ARL White Paper on Wikidata Opportunities and Recommendations/Endnotes


1. “About ARL,” Association of Research Libraries, accessed April 3, 2019,; “Association of Research Libraries (Q4810036),” Wikidata, last edited March 10, 2019,

2. Heather Joseph, “Securing Community-Controlled Infrastructure: SPARC’s Plan of Action,” College & Research Libraries News 79, no. 8 (2018),

3. Metadata 2020, accessed April 10, 2019,

4. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2018),

5. Stephan Bartholmei, Rachel Franks, James Heilman, Mylee Joseph, Vicki McDonald, Anna Raunik, Mia Ridge, and Mark Robertson, Opportunities for Academic and Research Libraries and Wikipedia, IFLA and The Wikipedia Library, endorsed by IFLA Governing Board in December 2016,

6. Wikidata website, accessed April 15, 2019,

7. Stacy Allison-Cassin, “Research Libraries and Wikimedia: A Shared Commitment to Diversity, Open Knowledge, and Community Participation,” Wikimedia Blog, October 4, 2017,

8. “Strategy: Wikimedia Movement: 2017,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, accessed April 3, 2019,

9. Wikibase website, accessed April 15, 2019,

10. “Wikidata: WikiProject Open Access,” Wikidata, last edited August 18, 2017,

11. “Wikidata: Wikiproject Cultural Heritage,” Wikidata, last edited April 3, 2019,; Beat Estermann, “How Wikidata Is Solving Its Chicken-or-Egg-Problem in the Field of Cultural Heritage,” SocietyByte, November 2018,

12. Beat Estermann and members of the eCH Specialized Group on Open Government Data, Linked Open Data, eCH, March 13, 2018,

13. “Archives at,” Wikidata, last edited March 15, 2019,

14. Mairelys Lemus-Rojas and Lydia Pintscher, “Wikidata and Libraries: Facilitating Open Knowledge,” in Leveraging Wikipedia: Connecting Communities of Knowledge, ed. Merrilee Proffitt (Chicago: ALA Editions, 2018), 143–158, preprint,; to provide just one example of how this type of contribution can be utilized, the following URL is a query to Wikidata that returns a list of people who were born on the current day (in any year) and who have an archival collection at Yale University:

15. “Wikidata: Tools,” Wikidata, last edited January 18, 2019,

16. “Wikimedia and Libraries User Group,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, last edited March 8, 2019,

17. See “Wikidata: Licensing,” Wikidata, last edited February 28, 2018,, and “Wikidata: Open Data Publishing,” Wikidata, last edited August 24, 2018,

18. SNAC (Social Networks and Archival Context) website, accessed April 15, 2019,

19. VIAF (Virtual International Authority File), accessed April 15, 2019,

20. “Surfacing Knowledge, Building Relationships: Indigenous Communities, ARL and Canadian Libraries,” York University, accessed April 10, 2019,

21. Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future (Winnipeg: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015),

22. Bartholmei et al., Opportunities for Academic and Research Libraries and Wikipedia.

23. Edit-a-thons are in-person events to which an organizer invites members of the community to fill gaps in Wikimedia projects by writing Wikipedia articles, describing content on Wikidata, transcribing WikiSource, or other editing activities. For guidance on running these events, see “Running Editathons and Other Editing Events,” Wikipedia Programs & Events Dashboard, accessed April 10, 2019,

24. “Wikipedian in Residence,” Wikimedia Outreach, last edited April 8, 2019,

25. See for example “Jazz Wikipedia Edit-a-Thon,” Kansas City Public Library (held at American Jazz Museum, Kansas City, MO, March 5, 2018), accessed April 10, 2019,; or the very successful campaign for Art+Feminism, accessed April 10, 2019,

26. “Health Information on Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, last edited March 13, 2019,

27. Michael A. Keller, Jerry Persons, Hugh Glaser, and Mimi Calter, Report of the Stanford Linked Data Workshop, 27 June–1 July 2011 (Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, October 2011),

28. Stacy Allison-Cassin and Dan Scott, “Wikidata: A Platform for Your Library’s Linked Open Data,” Code4Lib Journal 40 (2018),

29. Karen Smith-Yoshimura, “Analysis of 2018 International Linked Data Survey for Implementers,” Code4Lib Journal 42 (2018),

30. Heather Joseph, “Securing Community-Controlled Infrastructure: SPARC’s Plan of Action.”

31. Metadata 2020,

32. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Open Science by Design.

33. For context on this practice, see “FAIR Data,” Wikipedia, last edited December 19, 2018,

34. Karen Smith-Yoshimura, “Analysis of International Linked Data Survey for Implementers,” D-Lib Magazine 22, no. 7/8 (July/August 2016),

35. Karen Smith-Yoshimura, “The Rise of Wikidata as a Linked Data Source,” Hanging Together: The OCLC Research Blog, August 6, 2018,

36. Alissa Hafele and Michelle Futornick, “Background and Rationale,” Linked Data for Production (LD4P) website, last modified February 6, 2017,

37. The Wikimedia Foundation has since 2003 supported Wikipedia and its global volunteer community through fundraising and infrastructure support, including legal and technical support. Because of the commitment to open licensing and open software, the projects and their content can be exported or replicated by non–Wikimedia Foundation organizations for any reason at any time. Moreover, the Wikimedia Foundation as of 2018 is developing an endowment to indefinitely keep the projects online regardless of current fundraising ability (see the Wikimedia Endowment website, accessed April 10, 2019,

38. Several blog posts and articles outline the current and potential use of Wikidata in libraries. These include: Alex Stinson, “Wikidata in Collections: Building a Universal Language for Connecting GLAM Catalogs,” Down the Rabbit Hole: Facts, Stories, and People from across the Wikimedia Movement, December 13, 2017,; “Why Data Partners Should Link Their Vocabulary to Wikidata: A New Case Study,” Europeana Pro, August 7, 2017,; and Daniel Mietchen, Gregor Hagedorn, Egon Willighagen, Mariano Rico, Asunción Gómez-Pérez, Eduard Aibar, Karima Rafes, Cécile Germain, Alastair Dunning, Lydia Pintscher, and Daniel Kinzler, “Enabling Open Science: Wikidata for Research (Wiki4R),” Research Ideas and Outcomes 1: e7573 (December 22, 2015), 39. “List of Wikipedias,” Wikipedia, last edited March 29, 2019,

40. Wikimedia Commons, last edited March 18, 2019,

41. Wikisource, last edited January 4, 2019,

42. In Mediawiki, the core software underneath Wikidata, namespaces distinguish different types of data in a project, and create distinct storage spaces for that content.

43. For more information about items and how to create them, see “Help: Items,” Wikidata, last edited April 27, 2018,

44. The authors recognize this description is a simplification of the potential issues related to the use of statements that can be changed and edited over time. This issue is discussed in more detail in Allison-Cassin and Scott, “Wikidata: A Platform for Your Library’s Linked Open Data,” and requires further discussion and investigation of the impacts and solutions in research libraries.

45. A complete list and tools to browse them can be accessed at “Wikidata: List of Properties,” Wikidata, last edited February 3, 2019,; the current count of properties can be obtained from “Wikidata Propbrowse,” Hay’s Tools, accessed April 10, 2019,

46. “Library of Congress Authority ID (P244),” Wikidata, last edited April 5, 2019,

47. “QuickStatements,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 15, 2019,

48. OpenRefine website, accessed April 15, 2019,

49. “Linked Data Wikibase Prototype,” OCLC Research, accessed April 10, 2019,

50. For example, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation–funded digital humanities project at Michigan State University, “Enslaved: Peoples of the Historic Slave Trade,” accessed April 10, 2019,

51. Wikimedia Deutschland, “Wikibase-docker,” GitHub,

52. DBpedia website, accessed April 15, 2019,

53. Alessandro Piscopo, “Wikidata: A New Paradigm of Human-bot Collaboration?,” preprint, submitted October 1, 2018,

54. Note the “Programme,” SWIB18: Semantic Web in Libraries (held in Bonn, Germany, November 26–28, 2018), accessed April 10, 2019,

55. “Help: Sources,” Wikidata, last edited January 16, 2019,

56. For example, “Collective Biographies of Women ID (P4539),” Wikidata, last edited November 5, 2018,

57. Joachim Neubert and Klaus Tochtermann, “Linked Library Data: Offering a Backbone for the Semantic Web,” in Knowledge Technology, ed. Dickson Lukose, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, and Azizah Suliman (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012), 37–45,

58. Joachim Neubert, “Linking Knowledge Organization Systems via Wikidata,” in 2018 Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications (Silver Spring, MD: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, 2018), 3, 59. Allison-Cassin and Scott, “Wikidata: A Platform for Your Library’s Linked Open Data.”

60. University of Wisconsin–Madison Libraries, “Bibcard,” GitHub, accessed April 10, 2019,

61. Dan Scott, “Enriching Catalogue Pages in Evergreen with Wikidata,” Coffee|Code: Dan Scott’s Blog, August 12, 2017,

62. See Gloria Gonzalez (@InformaticMonad), “Here’s a quick thread of updates on my talk at #wikicite!…,” Twitter, November 29, 2018,

63. “SNAC Ark ID (P3430),” Wikidata, last edited March 26, 2019,

64. “Get Your Vocabularies in Wikidata…so Europeana and Others Can Get Them,” Europeana Pro, September 1, 2017,

65. Rebecca Snyder and DucPhong “Ducky” Nguyen, “Smithsonian Open Data Pilot,” Smithsonian Collaboration Wiki, June 25, 2018,

66. “Wikidata for Digital Preservation: Home,” Yale University Library, last updated October 6, 2017,

67. “Wikidata: Planning a Wikidata Workshop,” Wikidata, last edited March 13, 2019,; “Works in Progress Webinar: Introduction to Wikidata for Librarians,” OCLC Research (June 12, 2018), accessed April 11, 2019, 68. “The Distributed Game,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 11, 2019,

69. “Mix’n’match,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 11, 2019,

70. At time of writing fewer than 17,000 such statements exist: “Property Talk: P485,” Wikidata, last edited February 12, 2019,

71. To search for entities without descriptions: “Entities without Description,” Wikidata, accessed April 11, 2019,

72. Useful identifiers include, but are not limited to, author/academic schemes like ORCID, VIAF, ISNI, Scopus; social media profiles; entries in public databases for extracurricular activities such as sports or IMDb. See lists at “Wikidata: Property Navboxes,” Wikidata, last edited March 15, 2019,

73. “Wikidata: Data Import Guide,” Wikidata, last edited February 15, 2019,

74. Justin Shanks and Kenning Arlitsch, “Making Sense of Researcher Services,” Journal of Library Administration 56, no. 3 (2016): 295–316,

75. ORCID website, accessed April 9, 2019,; “Wikidata: ORCID,” Wikidata, last edited September 19, 2017,

76. Jim Blake and Mike Conlon, “VIVO,” DuraSpace Wiki,

77. Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC) website, accessed April 11, 2019, Note that both the Wikimedia Foundation and ARL are signatories to this effort.

78. WikiCite website, accessed April 11, 2019,

79. Bianca Kramer and Jeroen Bosman, “101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication: The Changing Research Workflow,” (poster, FORCE2015, Oxford, UK, January 12–13, 2015),

80. “WikiCite,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, last edited November 16, 2018,

81. See statistics at the foot of “Scholia,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 12, 2019,

82. Wikicite-discuss Google Group, accessed April 12, 2019,!forum/wikicitediscuss.

83. “Scholia,”; “Scholia (Q45340488): Recently Published Works on the Topic,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 12, 2019,

84. For information on the project, see “IUPUI University Library Commitment to Open Knowledge,” IUPUI Center for Digital Scholarship, updated February 20, 2019,; Mairelys Lemus-Rojas and Jere D. Odell, “Creating Structured Linked Data to Generate Scholarly Profiles: A Pilot Project Using Wikidata and Scholia,” Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 6, no. 1 (2018),

85. “Source MetaData,” Wikimedia Toolforge, accessed April 12, 2019,

86. See “Wikidata: Zotero,” Wikidata, last edited July 29, 2018,

87. “Help: QuickStatements,” Wikidata, last edited April 6, 2019,

88. Edit-a-thons may be known by other names, including workshops and other kinds of event titles.

89. Wikibase website, accessed April 12, 2019,

90. Matt Miller, “Wikibase for Research Infrastructure — Part 1,” Medium, March 9, 2018,

91. See “Linked Data Wikibase Prototype,” OCLC Research; Using Wikibase as a Platform for Library Linked Data Management and Discovery (Dublin, OH: OCLC, October 16, 2018), webinar video, 89 minutes,

92. Sandra Fauconnier, “Many Faces of Wikibase: Rhizome’s Archive of Born-Digital Art and Digital Preservation,” Wikimedia Foundation, September 6, 2018,

93. “Strategy: Wikimedia Movement: 2017,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, accessed April 12, 2019,

94. American Women’s History Initiative website, accessed April 12, 2019,

95. Science Stories website, accessed April 12, 2019,

96. “User:YULdigitalpreservation/ScienceStories,” Wikidata, last edited March 8, 2019,

97. “Wikidata: Article Placeholder,” Wikidata, last edited November 13, 2017,

98. “Tag Archives: Article Placeholders,” National Library of Wales, accessed April 12, 2019,

99. “Learning Patterns/Using Wikidata on Wikipedia Infoboxes,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, last edited September 28, 2017,

100. “User: ListeriaBot,” Wikipedia, last edited March 29, 2019,

101. Allison-Cassin, “Research Libraries and Wikimedia.”

102. The Black Lunch Table website, accessed April 12, 2019,

103. “Wikipedia: Meetup/Black Lunch Table/Juneteenth Photo Challenge 2018,” Wikipedia, last edited June 22, 2018,

104. See discussion in the papers released by IFLA, “Presenting the IFLA Wikipedia Opportunities Papers,” news release, January 17, 2017,

105. “Wikidata: WikiProject Sum of All Paintings,” Wikidata, last edited February 13, 2019,

106. See the list of institutions imported en masse by the project at “Wikidata: WikiProject Sum of All Paintings/Collection,” Wikidata, last edited April 2, 2018,

107. Crotos website, last updated April 5, 2019,

108. Wiki Loves Monuments website, accessed April 12, 2019,

109. “Largest Photography Competition,” Guinness World Records, accessed April 12, 2019,

110. “Connected Open Heritage,” Wikimedia Meta-Wiki, last edited December 13, 2016,

111. “Wikipedian in Residence,” Wikimedia Outreach, last edited April 8, 2019,