1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Villa, Francisco

See also Pancho Villa on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

VILLA, FRANCISCO (1872-), Mexican bandit and revolutionary, was born Dec. 4 1872 at Las Nieves, Zacatecas. He was outlawed for murder, and a price was put on his head by President Díaz. He joined Madero in 1910 for the sake of immunity, served under Huerta, and in 1914 joined Carranza, but quarrelled with him over military jealousies and presidential aspirations. He opposed Carranza in the Convention at Aguascalientes, led a campaign against him and occupied Mexico City in April and again in Nov. 1915, but was defeated by Obregon and driven to the border, where surrender under guarantee was denied him. On Jan. 12 1916 he led the Santa Ysabel massacre, in which a special train carrying a party of American mining men was held up and 19 of the number shot, and also the raid on Columbus, Tex., in March 1916, when the city was fired and 17 of the inhabitants killed. A punitive expedition under Gen. Pershing crossed the border March 16, and operated in the border states for n months, but did not succeed in capturing Villa. After Obregon's seizure of the presidential power in 1920 Villa was eliminated from political and military activity, and settled in the hacienda La Canutilla, Durango. (H. I. P.)