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A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions/Table of Contents

 

CONTENTS

OF

THE FIRST VOLUME.




Leave Chatham.—Experiments at Gillingham.—Margate Roads.—Departure from the Lizard.—Height of Waves.—Bay of Biscay.—Maderia.—Pico Ruivo.—Phenomenon.—Tea Plantation.—Touch at Santa Cruz.—Port Praya.—Quail Island.—Observations.—Enter the Variables.—Plane of Vapour.—St. Paul's Rocks.—Geological Remarks.—Cross the Equator.—Magnetic Equator.—Rapid Change of Dip.—Point of least Intensity.—Island of Trinidad.—Local Magnetic Influence

Page 1


Tropic of Capricorn.—Deep Soundings.—Arrival at St. Helena.—Land Observers and Instruments.—Magnetic Observatory.—Powerful Magnetic Effect of the Island.—Sail from St. Helena.—Direction of Line of least Magnetic Intensity.—Its Change of Position as compared with former Observations.—Water Spouts.—Sudden Gusts of Wind and heavy Rain.—Height of Waves.—Kattendyk Shoal.—Second Experiment for deep Soundings.—Current of cold Water.—Great Change in Temperature of Air and Sea.—Its probable Cause.—Arrive at Cape of Good Hope.—Replenish Stores and Provisions

25


Sail from Simon's Bay.—The Cape Current.—Aguilhas Bank.—Soundings.—Currents.—Change of Climate.—Prince Edward's Island.—Penguins.—Soundings.—Anchorage.—Crozet Islands.—Possession Island.—East Island.—America Bay.—Sealing Party.—Elephant Fishery.—Anchorages.—East Island.—Dark Head.—Remarkable Rocks.—Iceberg seen.—Oceanic Birds.—Bligh's Cap.—Cape François.—Erebus Bank.—Terror Reef.—Sperm Whales.—Arched Rock.—Christmas Harbour

Page 39


Kerguelen Island.—Cook's Visit.—Christmas Harbour.—Table Mount.—Fossil Trees.—Seams of Coal.—Geological Notice of the Formation of the Land in the Vicinity of Christmas Harbour.—Cumberland Bay.—Botanical Notice of Kerguelen Island.—Zoological Notice.—Magnetic Observations.—Violent Gales.—Surveys.—Geographical Position

63


Terror Reef.—Beds of Seaweed.—Current.—The Ships part Company.—Hurricane.—Boatswain drowned.—Iceberg seen.—Succession of Gales.—Magnetic Force.—Observations.—Line of no Variation.—Make the Land.—Driven off by a Storm.—Anchor in the Derwent.—Magnetic Observatory.—Term day Observations.—French Expedition.—French Discoveries.—American Expedition.—Selection of Route.—Van Diemen's Land.—Society of Hobart Town.—Proposed College.—Magnetometrical Observations.—Situation of Observatory

95


Preparations for Sea.—Storm Bay.—Auckland Islands.—Black Head.—Bristow Rock.—Enderby Island.—Rendezvous Harbour.—French Expedition.—United States Brig Porpoise.—Magnetometric Observations.—Local Attraction.— Rendezvous Harbour as a Penal Settlement.—Laurie Harbour.—Meteorological Abstract.—Formation of Auckland Islands.—Botanical Notice.—Zoological Notice.—Wild Hogs.—Animals landed.—Tree Fern.—Result of Observations.—Campbell Island.—Botanical Notice.—Albatross Nests.—Sealers' Graves

Page 128


Departure from Campbell Island.—Midsummer Day.—Christmas Day.—First Iceberg.—Whales.—Deep Soundings.—Cross the Antarctic Circle.—New Year's Day.—View of the Pack.—Refraction.—Enter the Pack.—False Appearance of Land.—Progress through the Pack.—Penguins.—Beset in the Pack.—Temperature of the Ocean.—Observations on the Ice.—Get into a clear Sea.—Land discovered.—Cape Adare.—Admiralty Range.—Mount Sabine.—Cape Barrow.—Bellinghausen.—Land on Possession Island.—Southerly Gale.—Great Number of Whales.—Whale Fishery.—Mount Herschel.—Mount Lloyd.—Chain of Islets.—Soundings.—Harbours.—Stormy Weather.—Coulman Island.—Irregular Soundings.—Dredge in deep Water.—Corals.—Cape Wheatstone.—Current.—Mount Melbourne.—Land Ice.—Marine Invertebrata

165


High Southern Latitude.—Heavy Pack.—Mount Melbourne.—Approach Magnetic Pole.—Land on Franklin Island.—Active Volcano discovered.—Parry Mountains.—Cape Crozier.—Cape Bird.—Great Icy Barrier.—Meteorological Abstract.—Bank discovered.—Magnetic Point.—Enter a Pack.—Farthest South.—The Great Penguins.—Close the Barrier.—Examination of the Pack.—Chain of Bergs.—Steer for the Magnetic Pole.—The Warm Air Stove.—Coloured Ice.—Eruptions of Mount Erebus.—South Magnetic Pole.—Albert Mountains.—Victoria Land.—Sailing through young Ice.—Doubtful Island.—Bear away to the Northward.—Cape Adare.—Examine North Coast.—Smith Inlet and Yule Bay.—Mount Elliott.— Barrier from Cape North.—Great Change of Variation.–Cape North.—Proceed to the Northward.—Navigation of the Antarctic Seas.—Last Sight of Victoria Land.—Aurora Australis.—Meteorological Abstract

Page 209


Aurora Australis.—New Land discovered.—Russell Peak.—Balleny Islands.—Côte Clarie.—Balleny's Discoveries.—Antarctic Continent.—Wilkes's Discoveries.—Recross Antarctic Circle.—Wilkes's Land.—Balleny Islands.—Chain of Bergs.—Perilous Situation.—Examination of the Pack.—Search for supposed Land.—Facts connected with the Discovery of Wilkes's Land

265


Magnetic Pole of M. Gauss.—Delayed by adverse Winds.—Great Fall of the Barometer.—Sailing along the Pack Edge.—Magnetic Observations.—Line of no Variation.—Aurora Australis.—Great Flight of Petrels.—Icebergs.—Mean Temperature of the Ocean.—Meteorological Abstract.—Focus of greatest Intensity.—Enter the Derwent.—Satisfactory Conclusion of the Voyage

301


Appendix to Volume 1 (not listed in Table of Contents)

LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS

IN

THE FIRST VOLUME.




Christmas Harbour, Kirguelen Island (Frontispiece.)
Chart of Victoria Land Page 1
Nine Pin Rock, Trinidad. Chap. I.
St. Paul's Rocks (Map) p. 17
Entrance to Christmas Harbour. Chap. II.
Arched Rock, Christmas Harbour. Chap. IV.
Christmas Harbour (Map) p. 90
Rossbank Observatory. Chap. V.
Mount Minto and Mount Adam. Chap. VI.
Rendezvous Harbour (Map) p. 153
South or Perseverance Harbour (Map) p. 156
Possession Island, Victoria Land. Chap VII.
Mount Sabine and Possession Island p. 183
Coulman Island p. 199
Cape Crozier and Mount Terror. Chap. VIII.
Beaufort Island and Mount Erebus p. 216
South Polar Barrier p. 232
Wilkes's Discoveries (Plan) p. 352

Volume 2

CONTENTS

OF

THE SECOND VOLUME.




Refitting the Ships.—Fossil Trees of Derwent Valley.—Geological Remarks.—Tassman's Peninsula.—Eagle Hawk Neck.—Tesselated Pavement.—Entrecasteaux Channel.—Timber on the Banks of the Huon.—Advantages of Port Arthur.—Mean Level of the Ocean.—Launceston.—Prepare for Sea.—Deviation of the Compass

Page 1


Departure from Hobarton.—Anchor in Port Jackson.—Term-day Observations.—Heavy Fall of Rain.—Appearance and State of Sydney.—Paramatta Observatory.—Magnetic Observations at Garden Island.—Sail from Port Jackson.—Change of Temperature.—Coast Current.—Falling Stars.—Temperature of the Ocean.—Coral Bank.—Cape Maria Van Diemen.—Bay of Islands.—Anchor in the Kawa Kawa.—The American Corvette, Yorktown.—Position of Observatory

33


Suggestions relative to Vaccination.—Communicate with Captain Aulic.—Hourly Observations, Visits of Awara and Pomare.—Dissatisfaction of the New Zealanders.—Influence of the Missionaries.—Climate.—Meteorological Abstracts

65


Aspect of the Country.—Visit to the Missionary Station of Waimati.—Falls of the Keri Keri.—Kaudi Gum.—Heki's Pah.—Heki's Feast.—Waimati.—Fishing Party to Lake Mapere.—Ascent of Puki Nui Lakes at Taiami.—Hot Springs of Tuakino.—Return to the Erebus.—Visit from Captain L'Eveque of the French Corvette, Héroine.—Capture of the French Whaler, Jean Bart, by the Inhabitants of Chatham Island.—Necessity for increased Naval Force in these Seas.—Tidal Observations

Page 91


Outrage at the Bay of Islands.—Sail from New Zealand.—Proposed Whaling Station at Auckland Islands.—Dangerous Reefs.—North-west Reef and Dangers off Chatham Island.—Nimrod Islands.—Penguins.—Appearance of Land.—Circle of Mean Temperature of the Southern Ocean.—First Iceberg seen.—Focus of Greater Intensity.—Enter the Pack.—Animalculæ.—Magnetic Observations on the Ice.—Beset in the Pack.—Meteorological Abstract for December

125


Cross the Antarctic Circle.—Driven back to the Northward.—The Great Penguin.—Seals.—Fish.—Animal Life.—Beset in the Pack.—Gale in the Pack.—Perilous Situation of the Ships.—Damages sustained during the Gale.—Repair Damages.—Closely beset in the Pack.—Meteorological Abstract for January

155


Breadth of the Pack.—Refraction.—Heavy Swell in the Pack.—The clear Sea in sight.—Gain the open Water.—Proceed to the Southward.—Becalmed.—Large Iceberg seen last Year.—Severe Temperature.—Stopped by the great Icy Barrier.—Furthest South Latitude, 78° 10′.—

Exploration of the Barrier.—Bear up for the Falkland Islands.—Strength of the Bay Ice.—Running to the Northward.—Aurora Australis.—Meteorological Abstract for February

Page 181


Magnificent Range of Bergs.—Colour of the Sea.—Northeasterly Gale.—Recross the Antarctic Circle.—Collision with the Terror.—Loss of Bowsprit.—The Stern-board.—The Escape.—Unusual Phenomenon.—Repair Damages.—Focus of Greater Intensity.—Circle of Mean Temperature of the Ocean.—Meteorological Abstract for March.—Current off Cape Horn.—Beauchène Island.—Anchor in Port Louis, East Falkland Island

213


Land the Observatories.—Shooting Parties.—Account of a Wild Cattle Hunt.—The Ships hauled up to repair.—Arrival of Her Majesty's Ship Carysfort, with Provisions and Stores.—Refitment of the Ships.—Port William.—Removal of the Settlement from Port Louis to Port William.—Botanical Notice.—Grasses.—Balsam Bog.—Flowers.—Lichens.—Seaweeds.—Mosses.—Ferns.—Esculent Plants.—Tussock Grass of the Falkland Islands

241


Sail from Port Louis.—Bank discovered.—Depression of Temperature.—Cape Horn.—Anchor in St. Martin's Cove.—Natives of Hermite Island.—Its Botanical Productions.—Trees.—Alpine Plants.—Flowering Plants.—Plants common to Britain.—Mosses and Esculent Plants

279


Natives of Furgia.—Weapons.—Birds.—Climate.—Meteorological Abstract for October.—Prevailing Winds.—"Williwaws."—Tides.—Permanent Mark at the Mean Level of the Sea.—Sail from St. Martin's Cove.—Burwood Bank.

—Beauchêne Island.—Anchor in Port Louis.—English Barque, Governor Halkett.—Her Majesty's Ship Philomel.—Trees from Hermite Island planted.—Result of Observations.—Tides.—Permanent Marks to indicate the Mean Level of the Ocean

Page 303


Route determined.—Sail from Falkland Islands.—Circle of Mean Temperature of the Ocean.—Make the Pack.—Land discovered.—Danger Islets.—Whale Fishery.—Mount Percy.—Meteorological Abstract for December.—D'Urville Monument.—Mount Haddington.—Cockburn Island—Its Botany.—Admiralty Inlet.—Fixed Land Ice.—Clear the Main Pack.—Meteorological Abstract for January

321


Clear the Pack.—Cross the Line of No Variation.—Position of Magnetic Pole.—Enter Antarctic Circle.—Meteorological Abstract for February.—Deep Soundings.—Between Bellinghausen and Weddell's Tracks reach Latitude 71° 30′ S.—Gale at Pack Edge.—Perilous Situation for several Days.—The great Comet.—Recross Antarctic Circle.—Search for Bouvet Island.—Various Accounts of its Position.—Last Icebeg seen.—Circle of Mean Temperature of the Southern Ocean.—Meteorological Abstract for March.—Anchor in Simon's Bay.—Touch at St. Helena and Ascension Islands.—No Soundings with four thousand six hundred Fathoms, the greatest Depth yet reached.—Arrive at Rio.—Sail for England.—Cross the Line of No Dip.—Atmospheric Pressure in the Southern Hemisphere.—Arrive in England

355


Appendix to Volume 2 (not listed in Table of Contents)

LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS

IN

THE SECOND VOLUME.




The Collision (Frontispiece.)
Cape Horn. Chap. I.
Seal Hunting. Chap. II.
Catching Great Penguins. Chap. IV.
Pushing through the Pack. Chap. VI.
A Gale in the Pack p. 169
The Erebus passing through the Bergs p. 220
Tussac Grass of Falkland Islands. Chap. VIII.
Hunting Wild Cattle in the Falkland Islands. Chap. IX.
Mount Kater, Hermite Island. Chap. X.
Balsam-bog Plant. Chap. XI.
Cockburn Island and Admiralty Inlet. Chap. XII.
Deep Soundings. Chap. XIII.
Louis Philippe Land (Map) p. 329
Mount Haddington and Cape Gage p. 387
South Polar Chart (at the end.)