A grammar of the Teloogoo language/Chapter 2



Possessing the refined and inexhaustible Sanscrit, as the established medium for the communication of knowledge, to the few among whom it's dissemination is thought to be lawful; Teloogoo writers have had little inducement to give much attention to the cultivation of their own language. Their literature consists almost entirely of poetry; and their Poets, desirous only to please the ear, or, to flatter the vanity of the reigning Prince, seem to have deemed the improvement of their style a secondary consideration. The cadence of their verses, and the tones of the words composing them, have occupied almost their exclusive attention. The consequence has been a neglect of the more important qualities of composition, and a studied conciseness of expression, which, though not inelegant in itself, has frequently the effect of rendering their sentences obscure. At the same time, by a judicious union of the sweetness of the original Teloogoo, with the majestic sounds of the sonorous Sanscrit, they have succeeded in giving to the language a pleasing variety of modulation, which distinguishes it from all others current in the Peninsula.

Another principal cause of this euphony is the extraordinary care that has been taken to prevent any incongruity of sound arising from the conjunction of dissimilar letters. The numerous rules, for this purpose, are scattered, in a confused manner, through the works of many Grammarians ; and, as the following is the first attempt to reduce them to methodical order, it may hereafter, perhaps, be found susceptible of great improvement. I shall endeavour to explain, 1st the alterations which take place in letters at the beginning and end of words; and 2ndly, the changes which occur in the middle of words. But it is proper, in the first place, to apprize the Reader, that the following rules are by no means rigidly observed, except in studied compositions. In the common or colloquial dialect,many of the changes will occasionally be found : it is true that they are not there adhered to systematically, but even in that dialect they are seldom entirely neglected. The Student, however, may find it more convenient to refer occasionally to this chapter as he advances, than, at the very commencement of his labours, to enter into some of the most perplexing niceties of the language.


In treating of this subject, the whole of the words in the Teloogoo language are divided into two classes; one termed కళలు kululoo, the other ద్రుత ప్రకృతులు drootupritkrovtooloo.

The class termed కళలు kululoo includes, 1st the singular and plural nominatives of all nouns and pronouns, (except నేను I and తాను he she or it) and the oblique case, or what I have termed the inflexion, of all nouns and pronouns, both in the singular and plural number.

2dly. The postpositions యొక్క or యొక of, కూర్చి or గురించి towards, on account of, పట్టుఁడి through, చేసి from, పట్టి through, విషయము respecting, నిమిత్తము on account of, కోసము or కోసరము for, on account of, నుండి or నుంచి from, away from.

3dly. The final significant letters *" or expressing interrogation, -=> or denoting emphasis, and ^ or ^ expressive of doubt.

4thly. Indeclinable particles, like అట, కద, మఱి, ఏలా, ఇంచుక, అంత, &c.

5thly. All Interjections, and vocative cases.

6thly. The words, ఇప్పుడు now, అప్పుడు then, ఎప్పుడు when? 7thly. Every part of the verb; except the first and third persons in the singular, and the third person neuter in the plural, of the first forms of the past and future tenses, and of the affirmative aorist; the first person singular of the negative aorist; the infinitive; and the present verbal participle terminating in చు; and, when followed by vowels only, the indifinite relative participle ending in డి or డు, or the root when used for this participle.

The Negative verbal participle, which always ends in , is classed both in the కళలు kululoo, and the ద్రుతప్రకృతులు drootuprukrcotooloo.

The nominatives , he she or it, and the several parts of the verb mentioned above, as exceptions ; together with all the other words in the language, not included in the foregoing specification of the kululoo , form the numerous class denominated drwtuprukrootoolw.

Every Teloogoo word, whether included in the class of కళలు kululoo, or ద్రుతప్రకృతులు drootuprukrootooloo, naturally terminates in some one of the connected vowels I shall first point out the changes which occur when any of these words is followed by another commencing with an initial vowel; and shall then explain the alterations that take place, when any of them is followed by another beginning with a consonant.

In Teloogoo, two vowels never can come in contact; therefore, when a word terminating in a connected vowel is followed by another commencing with an initial vowel, there is either the change termed by Grammarians Sundhi, or a consonant is inserted between the two words ; unless the initial vowel be one of the Sanscrit letters roo, , and , which at the beginning of a word, are to be considered the same as consonants.

The consonants inserted, when Sund,hi does not occur, are యి y if the former of the two words be included in the class termed కళలు kuluho, and tf n if it belong to the ద్రుతప్రకృతులు drootuprukrwtoolw; but, which ever of these two consonants is inserted, it changes the following initial vowel into it's connected form, and, coalescing with it, forms, in conjunction with it, one syllable. Sund,hi is the elision of the connected vowel terminating the first word, and of the initial vowel commencing the following word, and the substitution of the connected form of the latter vowel in lieu of both; as shewn in the examples hereafter given.

Sund,hi never takes place unless the first word terminates in one of the three short connected vowels " u, i, or *o oo, except in a few particular instances noticed hereafter.


It may be adopted as a general rule that a word terminating in v followed by another commencing with an initial vowel, may at option have Sund,hi; thus, మేసిన that grazed, and ఆవు a cow, make మేసినావు the cow that grazed, by dropping the final ^ in మేసిన and the initial in ఆవు, and substituting for both the connected form of viz. o ; which, uniting with the preceding <* n, makes the syllable నా, by means of which the two words coalesce. But as the Sund,hi of final ^ is optional, and మేసిన is included in the class of కళలు ululoo, మేసిన and ఆవు, when Sund,hi does not take place, become మేసినయావు, by the insertion of యి between the two words, and the change of in the latter to .it's connected form o,which, uniting with యి, forms the syllable యా, by means of which the words coalesce, as above stated.


Words of the class termed ద్రుతప్రకృతులు drootuprukrootooloo, ending in ^, never admit of Sundhi By rule 89, therefore, & n is always inserted after such words, when the following one begins with an initial vowel. The word ఏమి more, is excepted; for adding to it ఏమి what? we may say, either ఇంకనేమి what more? by inserting tf n, or ఇంకేమి by Sundhi.

Vocative cases ending in ^ and the nominative case singular of pure Teloogoo nouns denoting women, and terminating in v, do not admit of Sundjii, when followed by a word commencing with an initial vowel. Being of the class named కళలు kululco, such words assume యి y as explained in rule 89 i thus, నెలత a woman and ఇచ్చెను he she, or it gave, make, (Telugu characters) a woman gave, never (Telugu characters) O Krishtna! and (Telugu characters) come here, make (Telugu characters) O Krishtna! come here; never (Telugu characters).


A word terminating in 9 followed by another beginning with an initial vowel, does not, in general, admit of Sundhi; thus కత్తి a knife, and ఎక్కడ where; cannot by Sundhi become కత్తెక్కడ, but make కత్తియెక్కడ where is the knife? by inserting యి in the manner above explained, కత్తి being included in the class named కళలు kululoo.


In the first form of the perfect tense of verbs, the second person singular ending in or >, the first person plural terminating in 8&>, an( j the second person plural ending in 8, when followed by a word commencing with a vowel, invariably have Sund,hi> thus (OSo-ffiQS) thou servedst, and the gods, make iOS)c)e9SJSfc>bo tf/i0M servedst the gods, by dropping final ( and initial 65, and substituting, in lieu of both, the connected form of 65 viz. "% which, joining with the preceding J u, forms the syllable 55", by means of which the two words coalesce.

In the same tense, the first person singular terminating in &, and the third person plural ending in 9, may, or may not, have Sund.hi, at pleasure; thus, l_ I have saluted, and 65-j&g&>cO the Unperishable, make l^^J_ //foue saluted the Unperishable (Vishtnoo) ^^9 ^ey came, and A e Crotfo, make sS'S^S'x&SbeA) ^ GoJs came ; the Sundjii, however, being optional, these phrases may have another form- We may say ^^^J^ _ & ?5-I^3b^ jf Aa W saluted the Unperishable (Vishtnoo) ^^QcCo^b&^x) the Gods came; here <^ n is inserted in the first phrase, because~oto>; 9 is included in the &j *$i So ;C^)O drooluprukrootooloo ; and c 00 y in the second sentence, because ^"^9 is of the class named ^v ex) kululoo.

The pronouns 65S ^^ S5S ^ ow , ^a this, ^S) ^^e, ^^ z/cA? ^S) 98 what ? the word 53o^ again, more, and the postposition to, have optional Sund.hi; thus, e>a and ^ make &~&> or &>>% what is that? and &> make & s > or 9>o>S) HJ/MC/* are these 9 in the same manner we may say, "-^r^lS^ or "-CcOrSftOToSX) wAal y^as Jeen done? 35ox)SX> or, wore? T^SSoo^S^^ or Tr ) J5bo$&'^f$9 he, she or z< ^aue to Rama* In all these phrases, except the last, when Sundjii does not take place, ooo y is inserted ; because each of the first words are included in the class termed JT$ex> hululoo ; but in the last sentence, N> n is inserted after i, because it is of the class named (&}*$ >j&&ex) drootvpruhrootooloo.

Words ending in 9 , if followed by the word e9x>tf added to adjectives, or how much? have Sund,hi at option, thus; ">& and ^o* 5 ^" make 3d5box>?5 c/^/". In the same way, we say <v)O~Soe or much flour?


It may be taken as a general rule that words ending in V>, followed by others beginning with an initial vowel, invariably have Sundjii ; as Tys&DcSSb llama, and ^^^f& he, she, or it gave, become TT'SfoDoSlS^Rxj Rama gave. Innumerable other instances might be given. EXCEPTIONS- 101 The accusatives ^f&X me; ^^^ thee, *$&^ him, her, or it, U s, Sto^bo you, &S&3, thenii the postpositions ^#& for, &> to, &o&> i n . the words <^o&> in which, ^o&> i #/, ^9o2^ in that, and the particle &> added to the roots of verbs to form the present verbal participle, have also Sundjii, when followed by an initial vowel, but it is entirely optional; thus ^"rfo^. me, and &ex>s$x> nffe MOM, make tfl3^e>3B$ or S(^^J*4xiaio rw/e MOM me,

  • & speaking, ^&$cfo thus he, she, or if sa7, make 9&)k>!03o or

^^P^ speaking, he, she, or # /A5 saz'c?, "S^-i&> saying, and I^sri^c2fc / ie {5 make ISSjj-x&'Sr^c&o or " : 3e3>j>-C&^)"(2r^j:2^2 Ae w saying. In these phrases, when SundM does not take place, the first words being all &&&f^ ^^ drootupritkrootooloo, & n is inserted between them and the words which follow. The first and third persons singular in the affirmative aorist, the indefinite 102 participle in &, or the root used for that participle : and nouns in the accusative singular ending in *o when deprived of their drootuprukrootica affixes, never admit of Sand, hi $ as j& I come, have come, or will come, and ^^2*0 now, make T^|oS5>j>2Sb / come, have come, or will come now. ^"^^ he comes, has come, or will co me, and ^So^So now, make S5"-Kk^s3>j>& fa comes, has come, or will come now. ^axo-lfc that protects, -^C5bi the'god, and ocrsr;& I have meditated, make e lxOafc)3';: 5bce>c-a'Sr o &> / have meditated on M the protecting God. "75"5&o the accusative of "G^SxttC^ib Kama, deprived of it's drootuprukrootica affixes, and -H<&o" : 3i& he, she, or it saw, make l : & he, she, or it saw Rama.

All words ending in any of the short vowels, invariably have Sundjti, when followed by <^C<J& full, S9oe as much as, ^^ at the rate of, and &&> a leaf; or by the words ^^. an elder brother, ^^ a mother, ^ 9 $ an elder sister,. e^cOog a father, ^>_g a mother-in-law, ^^ a father , K>S5 a grand mother fyc. when added to proper names to express familiarity or kindness ; thus, 1*^ the hand, held so as to contain any thing, and <^C<3Sb full, make I3l3c<j& a handfull; S^ 6 ^ an areca nut ; and 9o& as much as, make o^S'oS' as large as an areca nut ; <^S5^Q eight, and <^<o at the rate of, make ^ < &~*u~z&) at the rale of eight ; <^^ Soobee, the proper name of a woman, and ^^ mother, make ^^^ friend Soobee ! ~e3^63 a Palmyra (in the inflected case) and && a leaf, make !T'&r T >o fl Palmyra-leaf.

Nouns of Sanscrit derivation, even ending in the short connected vowels ", 104 ?, or ^, which in the nominative singular do not adopt the Teloogoo terminations C&bj S$iv>, or $), never admit of Sund,hi ; thus, 00^^, a swan, and <^& which ? make ^OpS^)^ rohich is the swan 7 2$^e~ durb,ha, a kind of sacred grass, and <>5^ ivhich? make >$"e-c3oa to/'c^ z> ^*e durljia? Sj-*8 <^ e ,(70^ Vishtnoo, and oOC~^r& 7<e, sAe, or it went, make ^"6coC~7??& Vishtnoo -went. In all these instances, the first word is included in the class of and therefore, as Sund.hi does not take place, *> is inserted between it and the following word, according to rule 89.

Words ending in any of the long vowels never have Sund.hi, nor do the short vowels ' "* or 2/ admit of Sand, hi, except when followed by the words specified in rule 103. When followed by any other words beginning with an initial vowel, words of such terminations, if they be ySfc/Cf^ 3^i3bex> drootu- prukrootoolno insert ^ n, and if &% &> kululoo coo.

As the first word in each of the following phrases belongs to the class termed ? coo is inserted between it and the word which follows. a W oman, and <*>& where? make ^55"erc&>a where is the woman ? 0:0 being inserted between #>tr an j oift changes the following initial vowel a) of <^& to its connected form , and uniting with it, forms one syllable c&>, by means of which the two words coalesce ; SS^S a Palanqueen, and ^ &> he, she, or it mounted, make 3>&sc&r &) he, she, or it mounted the Palanqueen; S5"^x coloured, and 2ol3 a garment make Sl&c&MiS a coloured garment; ~o night, and *>o<6 lustre, make ~oc^>o5p moonshine ; "^> Me ancl 2oJ5qJ) beauty, make ^>^>o?5^) personal beauty; S> money, and donation, make ^ooo-oS) </ ie donation of money ; ^ Me woow, and , or # crro.se, make ^ cCooSoooo^itk Me waoon arose. Al

The first word in each of the following phrases being of the class named &3j*$ [ &)^$)ZX) drootuprukrootooloo, & n is inserted between it and the word which follows.

$3S ~^ slowly, and &C~7&> he, she, or it went, make !%C^ he, she it or it went slowly ; $ n being inserted between ScSi^A* and changes the following initial vowel & of &c~7;& into it's connected form "^ , and uniting with it, forms one' syllable ~^, by means of which the two words coalesce; the accusative )~$~e^ the Creator, and -&>tlo" : 3f& he, she, or it saw, make S3!^'r) i JUo~T3r& he, she, or z sazy the Creator; ^^ (9orf, in the accusative case, and -& i JUo' : 3f& he, she, or # Saw, make ^ K^jA.o'SrW Ae, 5//e, or it &aio God; ?^?^J Me Goddess of learning, (in the accusative case), and 9<&~^r& he, she, or it asked, make &x> <* > $~J(&> he, she, or it asked the Goddess of learning ; J* the moon (in the accusative case) and tser^io-O having seen, make | "ST'er^lo-O having seen the moon. It must here be particularly observed that the accusatives afcovementioned are, in the first place, for the sake of example, deprived of their drootuprukrootica affixes.

When a word, both ending and beginning with a vowel, is repeated, there 106 is Sund t hi; thus, &Z>^an elder brother, when repeated, becomes ^^J^. brother ! brother ! ^S what, in the same manner, becomes <&~&>2to what ! wliat !

The pronoun && she or it, when added, in composition, to other words, frequently loses the initial & ; thus, "S^ c ^) a husbandman, a labourer, and 9& she, become, in composition, ~5~c <$)8> a female labourer, by the elision of 9 in 9& ; but in consequence of ~3~C^) ending in ^>, Sundjii also may take place, according to rule 100, and the two w/>rds in question will then become TPCXSa ; in the same way , S^SSb &3 a man of the Comtee cast, and ^>^> she, make s b&3& a woman of the Comtee cast, but as the elision of ^ is optional, we may also say ^S$b3cSoa by inserting coo according to rules 95 and 89.

Inflexions ending in V) "^ or ^, though included in the class of s"sfew kululoc, affix ( n when followed by postpositions, or prefixed in composition to other no.uns commencing with an initial vowel, thus, ~&&x>. Rama, and <^;&><b opposite, m^er^^^^^opposite Rama, a serpent, bones, make a serpent's bones.

Having thus endeavoured to explain the changes which take place, when a word terminating in a connected vowel is followed by one commencing* with art initial vowel, I shall proceed to state those which occur, when a word ending with a connected vowel is followed by one commencing with a consonant.

If a word beginning with a consonant bo preceded by another included in the class termed Sv ex> hululoo, there is no elision or insertion of lettflfs and permutation takes place in the following instances only. Nouns in the nominative case, even when used accusatively, and all parts of the verb ending in &> t 2&>, and & together with the words 9>>j><&> then, ^S5^><&> now, <^S3^&> w hen ? preceding a word beginning with any of the hard letters &&'&, change them respectively to X# ; thus, ^>*X> wealthy preceding *^2& she or it will not go, changes the *> p of S3"^&> into 3 v, and we say ^ >*>*> &> riches will not disappear ; in the same manner, c^^)-^ 3 -ST^CcSb he is going, and S">8 a robber, make sW^fcSft^^C&KgS tfte roooer is going ; ^^) ^^^ she, or it is departing, and "&& **> /h'tf ndship, make sb^afcf^a^OSto friendship is departing; ef>55>j>&b ^ eW} and -tf^c^or&Ae, s/j^ or it went, make 9S5^&b^>63o;& ^ she, or it then went; now, and ij e, she, or it went, make ^S3>j>2&& cs5or& Ae, .<?fo, or it now went.

But Sanscrit derivatives, preceded by pure Teloogoo words, are excepted from this rule, and are not subject to any change ; because the nature of such words is considered so different, as to prevent their coalescing in orthography ; thus, &<5 a master, and ?x>?%o~ : d>&>he ) she, or it was pleased, make 5^ t> 5'5b?^o' : Sr^> the master ivas pleased ; never he, this man, and ^T^Ct&jCi&D a virtuous man, make SXSfc^T^^e&^c&o this is a virtuous man. Nevertheless, if two words both of Sanscrit derivation come together, the general rule holds good ; because, in that case, both the words are of the same kind, we therefore say T73$x>c2>X5bro' : 3?& never "O^S&oC <&>'5b?!o" : 3?& Rama was pleased.

When two pure Teloogoo substantives are joined together by a copulative conjunction, not expressed, but understood, and the latter word^begins with any of the hard letters ^ & & So, these letters are severally changed to fQ${$&o5j ; thus, "5^e>3 a leg, and "Te&>ex> hands, make 'S^ew e^<3bew legs and hands ; ^^ an elder brother, and ^^M^exj younger brothers, make ^^^ gSaSx^exJ elder and younger brothers.

  • Although $ may be changed into X - -f into 3 - &> into & - 5 . into & and S5 into , the rarerse of this rule does not hold goud, these letters are not interchangable : K cannot

by any means become ?f, nor X$, "$ &c. The first series may be converted into the second, but the second can never be converted into the first, If a word commencing with any of the five hard letters & ~& *** Q >, be pieceded by another included in the class termed ^^e^^iS^^bew drootupru- i krootooloo, both permutation and insertion of letters invariably take place ; but if the latter word begin with any other consonant, there is insertion only, and it is optional*

When a word included in the &j & &i3^&)Vd drootuprukrootooloo precedes another word commencing with any of the five hard letters $ '%> & C" So, it

  • * invariably changes these characters respectively, into the soft letters X K & w,

and if it end in 9 or ,3. it is requisite to insert between the two words, or ?& if it terminate in any other letter ; but if it already end in $ or ( . j&, these terminations cannot again be affixed, for the repetition would be monotonous : at the same time, if the i&> i *$&i ^>ex> drootuprukrootooloo'end in a short vowel, either o or C may be substituted for the or &>, but only c if it termi- nate in a long vowel; thus, ~&$v (the accusative plural of ~&& God) deprived, for the sake of example, of all it's drootuprukrootica affixes, antf I served, make ^^W^^8>Rl or ~sT#e;o^>-a8<o or -&$ I served the Gods, by changing the initial s of ^)-;0 into A, and inserting &> between the two words, or in consequence of the 'o i n IzsS&i o being short, substituting either o or C for &>.

Any of the ^^^drootuprukrootooloo preceding a word commencing with a consonant different from the five hard letters, without causing permutation, may at option affix 8 if it end in. 9 5 or ^1, or f& if it end ii any other vowel ; but if it already terminates in or & these affixes are not again to be added, because the repetition would be monotonous: either <o n or ^ may be affixed, in lieu of $ or &, provided the consonants & & $ & are not the initials of the following word; and if- the following word begins with v> 3& S- ^ & $ & f in place of R) or ^^ w

  • r is converted into X- rf into a - fc, into ^ . tf into g and So into W, but, as befor observed of another rule, the reverse of these changes does not 'hold good. provided the drootuprukrmlmloo terminate in a short vowel, but if it end in a long vowel r we may insert C n only ; thus, deprived for the sake of example of all arootuprukrootica affixes, the accusative ^58 an enemy, and ~7^ !)>$> / won or conquered, make t98$~KO-)& by affixing in consequence of ^59

ending in ; or e>81?e)-a9 or e>8-~^0-a8 by affixing o n ori~; or es8ol?)-aSS> or ^>8c~XO-a:0 by affixing o or C ; or as the whole of these affixes are optional, we may say simply e95~^>-8<0 / conquered the enemy : thus also deprived, for the sake of example, of all drootuprukrootica affixes, the accusative TT'dxc&O Giants, and 3 : oc-g)7T t> <5b they killed, make ~& by affixing &>, or T^vlxJobotfo&o-a^Sb or TP'&Joo by affixing ^ n or i~ ; or as the whole of these affixes are optional, we may say simply ~G*&'&vSpoo--^>&> ffoy killed the Giants; but we cannot here affix o or C, and say Tr > &&oo<Son3 1 5b d r ~S^<& ?oooc3Jo<So->l3" 5o, because 4> follows, and the affixes o or C precede the letters X K to 55o & & $ >cdx only : deprived of all its drootuprukrootica affixes, the 3d person in the first form of the past tense of ^"^^ to come viz-SS'liS^ he, she, or it came, and TS^OVSOCI^ o, coxcomb, make ^ : ^f&~C5~ olp?ioCi2b by affixing &>, or ^"^o-fs^o^^c^ or ^"^C-cjoo^soca^b by affixing o O r C ; or, as the whole of these affixes are optional, wemay say simply 55"^^ "i^ov^C^b a coxcomb came, but we cannot affix n & or i~", and say r 'm~ oQ&cSfe or " "W 6fi j because these affixes never precede the consonants

Certain masculine nonns in *^> C-5^> form their accusative singular either by changing C&b into > or by dropping C^ altogether ; thus, Nom : T^S&DC^ Rama, Accus: l^s&oiO or l^sSixD: in the latter case, it must be observed, as an exception to rules 115 and U6,-that to such accusatives in > the drootu- prukrootica affix $ is to be added, instead of the affix ?& ; thus, ~S"S&o , one of the accusatives of Rama, and ">>> / served, make lTS&o<C'K / " r )>;>?$ never "^S5bo^)K^D-5)^ I served Rama. Nouns ending in c&>S$ change this termination optionally into "^^o O r 118 ; thus, S&DjgcCd3w a pearl, '<SoOo^oo a bracelet, ^8cCo5Soo &c. make SSiwj^Soo or SSiwetC^oo _ Jf oo O r oo . >oo O r this rule is also applicable to nouns in c&b. ft03- --


The changes which take place in the middle of words are few and easy, and consist chiefly of contractions which occur naturally in a quick pronunciation-

Present verbal participles ending in *& preceded by r&, optionally drop the ^ of <&, or sometimes change the &> into o, thus, 9i$j-v&> saying, seeing, &&>& hearing, make && - s ^ - Srfr^, or - &o& -c5b . -i5"?Sb-iS3 going, $J^&>-&> entering, and some other verbal paticiples do not change &> into o, but they frequently drop the "o in ?&.

Verbal Roots of more than two syllables, of which ^ - ew - &o - 5b or few are medials, frequently drop the ^ of these syllables ; thus, ~ld'&>&>t3 plait, to twist, often becomes ~^^^ and <^5Sb -Z& ; zoee/?, ?o cry, ^^^ ; but if, in such roots, one short syllable only precede <^o > or few, no elision of the "O takes place ; thus, &>2&-b to wipe, cannot become e$j<So^, nor

The words ^)& not^ t3^)^b then) "4)2^ when? optionally drop the o of the middle syllable, and become respectively ^) - 55^) - J^). da (K> Cs.

Nouns of three syllables, of which the middle one is &> ew or <2Sb, freqt^nt- 122 ly drop the N> of these syllables ; thus, -)<yo^ a parrot, ~$^tx> a watei^cottrse, make "^^ "^ T>e; ; and this elision of ^ takes place even in other words; thus, "S^ftoST 6 ?!) a buffalo 1&T""iW(i)0 a species ofjiger, sometimes become

A in the middle or end of a word is often changed into 3 ; thus, *fijfo J23 Y//, become also Many Teloogoo words which have 11 r in the first syllable, frequently lose it in the vulgar dialect ; thus, ^; Ao or >$) an ear-ring, is commonly both written and pronounced cfr 6 ^) or &*&.

The reader need not be surprized if, in the course of his studies, he should meet with some examples in opposition to the foregoing rules, supported by good authority. On no part of Grammar are the opinions of Teloogoo authors so much at variance, as with respect to the changes attempted to be explained in this chapter : the ingenuity and subtilty with which each combats the arguments of his opponent, have gained for every celebrated writer on Grammar some adherents ; and as authors rigidly observe the precepts of the particular Grammarian whom they select for their guide, a comparison of almost any two books will exhibit some discrepancies not to be reconciled. Every endeavour has been used to select those opinions which are most generally received at present, but the subject itself is so intricate, and the opinions of native Grammarians respecting it so contradictory, that a foreigner who attempts to illustrate it must necessarily feel diffident of success.