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VERMONT (see 27.1025).—The pop. of the state was 352,428 in 1920 as compared with 355,956 in 1910, a loss of 3,528 or 1%. This was the first time that the pop. had been less than in the preceding decade, though several times the gain had been very slight. The movement within the state was distinctly toward the urban districts. Of the total pop. of 1900 22% lived in cities and villages of 2,500 and over, in 1920 27.8%, and in 1920 31.2%. Of the 14 counties only six show an increase in population. The number of towns showing a decrease was 186 in a total of 248. There is no radical change in the character of the population, the proportions of native and foreign remaining about the same, with a tendency toward increase of Canadian immigrants. The following are the cities having a pop. of 5,000 or over and the percentage of increase for the decade:—

1920 1910  Percentage 

 Burlington   22,779   20,468  11.3 
 Rutland 14,954  13,546  10.4 
 Barre 10,008  10,734  -6.8 
 St. Albans 7,588  6,381  18.9 
 Montpelier  7,125  7,856   -9.3 

Agriculture.—The number of farms in Vermont in 1920 was 29,075 as against 32,709 in 1910, a decrease of 3,634 or 11.1%, but the acreage of improved land increased from 1,633,965 in 1910 to 1,691,595, a gain of 3.5%. The value of all farm property was $222,736,620, an increase over the 1910 figures ($145,399,728) of 53.2%. Of this value $82,938,253 was in land and $76,178,906 in buildings. The average value per farm was $7,661, with $2,853 in land and $2,620 in buildings, respective increases of 72.4%, 59.8% and 58.1% over the 1910 figures, which were $4,445 for all property, $1,785 for land and $1,657 for buildings.

In 1919 the leading crops with their yields and values were as follows:—

Crops  Acreage  Quantity Value

 Cereals, total 133,621   3,916,959 bus.    $5,171,758 
 Corn 21,186  937,375   “     1,687,275 
 Oats 83,097  2,396,349   “     2,396,349 
 Hay and forage 991,757  1,748,358 tons   29,581,464 
 Vegetables . . . . 7,387,254 
 Miscellaneous crops  . . . . 3,622,443 
 Fruits . . . . 1,957,515 

The total number of cattle in 1920 was 435,480, including 14,200 beef cattle and 421,280 dairy cattle. Dairy cows numbered 290,122. The value was $28,502,803 for all cattle, and $23,027,209 for dairy cows. The production of milk for 1919 was 122,095,734 gallons. The total value of all dairy products, excluding home use of milk and cream, was $27,207,813. For 1917 the reports show a value of dairy products handled in factories of $13,372,838. Vigorous efforts were being made to develop coöperative marketing, especially of dairy products. A decision of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1916 abolished the leased-car system of shipping milk, and made possible the open-car system. This made it practicable to ship in smaller quantities. A state law was passed providing that any corporation using the word “coöperative” in its business name must provide (1) that voting shall be based on the number of shareholders and not of shares held; (2) that interest or dividends on paid-up capital shall be limited to 6%; (3) that a reserve fund shall be set aside, not less than 10% of the net profits annually, until the fund amounts to not less than 30% of the paid-up capital stock; (4) that the remainder of the earnings shall be distributed by uniform dividend on the basis of purchase and sale through the corporation by shareholders or the amount of raw material furnished; and (5) that not more than 10% of the capital stock shall be owned by any one member. Under this law there were, in 1920, 29 coöperative dairy plants incorporated, of which 27 had already begun business. The Commissioner of Agriculture estimated in that year that one-third of the entire dairy products of the state was being marketed through these plants. In addition to this movement there was being organized, in 1920, the Vermont Coöperative Creameries, Inc., a federation of coöperative enterprises for the purpose of securing

collectively certain services beyond the reach of the separate plants, such as the buying of supplies, the selling of products, and standardized accounting.

Manufacture.—The reports for the five-year period 1914-9 show a substantial increase in the manufacturing activities of the state, due in large measure to demands of the World War. The number of establishments increased from 1,772 to 1,790, or 1%; persons engaged from 37,217 to 38,845, or 4.4%; salaried employees from 2,726 to 3,550, or 30.2%; wage earners from 32,704 to 33,491, or 2.4%; capital increased from $79,847,000 to $134,314,391, or 68.2%; value of products from $76,990,974 to $168,108,072, or 118.3%; value added by manufacture from $34,285,254 to $72,935,491, or 112.7%. In 1919 Vermont had 15 manufacturing industries the value of whose products were over $1,000,000 each, namely: marble and stone; woollen and worsted goods; paper and wood pulp; lumber and timber products; machine tools; butter; condensed milk; flour-mill and grist-mill products; other food preparations; knit goods; foundry and machine cars; general ship construction and repairs by steam railway; furniture planing-mill products; bakery products.

History.—In 1915 a workmen's compensation law was enacted, denying common-law defences to those employers who did not elect to operate under the provisions of the law. The statute covers all public and industrial employment except domestic service and cases where 10 or less are employed. Beginning in 1912 a series of Acts was passed leading to the organization of a state Board of Charities and Probation and more systematic provisions for the care of dependent, neglected and delinquent children. This movement has been extended to include widows' pensions in certain cases. In 1917 an important step was taken in the direction of coördinating the work of some of the many state departments, commissions, and boards. A state Board of Control was established by law, composed of the governor of the state, the state treasurer, the auditor of accounts, the director of state institutions, and a fifth person to be appointed biennially by the governor and Senate. This Board of Control meets regularly once a month. All state boards, institutions, commissions, officers and departments, other than judicial officers, must make monthly reports to the Board of Control. The Board has general supervisory powers over the various state activities, and may investigate any phase of their work. The Board makes its report biennially to the state Legislature.

Following an extensive educational survey, the public-school system of the state was radically reorganized in 1915, making the seventh form of administration that has been tried since 1845. Under the system adopted the office of state superintendent was abolished. In its place was established a State Board of Education consisting of five members appointed by the governor, one each year for a five-year term. This Board has general powers of supervision and management of the public educational system, and employs as state commissioner of education a trained and experienced educator, whose term of office is indefinite, being removable by a majority vote of the Board. The Board also appoints a number of superintendents with powers of supervision, and the state commissioner has power to appoint a suitable number of state supervisors when approved by the Board. The supervisors coöperate with the superintendents and supplement their work.

In 1919 the Legislature authorized the state Board of Health to divide the state into 10 sanitary districts, and to appoint for each a district health officer in place of the town health officers. This Act entirely reorganized the public health work of the state. The district officers are full-time officers and serve under the pay of the state. The public health work is much more effectively carried on than before, being after 1919 under five separate divisions, each under the direction of an expert supervisor.

Up to the signing of the Armistice Vermont had supplied for the World War over 15,000 men. Some of this number had gone across the line and enlisted with the Canadian forces before the spring of 1917. Of those in service more than one-half were sent over-seas. The deaths were: killed in action, 119; died of wounds, 47; total deaths, 612. The total wounded were 778. Total casualties recorded were 1,390.

The state has remained consistently Republican in politics since 1856, not excepting 1912, the year of the Progressive party campaign. The recent governors of the state, all Republican, have been: John A. Mead, 1910-2; Allen M. Fletcher, 1912-5; Charles W. Gates, 1915-7; Horace F. Graham, 1917-9; Percival W. Clement, 1919-21; James A. Hartness, 1921-.

(G. G. G.)