A Dictionary of Artists of the English School/A

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ABBOT, J. W., amateur. Practised about 1760. He drew landscapes in the manner of Peter de Laer. He also painted insects, and there is a small etching by him of some merit. He was honorary exhibitor of landscapes with cattle and figures at the Academy from 1793 to 1810. A landscape and cattle in oil, exhibited 1794, received great contemporary praise.

ABBOT, Henry, landscape painter. Practised in London. Drew in 1818 views of the chief Roman ruins, with the panoramic environs of Rome, which he published.

ABBOTT, Edward, landscape painter. Lived many years in Long Acre, where he was eminent as a herald and coach painter. He also painted landscapes in a pleasing manner, and travelled in France and Italy with Wynne Ryland, the engraver. In 1782 he retired to Hereford, where he practised as an artist, and died, after a long illness, November 11, 1791, in his 64th year.

ABBOTT, Francis Lemuel, portrait painter. Born 1760, in Leicestershire. Son of a clergyman in that county. At the age of 14 he became the pupil of Frank Hayman, who dying two years after, he returned to his parents, and by his own perseverance attained the power of taking a correct likeness. About 1780 he settled in London, and gained reputation and employment. He first exhibited his portraits at the Academy in 1788, again in the following year, and then not till 1798. He exhibited the last time in 1800. Lord Nelson sat to him several times; and his practice greatly increasing, he would not, as was then the custom, employ an assistant. He was overwhelmed with engagements which he could not complete, and that anxiety, added to the domestic disquiet arising from an ill-assorted marriage, brought on insanity, which terminated his life early in 1893. His portraits have been engraved by Valentine Green, Skelton, Walker, and others. There is a half-length portrait of Nelson by him in the gallery at Greenwich Hospital, and a whole-length of Admiral Sir Peter Parker. His merits were limited to the head; his male portraits, in particular, were perfect in resemblance, and the finish well studied, but his figures were insipid, and his backgrounds weak and tasteless.

ABEL, John, architect. Practised with some distinction in the reigns of Charles I. and II. The Town Hall and Market House at Hereford (1618–20), at Brecon, and at Weobly, are from his design, as also the School-house at Kington and at Leominster, 1663. These buildings were handsome erections in wood, showing much constructive ability; but where they remain, repairs and alterations have deprived them of their original character. He held the appointment as one of Charles I.'s carpenters. He died 1694, aged 97, and was buried at Snaresfield, Herefordshire, where on his tomb he is styled 'architect.'

ABEL, Richard, medallist. He was a goldsmith, and was in the 27th Henry III. nominated 'to be maker and cutter of the money dies.'

ABERRY, —, engraver. He is only known by an etched portrait of Sir W. W. Wynne, after Hudson, 1753.

ABRAHAM, Robert, architect. Born 1774. Was the son of a builder, and educated as a surveyor. In the early part of his career he found employment in measuring builders' work and settling their accounts, and later in life was much engaged in valuations. When, following the peace of 1815, some impetus was given to Metropolitan architecture, he was engaged as an architect, and his works, if not of great architectural merit, showed a fitness of character and adaptation of material. Among the chief were the Jews' Synagogue, near the Haymarket, the County Fire Office, and the Westminster Bridewell. He died Dec. 11, 1850, aged 77.

ADAM, William, architect. Held the appointment of king's mason at Edinburgh, where he practised his profession with much repute. Hopetoun House and the Royal Infirmary in that city are examples of his ability, as also the New Library and University at Glasgow. He died June 24, 1748. The three Adams of the Adelphi were his sons.

ADAM. Robert, architect. Born 1728, at Kirkaldy, Fifeshire. Son of the above William Adam. He was educated at the Edinburgh University, and formed friendships with several men who became distinguished. In the study of his art he visited Italy about 1754. He took with him Clérisseau, a clever draftsman, and remained some time. On his return he soon rose to professional eminence, and in 1762 was appointed architect to the king, but resigned that office to become candidate for Kinrosshire, for which county he was elected representative in 1768. At this time, in conjunction with his brother James, he commenced the great work on the shores of the Thames with which his name is associated. His plans were unsuccessfully opposed by the Corporation of London, as an encroachment upon their privileges. He raised the shore by a succession of arches, and on them erected three fine streets and a terrace fronting the Thames, naming this work, in memory of himself and his two brothers, the 'Adelphi.' It was not, however, successful as a speculation, and in 1774, under the sanction of an Act of Parliament, he disposed of the whole by lottery. Among his works may be named—The façade of the Admiralty, Whitehall; Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square; Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire; Caen Wood House, near Hampstead; Osterley House, near Brentford; Kidleston, Derbyshire; Compton Verney, Warwickshire; and the General Register House, Edinburgh. He was largely employed in the alteration of many fine mansions, and showed great ability in the arrangement and decoration of interiors, displaying a pleasing variety in the form and proportion of his apartments, and a comfort and elegance not studied by his predecessors. He also designed ornamental furniture. His style was original—in taste approaching prettiness, but was highly popular in his day, and has left a character which is still known as his. He painted many good landscape compositions in water-colours. He published a work on the Ruins of Diocletian's Palace, 1764, and, with his brother James, commenced in 1773 'The Works in Architecture of R. and J. Adam.' He was F.R.S. and F.S.A. He died, from the bursting of a blood-vessel, at his house in Albemarle Street, March 3, 1792, and was buried in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey. His journal of his tour in Italy, 1760-61, was published in the Library of the Fine Arts.

ADAM, James, architect. Younger brother of the preceding, and connected with him in most of his works. He held the office of architect to the king, and was himself the architect of the spacious range of buildings named Portland Place. He published a treatise on architecture, and was engaged upon a history of architecture which he did not live to finish. He died, in Albemarle Street, of an apoplectic attack, October 20, 1794.

ADAM, John, engraver. He practised in London towards the end of the 18th Century, and engraved in the chalk manner portraits for periodical works. The portraits in Caulfield's 'History of Remarkable Characters' are engraved by him, but possess little merit. There are also by him portraits of Queen Elizabeth and Dudley, Earl of Leicester, after drawings by Zucchero.

ADAMS, Robert, architect. Born in London, 1540. Was surveyor to the Board of Works and architect to Queen Elizabeth. A large plan of Middleburgh by him is extant, dated 1588; also a pen-and-ink drawing, styled 'Tamesis descriptio,' showing how the river may be defended by artillery from Tilbury to London, with representations of several actions while the Spanish Armada was off the British coast. These latter were engraved, and Walpole assumes that they were engraved by him, and styles him an engraver. Dallaway says they were engraved by Augustine Ryther, of which there seems little doubt. He translated from the Italian into Latin Ubaldini's account of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He died in 1595, and was buried in Greenwich Church, where a tablet describes him as 'Operum regiorum supervisori, architecturæ peritissimo.'

ADAMS, Bernard, architect. Practised in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when his name often appears, but of his works no particulars are recorded.

ADAMS, Francis E., engraver. He received a premium from the Society of Arts in 1760. Produced some portraits in mezzotint about 1774, but did not attain any excellence in his art. A satirical print of a young girl, dressed quite à la mode,' whose mother does not know her (1773), is well drawn and tolerably finished.

ADAMS, Frances Matilda, flower painter. Was water-colour painter extraordinary to Queen Adelaide, and exhibited at the Royal Academy for several years from 1816. She died October 24, 1863, aged 79.

ADAMS, James, architect. Was a pupil of Sir John Soane, and gained the Royal Academy gold medal for an architectural design, 1809. In 1818 he was residing at Portsmouth, and exhibited the view of a Dispensary erected at Plymouth Dock and the additions made to Mount Edgecumbe House. In the following year he exhibited the interior of St Thomas's Church, Portsmouth, after which the catalogue affords no trace of him.

ADYE, Thomas, sculptor. He was appointed sculptor to the Dilettanti Society in 1737, and between that date and 1744 executed several little commissions for the Society, chiefly for carvings in ivory.

AGAR, D., portrait painter. Practised about the beginning of the 18th century. Faithorne engraved after him.

AGAR, John Samuel, engraver. Produced some excellent works in the stipple or chalk manner, and also drew some portraits. He exhibited portraits and an occasional subject at the Royal Academy, commencing in 1796 up to 1806, and 'The Tribute Money' at the British Institution in 1810. He was, in 1803, governor of the Society of Engravers, and was living in 1820.

AGASSE, James Laurent, animal and landscape painter. Born at Geneva, and studied there as an animal painter. In 1800 he pleased an English traveller by a portrait of his dog, and was induced by him to come to London, where he settled. In 1801 he appears as an exhibitor, at the Academy, of the 'Portrait of a Horse,' followed by a 'Rustic Repast,' 'Race-ground,' 'Portrait of a Lady,' 'Market-day,' &c. Then, in 1842, after an interval of 10 years, he sent a 'Fishmonger's Shop,' and contributed one work in each of the three following years. Several of his works were engraved, among them six landscapes. He was of independent, unconciliating manners; lived poor and died poor about 1846.

AGGAS, Ralph, draftsman and surveyor. Said to have been born in Suffolk about 1540. He practised 1560-89, and was distinguished by his maps of the principal cities of the realm. They are bird's-eye views, representing in the margins the principal structures. Cambridge, published 1578, was the earliest; 10 years later, Oxford, surrounded with the views of the colleges, the arms, and other objects of interest. He also made a survey of London and Westminster, and produced a large plan and view on wood (subsequently repeated on pewter); but he could not obtain permission to publish it—probably from political reasons—till the accession of James I., to whom it is dedicated. He died about 1617. He has been designated the engraver of the plans, but on one of them he is is called 'Autore,' and the engraving was more probably the work of Ryther. His maps have been many times repeated, and are the authority adopted by all subsequent antiquarian writers.

AGGAS, Robert, landscape and scene painter. A descendant of the foregoing. Was a good landscape painter both in oil and tempera, and skilled in the introduction of architecture, he was much employed by Charles II., and gained a reputation as scene painter for the theatre at Dorset Garden. He was also employed at the Blackfriars and Phoenix Theatres. In the Painter-Stainers' Hall there is preserved a landscape by him. He died in London in 1679, aged about 60.

AGLIO, Augustine, subject painter and decorator. He was born at Cremona, Dec. 15, 1777, and was educated at the College of St Alessandro, Milan, where he was one of the most distinguished pupils. He studied the various branches at the Academy Brera, and in 1797 practised landscape painting at Rome, where he was introduced to Mr. Wilkins, R.A., with whom he travelled in Italy, Greece, and Egypt, and employed himself in sketching the antiquities of those countries. In 1802 he returned to Rome, and in December of the following year came to England on the invitation of Mr. Wilkins, whom he at once joined at Cambridge, and whose 'Magna Græcia' he was employed to complete in aqua-tint.

In 1804 he was engaged in the scene-room of the Opera House, and in 1806 at the Drury Lane Theatre, and was then largely employed in the decorations of some important mansions, and visited Ireland, where he painted twelve pictures of Killarney. In 1811 he decorated the Pantheon in Oxford Street, and in 1819, in fresco, the ceiling of the Roman Catholic Chapel in Moorfields, where he also executed the altarpiece. He also drew many works in lithography, and his 'Mexican Antiquities,' which were announced in ten volumes, though only nine were published—1830–48. About 1820 he produced many easel pictures. He exhibited at Suffolk Street between 1825 and 1856, and at the Royal Academy between 1830 and 1846. To the Westminster Hall Exhibition he sent a large landscape, with figures in fresco. In 1844 and in 1847, 'Rebecca,' a large oil picture. One of his last works was the decoration of the Olympic Theatre. He painted two portraits of the Queen, which, with some other works, were engraved. After a long earnest life spent in the pursuit of art he died Jan. 30, 1857, in his 80th year, and was buried in Highgate Cemetery.

AIKIN, Edmund, architect. Son of Dr. John Aikin. Was born at Warrington, October 2, 1780. He was assistant to General Sir Samuel Bentham, R.E., who was the architect of the General Penitentiary at Millbank. About 1814 he resided some time at Liverpool, while superintending there the erection of the Assembly Rooms, and designed several buildings in that borough, and later the Presbyterian Chapel in Jewin Street, London. He wrote several professional papers and essays, among them the account of St. Paul's Cathedral, published with Britton's engravings of that edifice, and some of the earlier architectural articles in Rees's 'Encyclopædia;' and also, in 1808, published 'Designs for Villas.' He was from 1800 to 1814 an occasional exhibitor of architectural designs at the Royal Academy. He died at Stoke Newington, March 13, 1820.

AIKMAN, William, portrait painter. Born at Cairney, Forfarshire, October 24, 1682, only son of a member of the Scotch bar, of good family, who designed him also for the law. But he was attracted to art, and so soon as he was at liberty left the study of law, and turning to art placed himself under Sir John Medina, with whom he continued three years. Then he sold his paternal estate in Forfarshire, and in 1707 went to Rome, where he studied till 1710. He next travelled to Constantinople and Smyrna, and returning by Rome and Florence, reached Scotland in 1712. He succeeded to some employment on the death of Sir John Medina, and practised for about 13 years in Edinburgh with great success. He was induced, in 1723, to come to London, where he settled and became acquainted, among other artists, with Kneller, whose manner he imitated. He was much employed. His works were weak but pleasing, not showing much original invention. Several of his full-length portraits are at Blickling, Norfolk. He had commenced a large picture of the royal family in three compartments, but the third, containing the half-length portrait of the king, was unfinished at his death. This picture is in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. Many of his portraits have been engraved, and two portrait etchings by his hand are known. He was reputed a good judge of pictures, and while in Italy was employed to purchase for the Duke of Kingston. He died in Leicester Square, June 7, 1731, it is said of excessive grief for the loss of an only son, and both were removed to Scotland together and buried in one grave, in the Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh. He left two daughters. His friend Mallet wrote his epitaph and Thomson bewailed his loss in verse. He was intimate with many of the most distinguished men of his time.

AIKMAN, John, draftsman. Born 1713; only son of the foregoing. He had early shown much promise of future excellence in art. There are a few studies etched by him after Vandyke, two or more on a plate, but they are rare. He died at the age of 18, in 1731.

ALBIN, Eleazar, draftsman and naturalist. Was of German origin, and changed his family name of Weiss to its latinised translation, Albinus. A student of natural history, he made able drawings, and engraved and coloured them with his own hand. His 'History of English Insects' is a great example of laborious perseverance. It was published in 1720. He explains, in his preface, that teaching to draw in water-colours is his profession, that the beautiful colours of flowers and insects led him to paint them, and that, becoming acquainted with some eminent naturalists, he was much employed by them. He published a 'Natural History of Birds,' comprising 306 plates of birds drawn from life, a work on spiders, and a history of fishes, but in this last work he was assisted in the engraving by Basire, James Smith, and others. His insects are marked by great truth. He does not seem to have received the encouragement he so well deserved, for he says his subscriptions came in slowly, and that having a large family to provide for, his circumstances retarded his work. He practised 1720-40.

ALCOCK, John, D. D., amateur. Born at Beverley about 1453. Was educated at Cambridge, was preceptor to Edward, Prince of Wales, and successively Bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely. He was also a privy-councillor, ambassador to the Court of Spain, and filled several high offices in the State. He was distinguished as one of the greatest architects of his time. He designed the spacious hall belonging to the Episcopal Palace at Ely, and made great architectural improvement there and in his other sees. He planned the conversion of the old nunnery of St. Radegund at Cambridge into Jesus College. He was appointed joint surveyor of the royal works and buildings in the reign of Henry VIII. Died at Wisbeach, October 1, 1500.

ALDRICH, Henry, amateur. Dean of Christ Church, Oxon. Born at Westminster 1647. He had much skill in architecture, for which he had cultivated a taste during a long residence in Italy. He designed the quadrangle at Oxford, named Peckwater Square, the chapel of Trinity College, the church of All Saints, and the garden front of Corpus Christi. He wrote a series of lectures called 'The Elements of Civil Architecture,' published many years after his death (1789). He was a man of great knowledge and varied acquirements, a classic and scriptural scholar, and withal a good musician; the composer of 'A Smoking Catch' and the favourite 'Hark, the bonny bonny Christ Church Bells!' which he published in his 'Pleasant Musical Companion.' He was also the author of several learned works. Died at Oxford, December 14, 1710.

ALEFOUNDER, John, portrait and miniature painter. Was a student in the Royal Academy, and in 1782 gained a silver medal. He first exhibited, in 1777, an architectural design, in the following year a portrait in chalk, and then practised in miniature, occasionally in chalk and oil, and in 1784 he exhibited some theatrical Portraits and portrait groups. Soon after he went to India, where he realised some property by the practice of his art. He sent a portrait from Calcutta to the Academy Exhibition in 1794, and suffering from the effects of the climate, died there in the following year. A portrait by him of 'Peter the Wild Boy' was engraved by Bartolozzi in 1784, and of 'Edwin the Actor' by C. N. Hodges in the same year. An oil portrait by him of John Shipley is at the Society of Arts.

ALEXANDER, Sir Anthony, Knight, architect. Son of Alexander, Earl of Stirling. Was master of the king's works in Scotland in the reign of Charles I. He died in London, August 1637, and was buried at Stirling.

ALEXANDER, John, portrait and history painter. Was born in Scotland, the son of a minister of the Scotch Kirk, and was the pupil and son-in-law of Alexander Jamesone, a descendant of George Jamesone. He was educated in Italy, spent some time in Florence, and in 1716 was in Rome, where he devoted himself to the study of Raphael's works. On his return to Scotland in 1720; he painted portraits and several historical pictures. The 'Rape of Proserpine,' on the staircase of Gordon Castle, was by him. He copied, or invented, several portraits of Mary Queen of Scots. While in Rome he etched in a coarse but effective manner six plates after Raphael.

ALEXANDER, Cosmo, portrait painter. Practised in Edinburgh about 1750. A portrait by him of the provost of that city was engraved in 1752. His portrait of General Dalziell is also engraved. In 1766 he was a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists in London. Gibbs, the architect, left him his house, with all his furniture, pictures, busts, &c. He went to America when between 50 and 60 years of age, and in 1772 was painting portraits in Rhode Island, but he eventually returned to Scotland, and shortly after his arrival died in Edinburgh.

ALEXANDER, William, water-colour painter. Born at Maidstone, April 10, 1767. Son of a coach-maker in the town, and educated at the Grammar School there. Came to London at the age of 15 to study as an artist, and was placed under William Pars, then under Ibbetson, and in 1784 was admitted student of the Royal Academy. In 1792 he accompanied Lord Macartney's mission to China as draftsman, and remaining during the journey to the northern frontier, returned with the mission in 1794. He married in the following year, but the loss of his wife shortly afterwards left a lasting impression on his character. In 1802 he was appointed professor of drawing to the Royal Military College, Great Marlow, an office he resigned in 1808 on his appointment as assistant-keeper of the antiquities in the British Museum, and afterwards was appointed, on the creation of the office, keeper of the prints and drawings. His drawings were engraved for the illustration of Sir George Staunton's account of the Chinese embassy, published in 1797. In 1798 he published himself some drawings made in China, of headlands, islands, and other views; and in the same year he made finished drawings from Daniell's sketches, illustrating Vancouver's voyage to the North Pacific. He also illustrated Barrow's 'Travels in China,' published 1804, and his 'Cochin China,' 1806. In 1805 he published his 'Costumes of China.' He was also employed as draftsman to the department of antiquities, British Museum, and made the drawings for the engravings from the terra cottas and marbles in the Museum, published by the trustees in 1810, 1812, and 1815. He also drew many of the views for the 'Beauties of Great Britain,' and for Britton's 'Architectural Antiquities.' He died of a brain fever at Maidstone, July 23, 1816, and was buried in the neighbouring village of Boxley. He was a good draftsman and colourist. His drawings are minutely finished, and evince great accuracy. His early drawings are executed with the pen, shaded in India ink and tinted; his figures well introduced; his architectural details, as shown in the 'Britannia Depicta,' minutely traced. He published, 1798-1805, a masterly collection of his etchings, illustrative of Chinese life and character; and in 1837 a short journal of a visit he paid to the old seat of Cotton the angler was published in lithograph facsimile. He was a man of cultivated tastes, an artist, antiquary, and connoisseur.

ALEXANDER, Daniel Asher, architect. Was born in London, 1768, and educated at St. Paul's School, London. In 1782 he was admitted a student of the Royal Academy, and on the completion of his professional education was early called into important and responsible practice. In 1796 he was appointed surveyor to the London Dock Company, the principal buildings of which are by him. He built the military prison at Dartmoor, now used for convicts; the old county prison at Maidstone, the Royal Naval Asylum at Greenwich, the London Docks, several lighthouses, and was employed on additions and alterations to Longford Castle, Wilts; Beddington House, Surrey; Coleshill, Berks; and Combebank, Kent. His designs were marked by appropriateness, his knowledge of construction great, and his work finished with great attention to detail. He had retired from his profession to Exeter, and died there March 2, 1846, aged 78. His eldest son for some time practised as his assistant, but he left the profession in 1820 to enter the Church, and died in 1843.

ALIAMET, Francis Germain, engraver. Brother to the celebrated French engraver. Born at Abbeville 1734. He studied at Lisle and then at Paris, but came to London when young. He received a Society of Arts' premium in 1764, and completing his studies under Strange, settled here, and found employment in engraving portraits for the publishers. He finished with great care and accuracy. He engraved a 'Circumcision' after Guido, on a large scale, for Alderman Boydell; also plates after Caracci, Le Sœur, Watteau, Edge Pine, and others. He was accidentally killed February 5, 1790.

ALKEN, Samuel, aqua-tint engraver. Practised his art in London towards the end of the 18th century. He had probably some instruction in architecture, and in 1780 exhibited an architectural design. He produced many views in Great Britain and Ireland, chiefly for the illustration of topographical works, and carried the art of aqua-tint to very high perfection. He designed and etched 'A New Book of Ornaments.' He published, in 1796, 'Views in Cumberland and Westmoreland,' and aqua-tint views in North Wales in 1798.

ALKEN, Henry, draftsman and engraver. He was well known by his numerous facile delineations, sometimes humorous in character, of field-sports, races, and games. He published 'The Beauties and Defects of the Figure of the Horse,' 1816; 'Scraps from his Sketch-Book,' 1821; 'Symptoms of being Amused,' 1822; 'Illustrations of Popular Songs,' 1823; 'The Art and Practice of Etching,' 1849; 'Jorrock's Jaunts and Jollitie,' 1869.

ALLAN, David (called the Scotch Hogarth), portrait and history painter, was born at Alloa, near Edinburgh, where his father held the office of shore-master, February 13, 1744. His childhood was marked by troubles; his genius first shown by chance. In 1755 he was apprenticed to Messrs. Foulis, and studied his art in their academy at Glasgow. Then, assisted by some friends, he set off for Italy in 1764, and remained in that country nearly 14 years, studying and copying from the old masters. He sent home two historical pictures for exhibition at the Royal Acaemy in 1771, and at Rome in 1773 he gained the prize medal of the Academy of St. Luke for his historical composition, 'The Corinthian Maid drawing the Shadow of her Lover.' Returning in 1777 he resided in London till 1780, supporting himself by portrait painting. Four drawings which he made at Rome during the Carnival, introducing portraits with much humour and character, were engraved in aqua-tint by Paul Sandby, and published in 1781. He then settled in Edinburgh, where he met with much patronage, and on a vacancy in 1786 was appointed master and director of the Edinburgh Academy of Arts. He etched in a free style the illustrations for Tassie's 'Catalogue of Engraved Gems,' comprising 57 plates, with from seven to nine examples each. They have a frontispiece designed and etched by him, dated 1788. In the same year he illustrated by engravings an edition of the 'Gentle Shepherd,' and in 1798 he etched some characteristic designs, small oval size, for the 'Songs of the Lowlands of Scotland.' He also amused himself with etching, sometimes combined with mezzo-tint, chiefly scenes from cottage life. He was admired for the natural truth of his works and the character and expression of his subjects from low life. His art did not aim at either beauty or grace. He will be remembered by his 'Scotch Wedding,' 'Highland Dame,' 'Repentance Stool,' and his designs for the 'Gentle Shepherd.' He died near Edinburgh, August 6, 1796, leaving a widow with a son and daughter. His portrait, painted by himself, hangs in the National Gallery of Scotland.

ALLAN, Sir William, Knt., P.R.S.A. and R.A., subject and history painter, limner to the Queen in Scotland. He was born in 1782, in Edinburgh, where his father held the humble office of macer to the Court of Session, and was educated at the High School. He made little progress in classic knowledge, but showed a fancy for drawing, to gratify which he was apprenticed to a coach painter, and proving to have a taste for decoration was sent for his further improvement to the Trustees' Academy, where, after several years' study, he developed a taste for art, and then came to London and entered the schools of the Royal Academy. Struck with the works of Opie, he imitated his manner, and in 1803 exhibited his first picture, 'A Gipsy Boy with an Ass'. But failing to gain notice, he set off the same year for Russia, with no other apparent inducement than the love of travel and the desire to seek his fortune. Driven into Memel by a storm, his means were soon exhausted, and he painted a few portraits to enable him to make his way to St. Petersburg, where he found friends, and was assisted by his countryman, Sir Alexander Crichton, then the Court physician.

Having made some study of the language, he visited Tartary and Turkey, sketching the costume and studying the manners of the Cossacks, Circassians, and Tartars. He sent home to the Academy Exhibition of 1809, 'Russian Peasants keeping Holiday,' but his picture did not receive much notice, and, disappointed, he did not exhibit again for several years. In 1812 he had made up his mind to return, but Napoleon's great campaign, the horrors of which he witnessed, prevented him, and he did not reach Scotland till 1814. Then, settling in Edinburgh, he sent to the Academy in London the following spring his 'Circassian Captives,' and in 1816 a work of the same class, 'The Sale of Two Boys by a Chief of the Black Sea,' an incident he had witnessed; and in 1817 another Circassian subject. But these works were unsold, and he was disappointed beyond hope. He was, however, befriended by Sir Walter Scott, who got up a lottery for the sale of his 'Circassian Captives,' and induced him to remain in Edinburgh. Here he painted 'Tartar Robbers dividing their Spoil,' and then tried another class of subjects, 'The Press Gang,' 'The Parting between Prince Charles Stuart and Flora Macdonald,' 'Jeannie Deans and her Father;' yet these works did not justify the expectations he had raised among his friends. He again desponded, Sir Walter came once more to his help, encouraged him to paint a sketch he had made of the 'Murder of Archbishop Sharpe,' and found a purchaser for it when finished. With renewed hope he then painted 'John Knox reproving Mary, Queen of Scots,' which was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1823, followed by 'Ruthven forcing Mary to sign her Abdication,' and 'The Regent Murray shot by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh,' which last was purchased by the Duke of Bedford for 800 guineas, and gained the artist the distinction of Associate of the Royal Academy in 1825. In 1826 he was appointed master of the Trustees' School, Edinburgh, an office he held till only a few years before his death.

Though he did not want energy, and persevered in his work without flagging, he scarcely maintained the reputation he lad gained, and his labours and anxieties began to tell upon him. He was attacked by a complaint which threatened blindness, and was compelled to take rest. He went to Italy, and after spending a winter at Rome journeyed on to Naples, and from thence to Constantinople, Asia Minor, and Greece. In 1830 he returned to Edinburgh, restored to health, and was successful in a small portrait work of 'Sir Walter Scott in his Study,' now in the National Portrait Gallery, which became a favourite, and was well engraved by Burnet; as also in a companion picture, exhibited in 1833 under the title of 'The Orphan,' representing Ann Scott on the floor, close to her father's vacant chair in his studio at Abbotsford, which was purchased by Queen Adelaide. In 1834 he again travelled, visiting Spain, and subsequently France and Belgium. On his return in 1835 he was elected a royal academician, and in 1838 the president of the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1841 he succeeded to the office of limner to the Queen in Scotland, which was accompanied, as had been usual, by knighthood.

He had returned to his Siberian subjects, and exhibited yearly at the Academy, when in 1843 he completed a work he had long contemplated, 'The Battle of Waterloo from the French side.' This was admired by the Duke of Wellington, who became its purchaser. His last great completed work was a second picture of this battle from the English side. It was painted in competition for the decorations of the palace at Westminster in 1846, but was unsuccessful, and he had the further disappointment that it remained unsold. He had always retained a pleasant recollection of the kindness of his friends in St. Petersburg, and in 1844 he revisited that capital, and painted for the emperor 'Peter the Great teaching his Subjects the Art of Ship-building.' The effects of hard travel and a life of hard labour and anxiety now began to tell upon him. He suffered from bronchitis, and had been for some time at work upon a large canvas on 'The Battle of Bannockburn.' His weakness increased, but he did not relax, and removing his bed to his painting-room he continued his work; and here, with his unfinished picture before him, he died in Edinburgh, February 23, 1850. His picture has found an appropriate place in the National Gallery of Scotland, and he will not fail to be remembered among the painters of his country. He represented the costumes and characters of countries then little known, and connected them with kindred subjects of great interest, and painted many subjects and incidents with equal success from the history of his own country. His stories were well told and well composed, his choice of subjects good; but his pictures were wanting in power, and were crude and weak in colour. His merit did not find early recognition, and distinctions and honours were delayed till near the end of his active career. He was gifted with much natural humour, a clever mimic, at all times an agreeable companion, and possessed the friendship of many of the most distinguished of his countrymen.

ALLASON, Thomas, architect. Born in London, July 31, 1790. Was placed in an architect's office, and entered as a student at the Royal Academy, where he gained a silver medal, and in 1805 exhibited a design for a college. He studied Grecian architecture, and in 1814 made a tour in Greece. On his return in 1817 he established himself in London, and was much employed both in buildings, furniture, and landscape gardening. Many villas and mansions were erected after his designs—perhaps the Alliance Fire Office, in Bartholomew Lane, may be pointed to as his chief work. He died April 9, 1852, in his 62nd year. He began life dependent upon his own exertions. He was conspicuous for good taste, and independently shaped his own useful career. He published 'Plan of a House of Industry,' 1805; 'Picturesque Views of the Antiquities of Pola, in Istria' 1819; and a clever etching of Milan Cathedral.

ALLEN, Andrew, portrait painter. Supposed of Scotch origin. Practised with some repute in Edinburgh about 1730. A portrait by him of one of the Lords of Session is engraved, as is also his own portrait.

ALLEN, James B., engraver. Born in Birmingham, April 18, 1803. He was apprenticed to his brother, Mr. Josiah Allen, of Colmore Row, Birmingham, to learn his art. He went to London, however, before he had finished his time, and was employed many years in engraving for the Bank of England. He executed many works for the 'Art Journal' and other periodicals. His best engravings are after landscape subjects. He died in London, January 10, 1876.

ALLEN, Joseph, portrait painter. Born at Birmingham, and early found employment in painting Japanned tea-trays, which it was then the fashion to decorate with pictures. Having some feeling for art, he came to London and obtained admission as student at the Royal Academy, with the resolution to attempt history, but he was compelled to descend to portrait, and in this did not meet with success. He next was induced to try Wrexham, where he settled, and found a lucrative practice by visiting Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, and other large towns in the north, where he established a connection. This last success tempted him again to try the Metropolis, but he again failed to secure notice; and being advanced in life, he broke up his establishment and retired to Erdington, near Birmingham, in easy circumstances, and died there November 19, 1839, aged 70. His portraits were carefully painted, tender and pleasing in character, but not of any high merit.

ALLEN, John, architect. He practised in England, with much repute, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. His descendants settled in Ireland, where his grandson, Joshua Allen, following his profession, was employed by many of the nobility, became lord mayor of Dublin, and was knighted.

ALLEN, George, architect. Was born at Brentford, April 14, 1798. Studied at the Royal Academy, and was a pupil of James Elmes. He published, in 1828, 'Plans and Designs for the future Approaches to the New London Bridge,' and found much professional employment on the South wark side of the river. He died June 28, 1847.

ALLEN, Joseph W., landscape painter. Was born in Lambeth, the son of a schoolmaster, and educated at St. Paul's School. For a time he found employment as an usher in an academy at Taunton, but a love of art prevailing, he came to London to gain a living as an artist. His early practice was in water-colours—views in Cheshire and North Wales—but latterly chiefly in oil. He was first employed by a dealer, afterwards assisted as a scene painter, and many of the scenes at the Olympic during Madame Vestris's first management were by him. He became a member of the Society of British Artists, and was for a time vice-president, and a large contributor of landscapes to the exhibitions, chiefly of views in Surrey, and some compositions. His 'Vale of Clwyd,' 1842, gained him much notice, and was purchased for 300 guineas as an Art Union prize. His works were of some merit, but the anxieties to provide for a large family were hindrances to art; and though his subjects were well chosen, and not without artistic feeling, they were crude and unfinished. He was also engaged as a teacher in the City of London School. He sketched landscapes on copper with some skill. He died in August, 1852, aged about 48, leaving a widow and a large family, to make some provision for whom a subscription was raised among his friends.

ALLEN, James C., engraver. Was born in London, the son of a Smithfield salesman, and apprenticed to William Cooke, for whom he worked many years after the termination of his apprenticeship, and was much employed on book illustration. In 1821 he published, with Mr. Cooke, 15 views of the interior and exterior of the Coliseum at Rome, well engraved in the line manner; and in 1831 a spirited plate of the 'Defeat of the Spanish Armada,' after De Loutherbourg. He excelled very much in his etching, and was devoted to his art. Of eccentric habits, and suffering from ill-health, he died in middle age.

ALLEN, Thomas, marine painter. His subjects were chiefly naval battles. Practised about the middle of the 18th century. He painted the incidents of Queen Charlotte's voyage and arrival in this country, also the 'Great Harry' from Holbein's design of that vessel. His works were engraved by P. C. Canot.

ALLEN, Thomas, topographical draftsman. An ingenious man, who was engaged in several antiquarian publications. He drew and etched the illustrations for his 'History of the Antiquities of Lambeth' and 'History of the Antiquities of London, Westminster, and Southwark' and was the author of some other antiquarian works; but his illustrations possessed no higher merit than careful neatness. He died suddenly, of cholera, July 20, 1833, aged 30.

ALLEN, Thomas John, architectural-draftsman. Excelled in water-colours. He committed suicide, it was said owing to the death of his sister, September 20, 1846, aged 25.

ALLOM, Thomas, architect. Was born in London, March 13, 1804, and was articled to Francis Goodwin, in whose office he passed about seven years; and was also a student in the schools of the Royal Academy. In 1824 he first appears as an exhibitor at Suffolk Street of designs for a cathedral, and in 1827 at the Academy, contributing a design for Sydenham Church. Soon after he travelled for improvement in his art. He had great skill in finishing architectural drawings, and drew and sketched with great facility, and was soon engaged by publishing firms to furnish them with views of the continental cities. He continued an occasional exhibitor of views and architectural designs. In 1846 he was awarded a premium for his design for the Choristers' Schools at Oxford. He was the architect of the Union Workhouse at Calne and at Kensington; also of Highbury Church, 1850; the Cambridge Military Asylum, Kingston, 1852; St. Peter's Church, Notting Hill, 1856; and other works. But his reputation will rest upon his numerous published views, by which he is so widely known — Cumberland and Westmoreland; Devonshire and Cornwall; Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and the Midland bounties; Surrey, Belgium, Scotland, France, Constantinople, Asia Minor, China. He was one of the founders of the Institute of British Architects. He died at Barnes, October 21, 1872.

ALLPORT, H. C., water-colour painter. He lived near Lichfield, and first appears as an 'exhibitor' at the Water-Colour Society in 1813. He continued to exhibit landscape views, but chiefly of well-known buildings, and in 1818 was elected a member of the Society. In 1822 his name disappears from the list of members, but he contributed several drawings, chiefly Italian scenes, in 1823, and is then classed as an ' associate exhibitor.' He does not appear to have again exhibited.

ALLSTON, Washington, A.R.A., history painter. Was born in South Carolina, 1779, and entered Havard College. Massachusetts, 1796. Drawing was his favourite amusement as a boy, and he early tried to design. He first attempted miniature, but without success. In 1800 he graduated and then returned to Charleston, where he devoted himself to art, banditti being his favourite subjects. Then, with a desire for his improvement, in May, 1801, having sold his hereditary property to enable him to study art, he came to England and at once entered the schools of the Royal Academy; was an exhibitor in 1802 and 1803. After three years' study he went to Paris in 1804, copied some pictures at the Louvre, and then set out for Italy, where he passed four years, the greater part of the time in Rome, studying modelling in clay as well as drawing; and there, in 1805, he painted his 'Joseph's Dream' a work which at once laid the foundation of his fame. In 1809 he went back to America, where he married the daughter of Dr. Channing, and in 1811 brought his wife to England. Soon after he commenced 'The Dead Man touching Elisha's Bones' but his work was interrupted by a dangerous illness; and when, after a short residence at Clifton to re-establish his health, he finished his picture, it was exhibited at the British Institution, and gained, in 1814, a premium of 200 guineas. It was afterwards purchased by the Pennsylvanian Academy of Fine Arts for 3500 dollars. In the same and the two following years he exhibited at the Academy, chiefly Italian landscapes. He had returned to London, and had hardly settled in his newly-furnished house when his wife died suddenly. The shock produced the deepest melancholy and temporary derangement. But recovering, he visited Paris in 1817, in company with his friend C. R. Leslie, and on his return commenced his 'Jacob's Dream' which he sent to the Academy from Boston in 1819, his first contribution to that exhibition. He continued in England during the American war; on its termination a home sickness seized him, and with great regret he left his English friends and again crossed the Atlantic, arriving at Boston in 1818. He had the same year been elected an Associate of the Academy, and had gained a premium of 150 guineas at the British Institution for his 'Angel Uriel standing in the Sun.' He had also commenced his 'Belshazzar's Feast,' but he did not complete this work till 1834. Finally settling in his native country, he pursued his art, and wrote on several subjects. In 1830 he married his second wife, a sister of Mr. Dana, the well-known author. He died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 8, 1843. He was an excellent artist. His subjects were of the highest aim, and marked by a vivid imagination; his light and shade full of power; his colour good. He was also a scholar. He published — 'The Sylphs of the Seasons' London, 1813. 'Hints to Young Practitioners on Landscape Painting' 1814; 'Monaldi: a Tale.' Boston, U.S., 1841. After his death his 'Lectures on Art and Poems,' were published at New York, 1850; 'Outlines and Sketches,' at Boston, U.S., 1850.

ALNWYOK, William, D.D., amateur. Became Bishop of Norwich 1426, and of Lincoln 1436. Besides several works at Cambridge and at Lincoln, he rebuilt the western door of Norwich Cathedral with the window over it, also the principal part of the Tower Gate-house to the Episcopal Palace. He died about 1450.

ALVES, James, portrait painter. He practised in London, chiefly in miniature. In 1775 he exhibited two classical subjects; in the following year, with some portraits, a 'St. Cecilia,' in miniature; and in 1777—78 and 1779 small portraits in crayons. After that he does not appear as an exhibitor. He died at Inverness, November 27, 1808, in his 71st year.

AMES, --, engraver. Practised, with no great ability, about 1777. His works consisted chiefly of portraits — many of them in small oval, in the stipple manner — of popular dissenting ministers.

ANDERSON, Alexander, engraver. An English artist of the latter part of the 18th century. He engraved some designs for 'Don Quixote' and some anatomical figures, with great neatness and accuracy.

ANDERSON, David, modeller. Native of Perthshire. Made himself locally known by some clever works in statuary, but did not exhibit in London. Died of typhus fever at Liverpool, 1847.

ANDERSON, John, wood engraver. Was born in Scotland, where he received a classical education. He was a man of superior attainments; became a pupil of Bewick, and engraved the illustrations to 'Grove Hill' a poem, and also for an edition of 'The Letters of Junius.' He formed a style of his own, and showed much ability, but did not long follow his profession. He went abroad on some speculation, and was lost sight of. He died early in the century.

ANDERSON, William, marine painter. Born in Scotland 1757. Originally a shipwright, he cultivated drawing in his leisure hours, and painted some pictures of shipping. He practised in London; first exhibited at the Academy in 1787, and continued to contribute up to 1814, when he exhibited for the last time. His works are usually of small size, and show a practical nautical knowledge; they are usually river scenes — calms, with shipping and boats — neatly painted, low and agreeable in colour, but wanting in vigour. He painted one or two landscapes. A set of five 'Views of the Battle of the Nile' were well engraved after him in aqua-tint, 1800, by W. Ellis. Died May 27, 1837.

ANDERTON, Henry, history and portrait painter. Born 1630. Practised in the reign of Charles II., by whom he was patronised. He was a pupil of Streater, and made a tour in Italy for his improvement. On his return he was employed by the King and the Court, and in some degree rivalled Lely. He painted a fine portrait of the celebrated Mrs. Stuart, afterwards Duchess of Richmond. His name does not appear to any engraved works, and it has been assumed that the more popular name of Lely may have been attached to his portraits. He died young, soon after 1665.

ANDRAS, Miss Catherine, modeller in wax. Was born near Bristol about 1775, where she attained some proficiency in her art, and was induced by her success to visit London. In 1799 she first exhibited her portraits in wax at the Royal Academy, and had several distinguished sitters. The Queen appointed her modeller in wax to Her Majesty, and in 1802 she exhibited her model of the Princess Charlotte. She continued an occasional exhibitor up to 1824.

ANDRÉ, Major John, amateur. A young officer of much promise, who showed great talent for art. A half-length miniature, which he painted of himself, was engraved by Sherwin. There is also a bold landscape etching by him. He was acting as adjutant-general to the British Army in North America, and, arrested within the American lines, was shot as a spy, October 2, 1780, aged 29.

ANDREWS, H., subject painter. He was a contributor to the Academy Exhibitions from 1833, when he sent 'Charade en Action '—exhibiting for the last time, in 1838, 'A Garden Scene' and 'The First Music Lesson.' He had talent and might have acquired reputation, but he fell into the hands of unscrupulous dealers, made copies of Watteau — not sold as copies — and subjects in the style of Watteau, and his art became degraded. He died November 30, 1868.

ANGELIS, Peter, landscape and figure painter. Was born at Dunkirk in 1685. After studying there, and in Flanders and Germany, he came to England about the year 1712, was well received, and became a favourite painter. He practised here up to 1728, when he'.sold his pictures, including many fine copies, and went to Italy, where he remained three years, chiefly in Rome, when he set off, intending to return to England; but, stopping at Kennes, he was so well esteemed there, that he was induced to remain, and died in that city in 1734.

ANGEIR, Paul, engraver. Was taught by John Tinney. Practised in London about the middle of the 18th century, being chiefly employed on small plates for book illustration. There are some landscapes of this class by him neatly executed, but weak in manner. Also 'Roman Ruins,' after Pannini, dated 1749; a Landscape, after Moucheron, 1755; 'Dead Game' after Huet, 1757. He never arrived at much excellence, and died at the age of 30.

ANGUS, William, engraver. Was a pupil of William Walker, and his works highly esteemed. He practised in the line manner, excelled in landscape, and engraved after Paul Sandby and Daynes, as well as from his own designs. One of his principal works was 'The Seats of the Nobility and Gentry' 1787-1815. He also engraved, chiefly after Stothard, the plates for the small Atlas Pocket-book, and some portraits for the 'European Magazine.' One of his best works is a landscape after Elsheimer. He was improvident and died poor, after two years' painful illness, October 12, 1821, aged 69, leaving a widow without any provision.

ANSELL, Charles, animal painter. Reputed for his drawing of the horse. He also drew domestic subjects with some elegance. Several of his works are engraved. 'The Death of a Race-horse' in six aqua-tint plates, published 1784; 'The Poor Soldier,' 1787; also, 'A Dressing-room à l'Anglaise' and 'à la Francaise' 1789. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1780 and 1781, but his name does not appear afterwards in the catalogues.

ANSLEY, Mrs. Mary Ann, amateur. Was a daughter of Gandon, the architect, and married General Ansley, an officer of the Guards. She contributed many clever subject pictures to the British Institution and the Royal Academy. At the latter she first exhibited, in 1814, a classical subject, and continued to send works of this class, with an occasional portrait, up to 1825; and in 1833 exhibited, for the last time, a portrait of Prince Napoleon, for which the prince, then in London, had sat to her. She died at Naples in 1840. Her principal paintings are at Houghton Hall, Huntingdonshire, the family residence.

ANTONY, Charles, medallist. He was master of the mint to James I. His relative, Thomas Antony, at the same time held the office of overseer of the stamps. Both were able artists.

ARCHER, John Wykeham, watercolour painter. Was the son of a prosperous tradesman at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was born there August 2, 1808. He was sent to London as the pupil of John Scott, the animal engraver. Returning to Newcastle he etched, in conjunction with Collard, after Carmichael's designs. 'Views of Fountains' Abbey,' and some plates for Mackenzie's 'History of Durham.' After passing a short time in Edinburgh, he came again to London about 1830, and was employed by the Messrs. Finden. He engraved a plate after Callcott, R.A., and was then engaged to engrave for the 'Sportsman's Magazine; ' but his employment was uncertain, and he was induced to try water-colour painting. He was led by his taste to paint the old buildings in the Metropolis, and in this pursuit he acquired knowledge and repute as an antiquarian, and had a large commission for works of this class, which employed him to the end of his life. He drew occasionally on the wood for Mr. Charles Knight's publications, and made a number of topographical drawings for the Duke of Northumberland. He was an able artist, and a member of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, and exhibited there a number of drawings of St. Mary Overy and of Lambeth Palace. He died suddenly in London, May 25, 1864. He published 'Vestiges of Old London' drawn and etched by himself, 1851 — his subjects very pictorially treated, with numerous figures well introduced — and some other etchings. His collection of drawings is in the British Museum. He had some literary taste, and wrote for Douglas Jerrold's Magazine, 'Recreations of Mr. Zigzag the elder' and some antiquarian papers which he contributed to the 'Gentleman's Magazine.'

ARCHER, Thomas, architect. His father represented Warwick in the time of Charles II. He was a pupil of Sir John Vanbrugh, and was largely employed at the beginning of the 18th century. He built Heythorpe Hall, Oxfordshire, his first work, 1710; Harcourt House, Hanover Square; Cliefden House, long since burned down; St. Philip's Church, Birmingham; 1715-19; and St. John's Church, Westminster, 1721-28. This work, frequently ascribed to Vanbrugh, is conspicuous by its four belfries, and has been sharply assailed by the critics. He held the office of groom-porter during the reigns of Anne, George I., and George II. Walpole speaks of him as 'the groom-porter who built Hithrop' (Heythorpe). He died May 23, 1743, having accumulated a large property. His works were not without a certain grandeur of proportion, and they may surely claim the merit of originality.

ARLAUD, James Anthony, miniature painter. Was born in Geneva, May 18, 1688, and was intended for the Church, but was too poor to continue his studies, and he turned painter. At the age of 20, he left Geneva, and after working a while at Dijon, where he found employment in art as a painter of small ornamental portraits for jewellers, encouraged by his success, he went to Paris, where he commenced practice as a miniature painter, and, patronised by the Duke of Orleans, gained a great reputation. In 1721 he came to London, and met with much encouragement. He painted the Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, and several of the nobility. But he went back to Paris, and after a time, having amassed money, retired to Geneva, where he died May 25, 1743. He was esteemed one of the first artists in miniature of his time. His portraits, which are very numerous, are well drawn and carefully finished; his colour is good, the costume well painted. He painted several historical subjects.

ARLAUD, Benedict, miniature painter. He was brother of the foregoing, and, like him, was born in Geneva. He practised for a time in Amsterdam and then in London, where he died in 1719. Some of his portraits have been engraved.

ARLAUD, Bernard (or Benjamin), miniature painter. Born in Geneva, he came to London, where he resided, and at two different periods met with encouragement Between 1793 and 1800 he was frequently an exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He retired to Geneva in 1801, and was living there in 1825, when he sent a miniature to the Royal Academy Exhibition.

ARMSTRONG, Cosmo, engraver. He was a pupil of Milton, and remained in his employ for five years. He engraved illustrations for Cook's edition of the Poets, Kearsley's edition of Shakespeare, 1804-5, and after Smirke and Thurston, for an edition of the 'Arabian Nights.' He was a governor of the Society of Engravers, founded 1803, and in 1821 exhibited with the Associated Engravers. His works were greatly esteemed, and examples of his art were shown at the International Exhibition, 1862.

ARNALD, George, A.R.A., landscape painter. Born in Berkshire in 1763. he began life as a domestic servant to a lady who, noticing his great ability in drawing, obtained for him some instruction. He became a pupil of William Pether, and first appears as an exhibitor at the Academy in 1788; and was from that time, with few exceptions, a regular contributor. He painted moonlights, storms, effects of light, the sun breaking through a fog, classical landscapes, architectural compositions; and later in his career, marines and sea-fights. In 1810 he was elected an Associate of the Academy. In 1825 he was the successful competitor for a commission of 500l. offered by the British Institution for a painting of 'The Battle of the Nile.' This work is of large size and well painted, the moment seized being the explosion of the 'L'Orient.' It is now in the gallery at Greenwich Hospital. In 1827 he exhibited 'The "Bellerophon," 74, as a Convict Ship at Sheerness,' and the following year four landscapes, in approval of which 50l. were awarded to him. He continued an exhibitor for many years. He died at Pentonville, November 21, 1841. Some of his works were engraved in 'The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland.' His two daughters exhibited at the Royal Academy; one of them was a constant exhibitor of landscapes in oil, 1823-32.

ARNALD, Sebastian Wyndham, sculptor. Son of the above. Was student in the Academy schools, and first exhibited, in 1823, bust. of G. Arnald, A.R.A.; in 1827, 'The Death of Abel,' a sketch in plaster; in 1828, a 'Perseus and Andromeda;' and continued to exhibit classical designs and busts. In 1831 he gained the Academy gold medal for his group of 'The Murder of the Innocents.' Afterwards, he occasionally exhibited a drawing or a painting up to the death of his father in 1841, when he ceased to exhibit till 1846, and then sent a painting from 'Pilgrim's Progress' after which any further traces of his art-career are lost.

ARNOLD, Samuel James, panorama painter. Began art as a portrait painter, and first appears in the Academy catalogues as an exhibitor in 1800, and continued to exhibit portraits up to 1806, but was chiefly employed in panorama painting.

ARTAUD, William, portrait painter. He was the son of a jeweller, and in 1776 gained a premium at the Society of Arts. He became a student in the Academy schools, and appears first in 1780 as an exhibitor of a 'St. John,' in enamel, followed in 1784 and 1786 by portraits in oil. In the latter year he obtained the Academy gold medal for a painting from 'Paradise Lost' and in 1795 the travelling studentship. He continued to exhibit portraits, with, occasionally, history — in 1791, 'Potiphars Wife accusing Joseph;' in 1792, 'Martha and Mary;' in 1795, 'A Weary Traveller in a Storm;' in 1800, four subject pictures — up to 1822, when his name appears in the catalogue for the last time. He was employed on some of the subjects for Macklin's 'Bible' and several of his portraits are engraved. His portraits were cleverly drawn, and painted with great AEU

power. They have individuality of charac- ter, but want expression.

ARUNDALE, Francis, architect. Born in London, August 9, 1807. Was a pupil of Augustus Pugin; accompanied him in his tour through Normandy, and made some of the drawings for his 'Architec- tural Antiquities of NormandY' In 1831 he went to Egypt to study the architect- ural remains of that country, and in 1833, in company with Mr. Catherwood and Mr. Bonomi, he visited the Holy Land, resided some time in Jerusalem, and made a large number of sketches and drawings, and a careful measurement of the Mosque of Omar. He remained, altogether, nine years in the East, and then travelled in Greece. Later he visited France and Italy, passing several winters in Rome. He aid not practise as an architect; he rather studied the art as a draftsman. He painted several large pictures in oil from his Eastern sketches, and published 'The Edifices of Palladio,' from his own drawings and measurements, 1832; 'Illustrations of Jerusalem and Mount Sinai/ also from his own drawings, 1837; ' Selections from the Gallery of Antiquities in the British Museum,' 1842; 'The Early History of Egypt/ from the same source, did not ap- pear till 1857, and was, with the preceding work, the joint production of Mr. Bonomi. He also commenced a reprint of ' Palladio.' He married a daughter of Mr. Pickersgill, R. A., by whom he had six children. He died at Brighton, September 9, 1853, pro- bably having laid the seeds of his malady by inhabiting a tomb while in Egypt.

ARUNDEL, Thomas, D.D., amateur. Was born in 1353; second son of the Earl of Arundel. He was created Bishop of Ely 1374, Archbishop of York 1388, and of Canterbury 1396; and he filled the office of Lord Chancellor. As an architect, he rebuilt the Episcopal Palace in Holborn, built or superintended the erection of the Palace at York, and the Lantern Tower and part of the nave of Canterbury Ca- thedral. He died February 20, 1413.

ASHBY, H., portrait painter. Was the son of an engraver, who died in 1818. He practised in London, and first appears as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy in 1794. and in the following years was a regular contributor of portraits, and occa- sionally of domestic subjects. In 1808 he exhibited at the British Institution ' The Attic Artist/ and in 1816 'The Hypo- chondriac/ at the Royal Academy. He had retired for several years to Mitcham, and he exhibited two portraits in 1821, his last contribution. His portraits possessed some merit, and one or two have been en- graved. His domestic scenes showed an appreciation of character. ASHFIELD, John, architect. He was

ASH

master of the works of Bristol Cathedral from 1472 to 1491, and is believed to have built the tower and south transept.

ASHFIELD, l&Duumyy portrait painter. Pupil of Michael Wright; painted both in oil and crayons, but excelled in the latter, which were highly and powerfully finished, and gained large prices. He multiplied the number ana variety of tints, black and white only being previously chiefly em- ployed, the paper forming the middle tint Vertue speaks with much praise of a small portrait oy him of Lady Herbert. He practised about 1680, and died about 1700. There are some portraits by him at Bur- leigh.

ASHFORD,William,P.R.H.A., land- scape painter. Born in Birmingham, he went to Ireland in 1764 and settled in Dublin. He was at that time about 18 years of age, and for a while held a situ- ation in the Ordnance Department. Fond of landscape painting, ne gave up his situation to follow art He contributed to the early exhibitions of the Incorporated Society of Artists in London, and m 1783 and 1790 to the Royal Academy Exhi- bitions. At this period he resided some time in London, and in conjunction with Serres, R.A., the marine painter, made a joint exhibition of their paintings. He was one of the three artists to whom his professional brethren confided the election of eleven others to constitute, with them- selves, the Royal Hibernian Academy, which was incorporated in 1823, and he was the first president of the new institu- tion, in which he always took the liveliest interest. His works were much esteemed, and he saved, early in Ins career, a sufficient competence; but for the last 30 years of his life he was neglected. He had retired to Sandymount, near Dublin, where he pursued his favourite art, both in oil and water-colours, with great vigour. He died there April 17, 1824, aged 78, and was buried in the neighbouring old churchyard at Donnybrook. A fine work by him, ' Orlando under the Oak/ is in the Hiber- nian Academy; and his own portrait, painted by himself, and several of his landscapes, are in the Fitzwilliam collection at Cambridge.

ASHLEY, Hector, mason and archi- tect. His name frequently appears in the Privy Purse accounts of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. He is also mentioned by Walpole as an architect of the time of Queen Elizabeth, and is supposed to have been engaged in the erection of Hunsdon House.

ASHPIT AL, Arthur, F.S. A., architect. Born December 14, 1807. He was the son of a surveyor and architect; a clever child, he suffered from an accident, and his long confinement led to study. When about 35

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years of age, regaining his strength, he established himself as an architect and sur- veyor in the city, where he designed and erected a number of houses. In 1845 he built the new church of St. Barnabas, Homerton, soon after a church at Battersea, and another near Cardigan, followed by a church at Vernham Dean, near Hungerf ord, and the new church at Blackheath. In

1853 he travelled by Paris and Marseilles to Rome, where he passed the first three months of the next year, and then went to Naples for three months, where he suffered from fever, and returned home in 1854, after twelve months' absence. He had from 1845 been a constant exhibitor, chiefly of his executed works, at the Royal Academy, and after his return from Italy exhibited several restorations and works of great interest — in 1850, 'Selections from Pal- ladio ; ' in 1851, ' A Design for rebuilding Blackfriars Bridge and throwing open St. Paul's ; ' in 1858, restorations of ' Ancient Rome ; ' in 1859, * Modern Rome/ the last two published works. He was a good scholar and linguist, a clever archaeologist, fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and the writer of several works of art connected with his profession. He was an active fellow of the Institute of British Archi- tects, and a contributor to the ' Dictionary of Architecture' in the course of publication by that body. He also contributed to the 4 Encyclopaedia Britannica' the articles on Vanbrugh, Wren, the Wyatt Family, and William of Wykeham. He died January 18, 1869, and was buried in Hackney churchyard.

ASllTON, Henry, architect. Born in London, 1801. He was a pupil of Sir Robert Smirke, and was afterwards em- ployed by Sir Jeffrey W^attville, and continued in his employ till his death. He was v engaged to erect the stables at Windsor and the kennels at Frogmore. In 1828 he first exhibited a ' Roman Street/ a compo- sition ; in the following year, ' Strada della Chiesa/ a composition ; in 1830, a ' Palla- dian Villa;' and in 1831 a study in the Tudor style ; and then for above 20 years was no longer an exhibitor. He was at this period employed by the King of Holland to erect the Summer Palace at the Hague, and competed, though without success, for some of the most important works of his day. He was engaged as architect for the Victoria Street improvements, and designed the fine thoroughfare connecting Belgravia with the Houses of Parliament, and in

1854 he appears again as an exhibitor, sending a portion of his designs for this street, * Houses on the Scotch Principle ; ' in 1855 he exhibited a design for a mansion he was erecting; and in 1856, 'Sketches for enlarging the National Gallery.' His work possessed many good characteristics

14

— good in construction, simple yet tasteful in its design and proportions. Some of his best examples will De found in Victoria Street. He died March 18, 1872.

ASHTON, Matthew, portrait painter. Practised his art between 1725 — 50, both in Ireland and London. His portrait of Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh, is en- graved, and also his portrait of Ambrose Philips, the poet.

AoTLE Y, John, portrait painter. Born at Wem, Shropshire, about 1730. Son of an apothecary, and educated in the village school. Came to London and studied his art under Hudson; then, about 1749, managed to visit Rome, where Northcote tells he was poor enough, for, reluctantly pulling off his coat to follow the general example of a party of artists one hot even- ing, he displayed the back of his waistcoat made of one of his own canvas studies. On his return he practised his art some time in London, and afterwards went as an adven- turer, in 1759, to Dublin, where in about three years he is said to have realised 3000/. by his pencil. On his way home he was tempted to visit the neighbourhood of his birthplace, and, invited to the Knuts- f ord Assembly, Lady Daniell. a rich widow who was present, was so won oy his appear- ance that she contrived to sit to him for her portrait, and to marry him, we are told, within a week. She settled on him the Tabley estate, producing about 1000/. a year, and by her will left him, on the death of her daughter, the Duckingfield estate, worth 5000/. a year. He had much talent, particularly in portraits. His colouring was agreeable, the composition original, drawing fair, but the finish slight, and character and expression weak. His art was, however, spoiled by his fortune. He passed his time in idleness and dissipation, and obtained the name of ' Beau Astley. He soon sold the Tabley property. He made two or three charges on the reversion of the Duckingfield estate, and was just on the point of selling his. final interest when the heiress died, and he came into posses- sion of the whole. He now purchased Schomberg House, Pall Mall, for 5000/., and spent 5000/. more to convert it into three dwellings; the centre, fantastically fitted up, but not without taste, he inha- bited himself, and also a villa on Barnes Terrace. He speculated in a colliery, and sank more money than he raised, and was not more successful in some iron works; but his losses were somewhat replaced by a fortune of 10,000/. he inherited on the death of his brother, a surgeon at Putney, who was accidentally killed. In his youth handsome, vain, and ostentatious, with little sense of morality or propriety; in the decline of life, when not without the appre- hension of indigence, he was disturbed by ATK

ATK

the remembrance of his early follies. He died at Duckingfield Lodge, November 14, 1787, and was buried in the village church there. He had, when far advanced in life, married a third wife, and left a son and two daughters.

ATKI N S, J. , portrait painter. Born in Ireland. He studied for a time at Rome, and exhibited portraits at the Academy in 1831 and 1833. He was a young artist of much promise, and went to Constantinople to paint the portrait of the Sultan ; on his return, and while undergoing quarantine at Malta, he was attacked with fever, and died there 1834.

ATKINS, S., marine painter. Ex- hibited some good paintings at the Royal Academy in 1787— A Light Breeze/ * A Calm/ and 'A Fresh Gale/ but did not exhibit again till 1791, when in that year, and up to 1796, he was a contributor. He then went to the East Indies, and on his return in 1804 exhibited ' An East India- man passing the Boca Tigris/ and con- tinued an exhibitor to 1808. He painted both in oil and in water-colour. His works are characterised by much neatness and truth of finish.

ATKINSON, Thomas Witlam, archi- tect and draftsman. Was of numbie origin; bora about 1799; and was em- ployed as a mason or stone-carver upon several churches building in the North of England. He for some time taught draw- ing at Ashton-under-Lyne. Ingenious and observant, he gained knowledge in his work, and drew and published in 1831 his 4 Gothic Ornaments.' He afterwards settled at Manchester, and commenced practice as an architect, and gave the first impulse towards some taste in building in that city. In 1829 and the succeeding years he ex- hibited some architectural designs at the Royal Academy. In 1840, after some re- verses, which left him in difficulties, he came to London, and eventually went to Hamburg, and from thence to Berlin and St. Petersburg. Then abandoning any practice as an architect, he started as a traveller and an artist, and with the sanc- tion of the Russian Government he visited the most remote parts of Russia in Asia, including the Amoor River, bordering Chinese Tartary. He made a great many drawings and notes upon the condition of this remote territory, and returning to England after many difficulties, he pub- lished, with his own illustrations, in 1858, 1 Oriental and Western Siberia ; * in I860. ' Travels in the Region of the Upper ana Lower Amoor.' The ' Recollections of the Tartar Steppes and their Inhabitants ' ap- peared in 1863. He died at Little Walmer, Kent, August 13, 1861, aged 62.

ATKINSON, John Augustus, painter and draftsman. Was born in London in

1775, and in 1784 went with his uncle to St. Petersburg. Fond of art, he was allowed to study in the picture gallery of the royal palace, and gained the patronage of the Empress Catharine, ana, on her death, of her son the Emperor Paul. In- duced to settle in Russia, he executed there some good paintings. Two in the Michael's Palace represent * The Victory of the Cos- sacks of the Don over the Tartars ' and ' The Baptism of Count Wladimir.' He was a very skilful draftsman, and made numerous drawings of Russian costume and amusements, and illustrated a Russian edition of 'Hudibras,' published in 1798 at Kflnigsberg. In 1801 he returned to England, and the following year was an exhibitor of a Russian subject at the Royal Academy. Boydell about the same time published a view by him of the Russian metropolis, and a portrait of Suwarrow, engraved by Walker. In 1803-1804 he published * A Picturesque Representation of the Manners, Customs, and Amusements of the Russians ; ' the plates, slightly etched in outline, shaded with aqua-tint and coloured, number 100, and were all drawn and etched by himself. In 1807 he pub- lished a set of soft-ground etchings to illustrate the miseries of human life; and, in the same year, * A Picturesque Representation, in i00 coloured plates, of the Naval, Military, and Miscellaneous Costumes of Great Britain.' Later, he published some very spirited lithographic drawings of battles. In 1819 he completed a large picture of the ' Battle of Waterloo,' which was engraved by Burnet. He first exhibited at the Water-Colour Society as an ' Associate,' in 1808, two classic subjects with some others, and the following year was elected a member of the Society, when his contributions were chiefly military. In 1810 and 1811 his works were of the same class. In 1812 he sent Shakespeare's

  • Seven Ages.' In 1813, when an alteration

was made in the rules of the Society, his name no longer appears as a member, but he continued: to contribute under the new class as an 'exhibitor' up to 1818, when his contributions ceased. He was also a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy, sending during several years both rustic and classic subjects, with battle-pieces and camp scenes, in oil and water-colours. His last contribution was in 1829. The date of his death cannot be traced. His drawing was vigorous and powerful, his battle-

Eieces, m which he excelled, very spirited ; is representation of character and costume truthful; and his water-colour drawings simple in treatment, and characterised by a masterly hand.

  • ATKINSON, Frederick, amateur.

Was a silk- mercer and draper at York; and about the beginning of the 19th

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century produced some fair etchings, chiefly portraits, some from the life, with two or three views.

ATKINSON, Peter, architect. Was born at Ripon in 1725, and was brought up as a carpenter. He was employed by John Carr, the architect of York, and im- proving himself he succeeded his master on his retirement from the profession. He built for Sir John V. Johnstone the large mansion at Hackness, near Scarborough, and found much employment in Yorkshire and the adjacent counties. He died June 19 1805.

ATKINSON, Peter, architect. Son of the above. Born about 1776 ; brought up to his profession under his father, and afterwards his partner. He erected the bridge over the Ouse at York, commenced 1810. He was many years surveyor to the Corporation of York, and built the city prison. He also built several new churches. During the latter part of his life he resided abroad. He died in 1842.

ATKINSON, William, architect. Was born at Bishop's Auckland, near Durham, about 1773. Began life as a carpenter, ana with the assistance of Bishop Barrington was sent to London and became the ap- prentice of James Wyatt. He entered the schools of the Royal Academy, and first exhibited some architectural designs in 1796, and was for several years an occa- sional exhibitor. In 1797 he gained the Academy gold medal for his designs for a Court of Justice. He built several large mansions — among them Lord Mansfield's house at Scone— and was both in theory and practice a clever architect ; also several churches in Scotland; and holding the office of architect to the Board of Ordnance he made several alterations to the buildings at the Tower and at Woolwich. The offices of the Board of Control in Cannon Row, Westminster, are also after his designs. He was the inventor of Atkinson's cement, and published * Views of Picturesque Cot- tages ' in 1805. He died at Oobham, Surrey, May 22, 1839, aged 66.

ATSYLL, Richard, gem engraver. Held the office of gem engraver to Henry VIII., with a fee of 20Z. a year. It is recorded that he cut the king's head in sardonyx, and this gem is supposed to exist in the Duke of Devonshire's collection.

ATTWOLD, R., engraver and drafts- man. There is an engraving in the line manner, cleverly designed and engraved by him, published in 1750— ' The Military Nurse, or Modern Officer/ and * The Naval Nurse, or Modern Commander,' two satir- ical subjects on one plate, in the manner of Hogarth, to whom, in the absence of any knowledge of the artist, they have been- erroneously attributed.

AT WOOD, Thomas, flower painter.

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--jOL>+**e4 —

Exhibited a large flower-piece at the second Exhibition of Artists, 1761, and was a member of the Incorporated Society in 1766 ; but does not appear to have been a contributor to the Academy Exhibitions.

AUDI NET, Philippe, engraver. De- scended from a French refugee family long settled in England. Born in Soho in 1766, was apprenticed to Jolin Hall, the distin- guished line engraver, and worked in that manner. Among his early works were the portraits for Harrison's ' Biographical Magazine' and the ' History of England.' He also engraved for Bell's publications, and there is a plate of * Louis XVI. and the Royal Family of France ' by him. Among his later works may be distinguished a large portrait of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, ana another of Sir William Domville, with the illustrations for an edition of Walton's 1 Angler.' He died a bachelor, December 18, 1837. aged 71, and was buried in the vaults of St. Giles's Church.

AUSTEN. William, modeller. Prac- tised in London in the reign of Henry VI. Executed the model and metal work of the famous monument of Richard de Beau- champ, Earl of Warwick, in St. Mary's Church at Warwick, 1464, the principal figure of a natural size, and a fine work, with 36 small figures in rich Gothic niches. Flaxman praises this tomb highly, and says it equals the work of the great Italian artists of that time.

AUSTIN, George, architect. Was born at Woodstock, and early applied himself to the restoration of Gothic edifices. In 1820 he was appointed the resident architect of Canterbury Cathedral, and carried out very extensive and important restorations ana repairs to the fabric. He died Octo- ber 26, 1842. aged 62, and was buried in the cathedral.

AUSTIN, Paul, engraver. Born in London 1741. He engraved landscape after several masters.

AUSTIN, Richard T., wood engraver. Was a pupil of John Bewick ; and executed small cuts and vignettes in wood at the commencement of the 19th century. In 1802 he obtained the Society of Arts silver medal. The cuts for Linnaeus's 'Travels in Lapland ' published in 1811, are by him. He was a clever artist, and much employed by the booksellers, but he did nothing to promote the art, which in his day began to rise in estimation. He exhibited some landscapes at the Royal Academy in 1803 and 1806.

AUSTIN, Samuel, water-colour paint- er. He resided at Liverpool, where he was originally clerk in a bank, and gave up a good salary to pursue professionally an art in which he had excelled as an amateur. He was, in 1824, one of the foundation members of the Society of British Artists,