22O



Armstrong,


Armstrong, Whitworth.



Whitworth &




Co., Newcastle



" Mongolia " .

15,550

I?

P. & O. Line.

1921

550-0x71-7x42-2 Armstrong,

13,000

13,000

2

Steam turbines, Armstrong, Whitworth.



Whitworth &




Co., Newcastle



XXXII. 15 field. On the deck, well protected by deckhouses, are four lines of rails, which will take 54 lO-ton wagons. Heavy guns and heavy machinery of all description were transported by these vessels.

Some of the most remarkable vessels in the world are the Sound and Lake steamers of the United States. Recent vessels on the Lakes are the largest paddle steamers ever built, such as the " City of Cleveland III." (1907), 4,568 tons and 19 knots speed; " City of Detroit III." (1912), 6,061 tons and 20 knots speed; and " Seand- bee " (1912), 6,381 tons, 19! knots. This last remarkable vessel is 484-5 ft. x 58-1 ft. x 24-0 ft. To drive her paddle wheels she is fitted with compound, three cylinder engines; cylinders being, one 66 in. in diameter, and two 96 in. in diameter, with a stroke of 9 feet.

Developments in Shipbuilding. The greatest innovations during 1910-20 were in connexion with rapid shipbuilding during the war. The production of " standard ships " in Great Britain has been already referred to. Six types were " standardized " (see Carter I.N.A., 1918, and, for detailed summary with dimensions, Ship- builder, May 1918).

Others were approved at a later date, and permission to build large numbers of such ships was given to various shipbuilders. In these ships special methods were adopted to reduce risk of sub- marine attack, such as improved sub-division, making both ends alike, with bridge, poop and forecastle ends rounded, funnels and masts symmetrical in profile elevation with regard to a vertical line amidships, but not on the fore and aft centre line so as to increase difficulty of detecting speed and course of vessel. Very greatly improved accommodation for ship's company was also provided.

The best method of expediting the building of merchant ships occupied many minds, and proposals were made by Sir Eustace d'Eyncourt in 1917 to simplify the construction of war-time vessels by making all frame-lines straight, and the plating so far as practi- cable of developable surfaces. A successful design was proposed on this basis, and adopted by the Controller of Merchant Shipbuilding for use in the fabricated ships about to be built at the National Ship- yards on the Severn. The first fabricated " straight line ship," the S.S. " War Climax," was completed at Wallsend by Swan, Hunter& Co., on Sept. 28 1918, 31 weeks from laying keel.

In Great Britain large numbers of vessels of standard designs were built by various shipbuilders according to their usual routine. The " fabricated " ship followed later. In the United States, however, the standard ships were mostly fabricated ships also. The first series were produced by the Submarine Boat Corporation in new premises at Newark Bay. The most wonderful of all the American shipyards was, however, at Hog's I., Philadelphia, which in less than 12 months passed from open 50 ft. ground to the greatest shipyard in the world, with full equipment and deep water jetties. The con- tract was signed on Sept. 13 1917, and work started Sept. 20. The first keel (S.S. " Quistconck ") was laid Feb. 12 1918, launched Aug. 5 1918, and by Jan. 8 1919, 16 vessels had been launched and 7 completed, 50 slips had been built and 7 jetties, 1,000 ft. long and too ft. wide for fitting out afloat. By April 17 1920, 102 ships of 800,000 tons d.w. had been launched and 84 of 657,000 tons com- pleted. The fabricated parts were prepared in 90 engineering works from 10 to 1,500 m. away.

Ferro-Concrcte Ships. For many years small vessels had been built of reinforced concrete in localities where steel and the special labour required for steel shipbuilding was not available. Such ves- sels had been built in Italy, Norway and France. Between 1887 and 1917 some 200 craft had been built, but in the latter year the subject was more seriously considered, and craft of increasing size were built, and greater numbers of them fitted with propelling machinery. In England 1,000 ton barges, tugs of 750 h.p,, and cargo steamers of 1,150 tons d.w. were built. The first steamship, " Armistice," was built at Barrow, and was reported to run well and cost very much less than a steel ship for upkeep. In Great Britain most of the concrete vessels were tow barges, but in a number of cases steam or oil engines were fitted. Cargo boats 1,150 tons d.w. 205 ft. x 32 ft. with engines of 350 I. H.P. for 7^ knots, and tugs 125 ft. x 27 ft. 6 in. with engines of 750 I. H.P. were built. In the United States very much larger vessels were built as experience was gained. The S.S. "Faith" was 320 ft. x 44-5 ft. x 30 ft. d.w. 3>95 tons on 22 ft. 6 in. draught, triple expansion engine of 1, 600 I.H.P. were fitted giving loj knots speed. Others were built of 3,000, 3,500 and 7,500 tons d.w. as well as eight oil tankers of 7,500 d.w. The Emergency Fleet Corporation ordered 56 ships of an aggregate d.w. of 300,000 tons, besides 34 barges and lighters.

Welded Ships. The Oxy-Acetylene process, for cutting out dam- aged portions of ships and machinery, and for welding in portions in the course of repair, has been of great service, particularly for the repairs of large forgings, castings and boilers. To a less extent the "Thermit " process has been used for welding purposes, but its application has been of a comparatively limited character. During recent years very considerable progress has been made in develop- ing systems of electric welding, which were used to carry out repair work of considerable magnitude during the war. It has also been proposed that the complete ship should be welded, thus avoiding a great portion of the labour and expense of riveting. Several sys- tems have been developed which can be operated in the ordinary shipyard^ and considerable progress has been made in Sweden, England, the United States and France. In 1915 a small vessel

was built by Geary at Ashtabula Harbour, Ohio. This vessel was 42 ft. long, II ft. beam and 6 ft. 6 in. draught, and the welding was carried out with bare metallic electrodes. Two vessels of 52 to 62 ft. in length have also been built, one in France in 1919 and one in 1920 in Sweden " Esab IV." In each case the welding was carried out by the Kjellberg process, and each of these craft is propelled by semi- Diesel crude oil engines, which can also be used to provide electric power for welding, and compressed air for use in carrying out the repairs of ships by this process as they float in harbour. In this process the arc is also used, but a fireproof sleeve of non-conducting material projects over the arc so as to shield the molten metal from oxidization. A boiler 15 ft. 6 in. in diameter, known as the Haw- thprn-Wyber boiler, has been successfully constructed by means of this process. The process of the General Electric Co. is quite differ- ent; in this case metallic contact takes place, the welding material is raised to the necessary temperature by resistance to the passage of the current, and it is at the same time pressed into place by hydraulic pressure. A 46-ft. section of a 9,600 ton vessel being built in New Jer- sey has been used to test the practicability of this, and other methods, and it is reported that these experiments show a saving of 60 % on labour and 15% on material, as compared with riveted work.

During the war a steel barge, 120 ft. by 16 ft. and 275 tons dis 1 - placement, was built at Richborough, Kent, in order to test to what extent labour could be saved. Here the Quasi-Arc process was used and the vessel was satisfactorily completed. On this system the steel electrode has a sheath of blue asbestos, which melts and flows down over the molten metal, thereby extinguishing the arc. This asbestos also forms a floating covering over the molten metal and protects it from oxidization. In order to give further protection, an aluminium wire is carried down by the side of the steel electrode, so that the molten aluminium may take up any oxygen which gets beneath the flux. Messrs. Laird built a small sea-going vessel, the S.S. " Fullagar," in 1920, using the Quasi-Arc process. If welding can be adopted as the general practice, a very large saving should arise in the cost of labour, and an appreciable saving in the case of weight and material.

FlG. 50.

Isherwood System. For many years warships have been built on the longitudinal system of framing, i.e. the principal structural members of the framing run fore and aft in continuous girders, the transverse framing being of a secondary character (apart from bulk- heads), and fitted between the longitudinal girders as necessary for local support. This system of framing has not found general accept- ance for merchant ships, because of the theory long held by ship- owners that a merchant ship must have such strong transverse frames that she may ground in an ordinary berth with a cargo on board and without damage. With the improved wharf accommoda- tion now available for important vessels this idea is being gradually relinquished. The most important movement in this connexion was inaugurated by Mr. (later Sir) Joseph Isherwood, who devised a plan for utilizing the whole of the framing of the bottom of the ship and of the decks so that it might be incorporated as part of the structural girder strength of the ship. In 1908, six ships were built of 31,000 tons; for the next six years, 40 or 50 ships were built per annum; but in 1915, under war conditions, the number very greatly increased, and in 1918, 250 ships of nearly 2,500,000 tons dead- weight capacity were built. Clearer holds, greater strength and a saving of about 10% of weight of structure are obtained, as well as decreased cost of building. By June 1921 1,400 ships, aggregating 12,000,000 dead-weight, had been built on this system.

The combination of a longitudinal system in the double bottom, and a transverse system above the bottom, has been adopted by Mr. W. Millar of Greenock, and several vessels have been built on the Millar system. Other systems in which a longitudinal construeconstruction is adopted are associated with various names—Mr. Foster King, Dr. Montgomery, and Sir Westcott Abell.

The “Unsinkable” Ship.—A so-called “unsinkable” ship has been designed by M. La Parmentier. It consists of two cylinders, 22 ft. in diameter and about 300 ft. in length, each divided into 7 holds, connected so as to form a vessel 320 ft. in length and about 48 ft. extreme breadth, estimated to carry 4,250 tons d.w. on a draught of 16 ft. fitted with twin screws, and engines of 700 H.P. for eight knots. In 1921 several such vessels were being built in the United States.

Cruiser Sterns.—Several of the new liners have a rounded stern, with the profile sloping forward in a curved line as it rises from the water upwards. This is called a “cruiser stern,” and is being very generally adopted. It gives somewhat increased capacity, and with the same total length of ship provides a longer water-line, thus facilitating propulsion. In the case of a 550-ft. ship, for 18 knots this meant a decrease of 2,000 H.P., which resulted in a saving of 225 tons of machinery, as well as 220 tons of fuel per trip, giving a saving of over 400 tons available for extra cargo. In 1921 over 160 vessels were built with sterns formed in this way.

On this system the flat plate rudder is replaced by two curved plate rudders (“Kitchen rudders”), forming an almost cylindrical casing round the propeller. By revolving these curved rudders as desired the stream of water is directed as necessary by reaction to steer the ship. For going astern the rudders are brought together abaft the propeller.

Safety at Sea.—During the war many other points were developed for increase of safety in navigation, such as use of range-finders, directional wireless, gyro-compasses, reflex sound apparatus, “clear view” weather screens, submarine sound signalling, and “Leader” cables laid along the bed of the channel.

Following the loss of the “Titanic” on April 16 1912, rigorous enquiries were conducted, in New York under Senator W. A. Smith of Michigan, and in London under Lord Mersey. In both cases recommendations were made that liners should have boats for all, regular boat drill, more efficient W.T. arrangements, and improved sub-division in construction. The British Board of Trade appointed two committees. Sir Archibald Denny presided over the first committee (Bulkheads and Sub-Division) and Sir John Biles over the second committee (Boats and Davits). As a result the Board of Trade laid draft rules before Parliament (Paper Cd. 6402 1912) and took immediate action to improve the supply of boats, while ship-owners proceeded to improve the sub-division of their ships. An International Convention was called with a view to similar treatment of these questions by all maritime powers. This Convention was signed on Jan. 20 1914 and rules embodying the agreement as to life-saving appliances were immediately put into force in Great Britain (Parliamentary Paper 219 Merchant Shipping Life-Saving Appliances dated May 8 1914). The whole Convention was discussed in Parliament, and an Act was passed (Aug. 10 1914) authorizing its adoption, but the Board of Trade was left with the power to decide the date on which the Act was to be put into operation. On account of the war, action was postponed, but discussions were proceeding in 1921 between the principal maritime powers with a view to the holding of another Convention.

During the war a great demand arose for improved life-saving appliances. The most successful of all these was the Carley Life Raft, made in the United States. It is made in various sizes. A large copper pipe is bent into the form of an O, brazed up to be airtight, surrounded by cork and canvas, provided with a strong rope netting to form a floor within the O, and fitted with hand ropes, etc. This type was the means of saving very many lives; for instance, a float 9 ft. by 14 ft. will support more than 60 people.

Research and Experiment.—Increasing attention is being given to the study of naval architecture and marine engineering, and of research, in America as well as in Europe. Chiefly owing to the advocacy of Sir W. H. White, and the generosity of Sir A. F. Yarrow, a national experimental tank has, in England, been provided at the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington. The experiment tank is intended for the service of any shipbuilding or ship-owning firm. Primarily intended for the experimental investigation of any problems connected with ship resistance and propulsion, it has successfully dealt with such different problems as the manœuvring of ships, torques on rudder heads, skin friction, resistance due to rough seas, rolling and pitching of ships, stability of ships and hydroplanes in motion on the water, and the form of flying-boat hulls for efficient and stable action in getting on and off the water. During the war it dealt with many problems, including the detection of submarines, mine-sweeping, torpedo firing, design of anchored mines, protection against torpedoes, and the design of standard ships.

(E. T. d'E.)