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A new flora of Northumberland and Durham with sketches of its climate and physical geography/Part 2

PART II.

ENUMERATION OF THE PLANTS.

EDITED FOR CHEVIOT-LAND BY DR. G. R. TATE.

FOR TYNE-LAND AND DURHAM BY J. G. BAKER.

Bibliography.—The following are the principal works, arranged in order of time, which contain information about the special localities of Northumbrian and Durham plants:—

1552. Turner's Herbal: a second edition in 1568.

1744. Synopsis of British Plants, by John Wilson, Newcastle-on-Tyne. An English translation of Ray's Synopsis.

1769. The Natural History and Antiquities of Northumberland, 2 volumes quarto, by the Rev. John Wallis, A.M.

1777. The British Flora, by Stephen Robson. Published at York.

1805. Turner and Dillwyn's Botanist's Guide through England and Wales.

1805. The Botanist's Guide through the county of Northumberland, by N. J. Winch, F.L.S., John Thornhill, and Richard Waugh. Vol. 2 in 1867.

1807. Catalogue of Plants in the vicinity of Berwick, by J. V. Thompson.

1825. Winch's Essay on the Geographical Distribution of Plants through the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham.

1827. Natural History of the vicinity of Stockton-on-Tees, by John Hogg, A.M.

1829. Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed, by Dr. George Johnston.

1831. Flora of Northumberland and Durham, by N.J. Winch; from the Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Quarto; an appendix in 1836.

1835. New Botanist's Guide to the localities of the rarer Plants of Britain on the plan of Turner and Dillwyn's Botanist's Guide, by H.C. Watson.

1847. Cybele Britannica; or British Plants and their Geographical Relations, by H.C. Watson. Vol. 2, 1849; vol. 3, 1852; vol. 4, 1859; supplement, 1860.

1848. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club began.

1853. Natural History of the Eastern Borders: part 1, Botany, by Dr. G. Johnston.

The first three of these works contain only the mention of a few scattered stations. The history of Wallis contains a greater number, but botany was not the author's forte, and he registered a considerable number of species in error. During the first thirty years of the century the botany of the two counties was very thoroughly searched out by Winch and his colleagues, and the Flora of 1831 contains a full resumè of the result of their labours. They did their work so well that the number of species which have been added to the list since that date is very inconsiderable; and the essay of 1825 shows, for that time, a remarkable appreciation of the influences which regulate and modify the distribution of species. The Cybele Britannica is an elaborate work in four volumes, treating of the distribution of plants within the bounds of Britain in the fullest detail. Of the herbaria which we have consulted in the preparation of our enumeration that of Winch is the most extensive, and affords a full opportunity of verifying the nomenclature of the Flora. Circumstances which we need not enter upon here have caused it to be broken into two halves and divided between the Museum at Newcastle and the Linnean Society in London. The collections of Robertson and an interleaved copy of the Guide of 1805, with copious annotations, are in the Newcastle Museum. The collection of the late Wm. Backhouse, of Darlington, was unfortunately consigned to the hands of Mr. Baker for use in the preparation of this work when his herbarium and library were totally destroyed by fire in 1864 and perished in the conflagration, as did also a large number of plants gathered by the late Mr. John Storey, which were the property of the Blyth Mechanics' Institute. Besides these, we have been indebted to the Rev. W. W. Newbould for comparing our Catalogue, after it was written out, with the herbarium of Professor Oliver, now the property of University College, London.

Classes of Citizenship.—A point which requires to be carefully attended to in enumerating the plants of any particular district, is to draw a line of distinction as clearly as circumstances will allow between those which really belong to it as aboriginal inhabitants and those which owe their introduction to human intervention. In any long-settled, long-cultivated tract of country, the modification which has been brought about by human agency is, of necessity, very considerable. Around the place where man fixes his dwelling swamps, moors, and woods disappear to make way for cultivated fields, roads, and gardens: the bog, heath, and shade-loving plants are restricted in their range or altogether exterminated; and the places which these occupied are filled up by the species which man grows for food or other purposes and the weeds which these bring in their train. Out of the eleven hundred and thirty-seven enumerated in the following list, we can only claim with confidence eight hundred and forty-four as genuine natives. But a considerable proportion of the introductions are now very thoroughly settled down. Following the nomenclature of the Cybele Britannica we have called the well-established agricultural weeds by the name of Colonists, and the well-established plants which yet are likely to have been introduced by horticulture by the name of Denizens. Of the first class we have examples in the poppies, fumitories, Chrysanthemum segetum, Centaurea cyanus: of the second in Chelidonium majus, the hellebores, and Saponaria officinalis. The species clearly introduced and not well settled in are called Aliens. These introduced plants have come from various parts of the world. In the Flora of Britain we have instances of American plants which have thus become "naturalised" in Erigeron canadensis, Mimulus luteus, Coronopus didyma, OEnothera biennis, Galinsoga parviflora, and Anacharis alsinastrum. Our four common poppies grow really wild in grassy places, Rheas in Sicily, and the other three in Greece and the Crimea. Centaurea cyanus also comes from Sicily, the common wallflower grows wild upon rocks in Greece, Datura stramonium on the shores of the Caspian, Corydalis lutea, Vinca major, and Petroselinum sativum also in the south-east of Europe. "We have not attempted in this list to trace out the introduced species to their sources, but only to place them in their correct classes of citizenship, so far as the two counties are concerned, as follows:—

1.—The Natives, so far as we can now judge, the aboriginal possessors of the soil.

2 and 3.—The Colonists and Denizens, the well-established importations of the historic period.

4.—The Aliens, importations not fully established.

5.—The Incognita, species to be rejected from the list, either as being extinct or requiring confirmation before they can be claimed with safety.

Types of Distribution.—The readiest means of showing the relation which the Flora of any county or province of Britain bears to that of the whole island is furnished by Mr. Watson's classification of the species under their "types of distribution" as follows, viz.:—

1. British Type.—Species which are more or less generally diffused throughout the whole or nearly the whole of Britain.

2. English Type.—Species which have their head-quarters in England, especially in the southern provinces, and become rare and finally cease altogether towards the north.

3. Scottish Type.—Species which in a manner contrary to those which make up the last type have their head-quarters in Scotland or the North of England, and become rare, and finally cease altogether southward.

4. Highland Type.—The boreal Elora in a more intense degree. Species which have their head-quarters amongst the Scotch Highlands, and are only found southward in the vicinity of elevated mountains.

5. Germanic Type.—Species which have their head-quarters in the South-east of England, and run out northward and westward.

6. Atlantic Type.—Species which have their head-quarters in the South-west of England, and run out northward and eastward.

7. Intermediate Type.—Species which have their head-quarters in the South of Scotland and North of England, and run out both northward and southward.

8. Local Type.—Species too much restricted in their range to fall properly under any of the preceding.

Explanation of the manner in which the Distribution of Species is stated.—In the enumeration of species we have followed Mr. "Watson's list, as given in the fourth volume of the Cybele Britannica, as a standard of nomenclature and species-limitation. As his general and partial numerical summaries are all based upon this list the advantage of adopting it in local works is obvious. Then we give the class of citizenship to which we consider the plant in Northumberland and Durham belongs: then its general type of distribution as just explained. After the word "area" follows the initial letter C, N, D of the vice-county or vice-counties in which the plant occurs, one or all three, as the case may be. After the word "range" we give the climatic zones in which the plant grows, beginning to count from below, so that one denotes the Lower, two the Middle, and three the Upper zone. Then follows, for the plants restricted in the manner which the words are intended to indicate, the adjectives Xerophilous or Maritime.

For an explanation of what is meant by the term Xerophilous we must refer our readers to the postscript to chapter I. The species marked Maritime are those, about fifty in number, which are restricted to the sea-coast. Then follows a paragraph stating in what kinds of situation the plant grows, its frequency and its special localities if it is considered rare enough to make it worth while to enumerate them. It is only for quite the rarer species that the particular stations are stated with any considerable detail. In enumerating the localities we always begin with the north and work southward. "F" means Winch's Flora, and where nothing follows it must be understood that we have no confirmation of the occurrence of the plant as stated since 1831, and in all such cases it may be held that confirmation has become desirable. "R" means recent collectors, and where it is employed implies that we have confirmation of the occurrence of the plant since 1831. The species marked R, generally but not quite invariably, are those which are mentioned in the reports of the Club as having been gathered upon the excursions. A note of admiration implies that a specimen gathered by the collector whose name is mentioned has been examined and that we endorse the name. The other letters used, T. and B., are the initials of the editors of the Catalogue, and where used imply that we have verified, not only the name of the plant, but also the locality. For the figures which relate to the altitudes attained by various species Mr. Baker is responsible where the name of no one else is mentioned. In connection with this point he desires to express his obligations to Sir Henry James, the Director of the Ordnance Survey. At the time when the information was required none of the contour ordnance maps for the higher portions of the two counties were issued; but Sir Henry James, upon application being made to him, kindly furnished from the survey records a list of the altitudes of a large number of easily accessible points; and from these as a basis the elevations which the plants attain were measured by means of the Aneroid barometer, principally during two excursions of a fortnight each, the first, in which he had the company and aid of the Rev. W. W. Newbould in Allendale, Weardale, and Teesdale in the summer of 1865, and the other in Coquetdale and the Cheviots in 1866. We defer a general summary of the list to its conclusion.

I. FLOWERING PLANTS.

Class 1. DICOTYLEDONS OR EXOGENS.

Division 1. THALAMIFLORAE.

Order 1. RANUNCULACEAE.

1. THALICTRUM, L.

1. T. alpinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thalictrum alpinum, L. Native. Highland type. Area D. Range 2.

In Teesdale on Widdy Bank Fell, beginning at the head of the streams and following them downwards, but not abundant, and it has been gathered by Mr. W.H. Brown as low down the river as Winch Bridge. Range of altitude 300-500 yards.

2. T. minusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thalictrum minus, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common along the coast-line in sandy ground: Alnmouth, Warkworth, Bambro', Newton, Blyth, Hartley, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, South Shields, Castle Eden, Hartlepool, Seaton Carew, &c. Inland we only know the typical plant clearly from Tunstall Hill (W. H. Brown) on the Magnesian Limestone.

3. T. flexuosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thalictrum flexuosum, Rich. Native. Intermediate type. Area C, D. Range 1.

The typical form occurs on the bank of the Tweed at Spring Gardens and Milne Garden, and in the neighbourhood of the Tees from Newbiggin and Middleton as low down as Baydales near Darlington. A plant which grows on the basaltic crags at Kyloe, Howick, and Batcheugh, recedes from this in the direction of T. minus by its hollow stem, smaller size, smaller leaflets, which are glaucous and somewhat glandular beneath, and few-flowered, scarcely leafy, panicle. Range of altitude 0-300 yards.

4. T. flavumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thalictrum flavum, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Absent from Cheviot-land. In Tyne-land on the bank of the Tyne near Ovingham (F.). In Durham by the Team near Lamesley, the Wear near Sunderland, plentiful in Morden Carr, and occurring also at Hell Kettles and in several places in the low country near the Tees about Greatham, Tarm, and Norton.

2. ANEMONE, L.

1. A. nemorosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anemone nemorosa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in woods and shaded and heathy places, ascending high up the Drizzle ravine on Cheviot (J. Hardy), and in the Tees district to 550 yards in Harwood Dale (B.).

3. ADONIS, L.

A. autumnalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Adonis autumnalis, L. Alien.

In a potato-field near Norton (J. Hogg).

4. MYOSURUS, L.

1. M. minimusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Myosurus minimus, L. Native. Germanic type. Area N. Range 1.

On the Cowhill near Newcastle (F. R!). Hedgebank in Coniscliffe Lane, near Darlington (Harriman !), the station now built over.

5. RANUNCULUS, L.

I. R. aquatilisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus aquatilis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in ponds and ditches. Of the subordinate forms R. heterophyllus, floribundus, and Drouetii are frequent, the true peltatus and trichophyllus apparently rare. The former grows in the Breamish at Branton, and abundantly in the Weel at an elevation of 500 yards; and the latter we have gathered in a pond near the edge of the cliff a little north of Marsden.

2. R. BaudotiiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus baudotii, Godr. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

In the salt-water ditches about Seaton Carew (Rev. F. J. A. Hort). No doubt this occurs in other places in brackish water, but it cannot be distinguished from the preceding without close examination. It is abundant in the salt-marshes at the Tees' mouth on the Yorkshire side.

3. R. circinatusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus circinatus, Sibth. Native. English type. Area C. Range 1.

In the lough at Holy Island, where it was first noted by Professor Babington. Swinhoe Links (W. Richardson). Ponds on Alnwick Moor (T.).

4. R. fluitansWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus fluitans, Lam. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the Cheviot-land streams, Tweed, Breamish, Wooler Water, Aln, and Coquet. In the North Tyne near Bellingham (Mr. Makepeace !). In the Skerne a little above its junction with the Tees (W. Foggitt).

5. R. hederaceusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus hederaceus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in watery places, especially in the upland tracts, ascending to 350 yards in Dunsdale, 400 yards in Teesdale, and 300 yards in Allendale, Weardale, and Coquetdale.

6. R. coenosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus omiophyllus, Guss. Native. English type. Area N. Range 1.

In the Wansbeck district in a plashy place by the road-side between Hartburn and Scot's Gap Station, 150 yards (B.). 7. R. ficariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ficaria verna, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in damp fields and shaded places, ascending in Teesdale to High Force Wood, 350 yards.

8. R. flammulaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus , L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in watery places, especially in the upland tracts, ascending to 600 yards in Harwood Dale and Coal Cleugh, West Allendale.

9. R. linguaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus lingua, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Watery places, not rare. In Cheviot-land in Newham Lough, Learmouth Bog, a pond at Spindlestone, and the fosse of Dunstanbro' Castle. In Tyneland in a pond at Widehaugh near Corbridge (F.), Prestwick Carr, and a pond on the moor top near Wall Town Crags, where it grows amongst Typha at an elevation of 250 yards (Rev. Dr. Cundal). In Durham in Shincliffe Beck (Miss Wharton), Houghall near Durham (Mr. Bungey), Hell Kettles near Darlington, and very fine and plentiful in Morden Carrs.

10. R. auricomusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus auricomus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Woods and shaded hedge-banks, frequent, ascending to 1600 feet in Dunsdale (J. Hardy).

11. R. acrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus acris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 750 yards on Cheviot, 650 yards on Highfield, 550 yards in East and West Allendale.

12. R. repensWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus repens, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in damp and grassy places, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 750 yards on Highfield, and 2000 feet on Stangend Rigg. 13. R. bulbosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus bulbosus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in grassy places, ascending in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

14. R. hirsutusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus hirsutus, Curt. Colonist. English type. Area C. Range 1.

Cultivated fields, very rare. Alnwick (R. Embleton, A.). Bambro' and Long Houghton (T.).

15. R. sceleratusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus sceleratus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ditches and banks of ponds in the low country, not unfrequent.

16. R. parviflorusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus parviflorus, L. Native? English type. Area D. Range 1.

Hedgebank between Cockerton and Archdeacon Newton, north of Darlington, gathered there by Jas. Ianson and W. Backhouse (F!). Newton is misprinted Norton in the Flora, which may perhaps have led astray some seekers for the plant.

17. R. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ranunculus arvensis, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

A frequent weed in cultivated fields in the low country.

6. CALTHA, L.

1. C. palustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Caltha palustris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Everywhere common in ditches and swamps, ascending to 650 yards on Highfield, 600 yards on Coal Cleugh, and 550 yards on Cheviot. The narrow-petalled variety (C. Guerangerii, Boreau) has been gathered near Staindrop (James Backhouse), and near the Wansbeck at Mitford (B.).

7. TROLLIUS, L.

1. T. europaeusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trollius europaeus, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Frequent amongst the hills by the stream sides and in damp meadows, ascending to the Henhole and Brizzle ravines on Cheviot and to 650 yards in Hare wood Dale, descending to Rugley, Hulne, and Calish Woods, Hartford Bridge on the Blyth, Whittle Dene and the Tyneside at Bywell; and it even occurs in the low Bed Sandstone country, as in the flat between Norton and Billingham (J. Hogg), and in a field near the brick-yard at Great Stainton (M. A. Lawson).

8. HELLEBORUS, L.

1. H. viridisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Helleborus viridis, L. Denizen. Germanic type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Banks of the Aln near Alnwick Abbey (T.). Bank of the Wansbeck near Morpeth (Rev. T. Finch !). In a small ravine at South Hylton near Sunderland (W.H. Brown !). Banks of the Tees near Whorlton (Rev. J. Harriman. F.).

2. H. foetidusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Helleborus foetidus, L. Denizen. Germanic type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Wood on the north side of the Tyne a little above the Chain Bridge at Hexham (A. Hancock). In Tunstall Hope, half a mile south of Sunderland (W. H. Brown!). Road-side between Herrington and Houghton-le-Spring (Miss Wharton). Banks of the Tees a little below Winston Bridge (Rev. J. Harriman. F.).

9. AQUILEGIA, L.

1. A. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aquilegia vulgaris, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area N. D. Range 1.

In Cheviot-land in a wood near Malcolm's Cross, Alnwick, alien (T.). Truly wild at Ninebanks in West Allendale (R. Murray), in Teesdale about Middleton, 250 yards, in most of the Magnesian Limestone denes, and perhaps also about the Derwent at Allansford. It has been gathered in several other places as a straggler from garden cultivation.

10. DELPHINIUM, L.

1. D. AjacisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Consolida ajacis, L. Alien.

Very rare as a weed of cultivated fields. Clover field near the Lough House on Holy Island (Winch. F!). A single specimen in a field near Tuggall, 1864 (R. Embleton). In a limestone quarry near Bishopwearmouth (W. Backhouse. F!). Corn-fields at Norton (J. Hogg).

11. ACONITUM, L.

1. A. napellusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aconitum napellus, L. Alien.

An occasional garden escape. By a stream behind Cullercoats (W.H. Brown). Bank of a stream near Riding Mills (E. Procter). Grown in gardens up to 550 yards.

Order 2. BERBERACEAE.

1. BERBERIS, L.

1. B. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Berberis vulgaris, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Bare in thickets and hedgerows and not clearly indigenous. Chatton and Hulne Woods (T.). Hedge between Weetwood and Wooler (B ). Pandon Dene and Elswick near Newcastle (Robertson). Bearpark near Durham (Rev. J. Symons. F.). Hedges near Darlington, Witton-le-Wear, Picktree, and Chester-le-Street.

Order 3. NYMPHAEACEAE.

1. NYMPHAEA, L.

1. N. albaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Nymphaea alba, L. Native. British type. Area N. Range 1.

Truly wild only in Greenley and Broomley Loughs, and in a pond south-east of Wall Town Crags: elevation about 700 feet. Often planted, as in the Aln near Alnwick, and ponds at Howick and Wallington.

2. NUPHAR, Sm.

2. N. luteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Nuphar lutea, Sm. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ponds and streams, frequent in the low country. Kemmer Lough near Eglingham, Crag Lough, Prestwick Carr, and in the Blyth, Ouseburn, Pont, Skerne, &c. It ascends from sea-level nearly to 250 yards. A plant found long ago by Sir John Trevelyan in Chartners Lough on the Wallington Moors, and thence transported to Wallington, appears to agree with the north European N. intermedium of Ledebour, a subspecies not known elsewhere in Britain. This is considered by Professor Caspary a hybrid between N. lutea and pumila, but it cannot possibly be so here.

Order 4. PAPAVERACEAE.

1. PAPAVER, L.

1. P. hybridumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Papaver hybridum, L. Colonist. English type. Area D. Range 1.

In the Magnesian Limestone tract to be seen occasionally about Whitburn, Cleadon, Fulwell, and Sunderland. It is given by Winch as an Alnwick plant on Miss Forster's authority, but has not been seen lately.

2. P. argemoneWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Papaver argemone, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Cultivated fields, frequent, ascending to 350 feet near Wooler.

3. P. dubiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Papaver dubium, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields, seen at 150 yards near Roddam, in Coquetdale at Holystone, and in Weardale as high as Frosterley (500 feet).

4. P. rhoeasWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Papaver rhoeas, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending in Coquetdale above Rothbury, and seen in Teesdale at 700 feet. Var. strigosum in a field of lucerne near Cleadon (B.).

5. P. somniferumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Papaver somniferum, L. Alien.

An occasional straggler from garden cultivation. Alnwick, once cultivated (R. Embleton), stream side below Wooler, Mitford, St. John's in Weardale, Norton, Seaton Carew, &c.

2. CHELIDONIUM, L.

1. C. majusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Chelidonium majus, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in hedges in the neighbourhood of farm-houses and country villages, ascending in Weardale to Eastgate, 850 feet.

3. GLAUCIUM, Tourn.

1. G. luteumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Glaucium luteum, Scop. Denizen. English type. Maritime. Area D. Range 1.

On the sea-bank at Seaton Carew, once plentiful, but now nearly or quite extinct.

Order 5. FUMARIACEAE.

1. CORYDALIS, D.C.

1. C. claviculataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ceratocapnos claviculata, D.C. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent on the hilly tracts from the Cheviot to the Tees, especially on sandstone, ascending to Chattlehope Spout in Redesdale (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown) and 250 yards near Wooler (T.), descending to Heaton Dene.

2. C. luteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Corydalis lutea, D.C. Alien.

An occasional straggler from garden cultivation. Hulme Abbey (T. ). Tuggal Hall near Embleton (R. Embleton). Old walls at Harnham and Netherwitton (F.) Ruins of the old Roman station at Chesters (W.H. Brown!). A native of Italy.

3. C. solidaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Corydalis solida, Sm. Alien.

An occasional garden escape. Plantation at Beadnell (R. Embleton!), and the commonly cultivated Dielytra formosa is also occasionally seen in the same way.

2. FUMARIA, L.

1. F. capreolataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fumaria capreolata, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Of the subspecies F. Boroei, Jord., is much the commonest with us, and has been seen at Wooler, Roddam, Holy Island, Alwinton (at 250 yards), Harbottle, Embleton, Hexham, North Shields, Elswick, Gateshead, Sunderland, Durham, and in many other places. For F. pallidiflora, Jord., the only certain stations we can quote are fields at Staindrop (J. Backhouse!), and at Stainton (W. Backhouse!), both in Durham.

2. F. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fumaria officinalis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Everywhere common in cultivated ground, ascending in Teesdale to 700 feet.

3. F. micranthaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fumaria micrantha, Lag. Colonist. English type. Area C. Range 1.

Field near the lough on Holy Island (T.).

Order 6. CRUCIFEREA.

1. CAKILE, Gaertn.

1. C. maritimaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cakile maritima, Scop. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in sandy ground all along the coast-line.

2. CORONOPUS, Gaertn.

1. C. RuelliiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lepidium coronopus, Gaertn. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Occasionally in waste ground, especially near the sea. Berwick, Alnmouth, Holy Island, Newcastle, Cullercoats, Sunderland, Hartlepool, &c.

2. C. didymaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Coronopus didyma, Sm. Alien.

Embleton, a weed in cultivated ground (R. Embleton).

3. ISATIS, L.

1. I. tinctoriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg I. tinctoria, L. Alien.

Has been sometimes cultivated and found occasionally in waste places.

4. THLASPI, L.

1. T. arvenseWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thlaspi arvense, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

A rare weed of cultivated ground. Ord fields and other places near Berwick (Johnston). Field a short distance north of Wooler (James Hardy). Dunstan Square and between Lesbury and Warkworth (R. Embleton). Heaton Dene and fields near Gateshead (F!).

2. T. alpestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Noccaea caerulescens, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area N, D. Range 1-3.

This species shows a curious preference for lead-mines, and has a wide vertical range in the lead-districts. There are two varieties, of which T. sylvestre, Jordan, grows near the Allen at Thornhaugh (G.S. Brady!); plentifully with Cochlearia about the Langlee mines not far distant from the first station; by the Tyne in various places from Featherstone Castle as low down as Bywell; and in the wood on the north side of the Tees at Winch Bridge (B.); and T. occitanum, Jord., in Weardale, on the north side of the stream below Eastgate, where it was first noticed by Mr. T.J. Foggitt (250 yards); and about the Grasshill mines on Highfield, ascending to 750 yards (B.).

5. CAPSELLA, Vent.

1. C. bursa-pastorisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Capsella bursa-pastoris, D. C. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in cultivated fields and waste ground, ascending to 1200 feet in Teesdale, 1340 feet on Rookhope Moor, 1500 feet on Kilhope, and 1530 feet above Allenheads.

5. TEESDALIA, R. Br.

1. T. nudicaulisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Teesdalia nudicaulis, B. Br. Native. English type. Area C, N. Range 1, 2.

Not unfrequent about Wooler amongst the porphyritic debris. Yevering Bell (nearly 400 yards), Maiden Well, Hellpath near Common Burn, banks of the Wooler Water between Langlee-ford and the town, Ingram, Powburn, &c. Gathered also upon the basalt at Wall Town Crags by the Rev. A. Headley and others, and near Embleton by Mr. Embleton.

7. IBERIS, L.

1. I. amaraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Iberis amara, L. Alien.

A casual weed in cultivated fields and by road-sides. Waste ground at Alnmouth (T.). Road-side between Holystone and Harbottle (B.). Corn-field near Tarset (Professor Oliver!). Ouseburn (Robertson!). Hoferd Banks and Tyne side near Hexham Bridge (P.).

8. LEPIDIUM, L.

1. L. latifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lepidium latifolium, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Sandstone quarry above the old ford at Norham (Miss Douglas, Dr. Johnston). Cliff between Priors' Haven and the castle at Tynemouth (F. R!), now destroyed there. Wear side near Durham Abbey (F!). Limestone quarry at Hartlepool (J. Hogg!). Bank facing the sea north of Seaton Carew (E Robson, F! M. A. Lawson). The Hexham plant is L. campestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lepidium campestre.

2. L. SmithiiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lepidium heterophyllum, Hook. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Occasionally in cultivated fields in dry soil, less frequent with us than the next. Bamborough, Rothbury, Riding Mills, Winlaton, Newcastle, &c.

3. L. campestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lepidium campestre, R. Br. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not uncommon in similar places to the preceding, ascending to the limestone quarries at Lowick (400 feet), and in Tynedale to fields at Slealey (600 feet).

9. COCHLEARIA, L.

1. C. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cochlearia officinalis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

The typical form is common along the coast-line. The var. alpina is very rare amongst the Cheviots, occurring sparingly only in the Brizzle and Henhole, but frequent in Allendale, Weardale, and Teesdale, and carried down into the low country along the streams.

2. C. danicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cochlearia danica, L. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Scattered on rocks along the coast; Farne Islands, Holy Island, Newbiggin, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, Hartlepool, Seaton Carew, &c.

3. C. anglicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cochlearia anglica, L. Native? Maritime. English type. Area N. Range 1.

On the coast, not seen recently. Bank of the Tyne at the mouth of Coble Dene, North Shields (Robertson, F!). Reported also in the Flora from Holy Island and by the Wear at Sunderland.

10. ARMORACIA, Rupp.

1. A. rusticanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Armoracia rusticana, Rupp. Alien.

An occasional straggler from gardens.

11. DRABA, L.

1. D. incanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Draba incana, L. Native. Xerophilous. Highland type. Area D. Range 2.

Confined to the high limestone scars of Upper Teesdale and Weardale. In the former dale we have seen it on Falcon Clints, Widdy Bank Fell, Newbiggin Moor, and ascending to the Upper Limestone of Bleak Law, and in the latter in Kilhope and Burnhope. Range of elevation 450–600 yards.

2. D. vernaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erophila verna, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on walls and dry banks, ascending to the Main Limestone scars of Kilhope and Bleak Law (600 yards). The short round-podded variety (Erophila brachycarpa, Jord.), has been gathered by Mr. W. H. Brown on a wall in Tynedale at Riding Mills.

12. CAMELINA, Crantz.

1. C. sativa, Crantz. Alien.

An occasional weed in cultivated fields.

13. ALYSSUM, L.

1. A. calycinum, L. Alien.

Like the preceding. On the railway side south of Warkworth Station (W. Richardson!).

14. CARDAMINE, L.

1. C. amara, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent by the side of streams, ascending in Teesdale to the foot of the High Force, 300 yards (W.H. Brown).

2. C. pratensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Common in damp grassy places, ascending to 600 yards in Coal Cleugh and East Allendale, 700 yards on Highfield, and 800 yards on Cheviot.

3. C. hirsuta, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Frequent in damp places, ascending on Highfield to 650 yards.

4. C. sylvatica, Link. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Frequent in shaded and damp situations, ascending to 650 yards in Dunsdale, the Brizzle, and on Highfield, and 600 yards in Welhope and East Allendale.

15. ARABIS, L.

1. A. thaliana, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Walls, rocks, and dry sandy ground, not uncommon, ascending in Teesdale to 500 yards on Falcon Clints, and in Coquetdale to porphyritic crags at Shillmoor.

2. A. hirsuta, R.Br. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not known upon any of the Cheviot crags in the Wooler neighbourhood, but occurring on the porphyry about Alwinton, and frequent on the basalt and Mountain and Magnesian Limestone from the Aln to the Tees, ascending in Harwood Dale to 550 yards.

16. TURRITIS, L.

1. T. glabra, L. Native. Germanic type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Dry banks, rare. Warden near Hexham (R. Wigham). Hedge-bank between Corbridge and Anick Grange (F. Scott). Walls at Ovingham (F.). Stanley Burn near Wylam (R.B. Bowman, A.). Side of the high-road near Gainford (F.B.).

17. BARBAREA, R.Br.

1. B. vulgaris, R.Br. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in damp places and by the side of streams, ascending in Weardale to Frosterley (200 yards). The Northumbrian plant which has been referred to B. arcuata, gathered by Mr. Borrer near Alnwick, differs from the type by its subpatent pods and less developed lateral leaf-lobes.

2. B. praecox, R.Br. Alien.

An occasional weed. Hedge-bank between Wooler and Earl (Dr. Johnston). In Weardale by the road-side near Frosterley (B.).

18. NASTURTIUM, R.Br.

1. N. officinaleWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Nasturtium officinale, R.Br. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in streams and ditches, ascending in Teesdale to Middleton, in Weardale above St. John's Chapel (350 yards).

2. N. terrestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rorippa palustris, R.Br. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Damp places, rare. Bank of the Tweed between Norham and West Ord (Dr. Johnston). Old quarry at Stamford (T.). Banks of the Aln near Alnwick (R. Embleton, A.). Borders of Prestwick Carr (F!). Blaydon (John Storey!). Banks of the Skerne near Darlington (E. Robson, F.).

3. N. sylvestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rorippa islandica, R.Br. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

By the Tweed at Birgham Haugh down to the Union Bridge (Dr. Johnston). Shores of the Tyne at Corbridge, Benwell, and Stella (F. R!) Banks of the Team near Redheugh and of the Derwent below Swalwell (R.B. Bowman). Wear side at Finchale Abbey (Miss Wharton). Banks of the Skerne near Darlington (Miss M.J. Hancock). Not unfrequent in ditches abont Norton (John Hogg).

19. SISYMBRIUM, L.

1. S. officinaleWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sisymbrium officinale, Scop. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common by road-sides and in waste ground, ascending Coquetdale above Alwinton and in Weardale to Westgate (300 yards).

2. S. SophiaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Descurainia sophia, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in similar situations to the preceding. East Ord, Learmouth, Bamborough, Budle, Bulmer, Holy Island, Belford, Alnwick, Embleton, Beadnell, Morpeth, Corbridge, Hexham, Newcastle, Cleadon, Hartlepool, Boldon, Dunsdale, Port Clarence, &c.

20. ERYSIMUM, L.

1. E. cheiranthoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. Alien.

Very rare as a weed of cultivated fields.

2. E. alliariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Alliaria petiolata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common on hedge-banks, ascending in Teesdale to Newbiggin (300 yards).

21. CHEIRANTHUS, L.

1. C. CheiriWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erysimum × cheiri, L. Alien.

Often established on old ruins. Hulne Abbey, Warkworth Castle and Priory, Holy Island Priory, Brinckburn Priory, Norham Castle, walls at Durham, rocks at Southwick, Priors' Haven, &c. A native of the South-west of Europe.

22. HESPERIS, L.

1. H. matronalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hesperis matronalis, L. Alien.

An occasional straggler from garden cultivation. Hulne woods near the abbey (T.) Embleton (R. Embleton). Meadow at Chester-le-Street (G.T. Fox). Road-side on Cleadon Hill (W.H. Brown).

23. BRASSICA, L.

1. B. oleraceaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Brassica oleracea, L. Alien.

Plentiful down the face of the steep cliff on the sea-ward side of Tynemouth Priory.

2. B. rapaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Brassica rapa, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent by stream-sides and as a weed in cultivated fields. It is cultivated in Allendale up to 550 yards, and has been grown at Grasshill at 2000 feet.

30. B. napusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Brassica napus, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in similar places to the preceding.

24. SINAPIS, L.

1. S. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sinapsis arvensis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in cultivated fields and waste ground, ascending to 450 yards in Weardale and Allendale.

2. S. albaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sinapsis alba, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated ground, ascending in Teesdale to Eglestone (700 feet). The commonest species on Holy Island (R. Embleton).

3. S. nigraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Brassica nigra, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar stations to the two preceding, but less frequent.

4. S. tenuifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Br. Denizen. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon embankments and by road-sides about Shields, Sunderland, Hartlepool, &c., but perhaps originally introduced with ballast.

25. RAPHANUS, L.

1. R. raphanistrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Raphanus raphanistrum, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

A common weed in cultivated ground, ascending to 350 yards in Weardale, and 450 yards in West Allendale. There are two forms, one with sulphur-coloured and the other with white flowers and violet veins, both frequent.

Order 7. RESEDACEAE.

1. RESEDA, L.

1. R. luteolaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Reseda luteola, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon dry banks and by road-sides in the low country, ascending Coquetdale to Rothbury, Weardale to Frosterley, and Teesdale to Eglestone (820 feet).

2. R. luteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Reseda lutea, L. Native? English type. Area D. Range 1.

Frequent upon the coast-line, but probably native in Durham only, upon the Magnesian Limestone.

Order 8. CISTACEAE.

1. HELIANTHEMUM, Gaertn.

1. H. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Helianthemum vulgare, Gaertn. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Eange 1-3.

In the Cheviot tract frequent amongst the lower hills about Mindrum, Wooler, and Alwinton, but not ascending to the peaks. Frequent everywhere upon the basalt and limestone, ascending to the Main Limestone scars of Burnhope (550 yards), Newbiggin Moor, Bleak Law, and Highfield (700 yards), and found occasionally upon the sand-hills of the coast-line, as at Holy Island. An excellent example of a widely-diffused xerophilous species.

Order 9. VIOLACEAE.

l. VIOLA, L.

1. V. palustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola palustris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in damp grassy places, especially in the hilly tracts, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 650 yards on Stangend Rigg, 600 yards on Highfield. 2. V. odorataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola odorata, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

We claim this as a true native only for the denes of the Magnesian Limestone country. In Cheviot-land it is quite a rare plant, having been seen by Mr. Tate only in Hulne Woods and by Mr. Embleton near Ellingham. In Tyneland it is quite scattered, but in Durham more frequent, especially about Darlington, Middleton-one-Row, Stockton, and Yarm.

3. V. hirtaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola hirta, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area C. N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent amongst the limestone and basalt, ascending in Teesdale to 300 yards, and occasionally found upon the coast links, as at Cullercoats and Tynemouth.

4. V. sylvaticaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola riviniana, Fries. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common upon hedge-banks and in grassy places, ascending to 600 yards on Cheviot, 650 yards on Highfield. The subspecies V. Reichenbachiana, Jord., is abundant in Dinsdale Woods and no doubt elsewhere.

5. V. caninaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola canina, L. Native. British type. Area N. Range 1.

The only specimens of this from our district which we have seen were gathered by Mrs. J.G. Baker upon the coast sand-hills between Hartley and Whitley, but it is very liable to be passed over for the preceding.

6. V. arenariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola rupestris, D.C. Native. Local type. Area D. Range 2.

In Teesdale plentiful upon the Sugar Limestone of Widdy Bank Fell and westward north of the Weel. Elevation 500-550 yards. Discovered by James Backhouse and James Backhouse, jun., of York. In the type the leaves are hairy, but in our plant nearly naked.

7. V. tricolorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola tricolor, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-2.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending to 850 feet in Teesdale, in Weardale above St. John's Chapel to 1000 feet. 8. V. luteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viola lutea, Huds. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

In the Cheviot tract frequent on the lower hills about Wooler and Alwinton, but not ascending to the peaks. Scattered over the moors north of the Tyne, common in the upper part of Allendale, Weardale, and Teesdale, ascending to the Main Limestone of Highneld, 650 yards, and frequent down as low as Sinderhope and Eglestone; sometimes carried lower by the streams.

Order 10. DROSERACEAE.

1. DROSERA, L.

1. D. rotundifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Drosera rotundifolia, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on swampy heaths, ascending to 600 yards on Cheviot, 550 yards at the head of the Beldon Burn (Derwent), and 500 yards in Teesdale. Probably a plant of the Upper zone, but we have not seen it there.

2. D. anglicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Drosera anglica, Huds. Native. Scottish type. Area N. Range 1.

Long known as a plant of Muckle Moss (150 yards) and Prestwick Carr, but doubtless now eradicated at the latter station. Wallis reports a D. longifolia from a bog on the north side of Slaterfield, near Simonburn, which may be this.

Order 11. POLYGALACEAE.

1. POLYGALA, L.

1. P. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Polygala vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in grassy places, ascending to 550 yards in Dunsdale and Harwood Dale. The subspecies P. depressa, Wend., is frequent on heaths; and the variety oxyptera occurs in Coquetdale near Alwinton.

Order 12. CARYOPHYLLACEAE.

1. DIANTHUS, L.

1. D. deltoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Dianthus deltoides, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

About Wooler and Alwinton in several places on the porphyry, ascending to Windyhaugh, 250 yards, and frequent along the basalt from Gunnerton to Belford and Spindlestone. In Durham it is reported from the neighbourhood of Shotley Bridge by John Storey, and of Wolsingham by W. Backhouse.

2. D. armeriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Dianthus armeria, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

On the moor above Shull near Wolsingham, springing up after the ling has been burnt (W. Backhouse). Probable altitude 200-250 yards.

2. SAPONARIA, L.

1. S. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saponaria officinalis, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

On the mound of Wark Castle (W. Richardson!). Near the abbey at Hexham (Robertson). Eound formerly by the Tyne at Gateshead, and occurring in several places about the lower part of the Wear and Tees. Castle Eden Dene (M. A. Lawson).

3. SILENE, L.

1. S. inflataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Silene vulgaris, Sm. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and by road-sides, ascending in South Tynedale to fields above Gatton (920 feet). The variety puberula is not uncommon.

2. S. maritimaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Silene uniflora, With. Native. Submaritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on rocks along the coast-line, and gathered in the Dunsdale ravine of Cheviot by Dr. E. Douglas.

3. S. noctifiora, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent as a weed of cultivated fields. Berwick, Hetton, Howick, Embleton, Holy Island, Chollerford, Hartley, Preston, Gateshead, South Shields, Cleadon, Whitburn, Bishop Middleham, Castle Eden, &c.

4. LYCHNIS, L.

1. L. flos-cuculi, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in ditches and damp fields, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot and in East and West Allendale, to 650 yards on Highfield.

2. L. diurna, Sibth. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and upon shaded hedge-banks, ascending to Falcon Clints (500 yards), and the Main Limestone scars of Harwood Dale (550 yards).

3. L. vespertina, Sibth. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent, principally in cultivated fields, ascending in Coquetdale above Rothbury (150 yards). The red-flowered variety near the Wansbeck at Morpeth, and by the road-side between Beal and the sea (B.).

4. L. githago, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending to 450 yards in East Allendale.

5. MOENCHIA, Ehrh.

1. M. erecta, Sm. Native. English type. Area C, D. Range 1.

In Northumberland on the basalt at Ratcheugh, Howick, Spindlestone, and Embleton. Gravel pits on Durham Moor (Rev. J. Symons. F.), and gathered long ago near Sunderland by Weighell, but not seen in Durham recently.

6. SAGINA, L.

1. S. procumbens, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Common upon walls and in damp places, ascending to 750 yards on Highfield, 890 yards on Cheviot. The pentamerous form is not unfrequent amongst the hills.

2. S. maritima, Don. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent along the coast-line; Alnmouth, Howick, Bambro', Holy Island, Farne Islands, Dunstanbro', Blyth, Hartley, Willington, Hartlepool, Seaton Carew, &c.

3. S. apetala, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the low country in sandy soil. The highest station we know is the road-side near the Forest Lodge on Alnwick Moor (T.).

4. S. ciliata, Fries. English type. Area C, N. Range 1.

Bed of the Wooler Water from the Langlee-ford ravine down to the town with Teesdalia and Glyceria rigida (Jas. Hardy. B.) Near Bamborough (T.). On the coast sand-hills at High Pans near Blyth (R.B. Bowman!).

5. S. subulata, Wimm. Native. Scottish type. Area C. Range 1.

On the basalt at Ratcheugh, Howick, Spindlestone, Dunstanbro', Craster, &c. The Cullercoats plant mentioned by Ray, Syn., Ed. 2, p. 207, referred here by Winch, is more likely S. maritima. There is no specimen of it in Buddle's Herbarium, but he writes that he thinks the plant a var. of that now called S. ciliata.

6. S. nodosa, E. Meyer. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

In sandy ground liable to be inundated, found principally amongst the coast sand-hills or high up amongst the hills. It ascends to 350 yards in Welhope and Harwood Dale, and we have seen it with Saxifraga stellaris at 600 yards in West Allendale.

7. SPERGULA, L.

1. S. arvensis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

A common weed in cultivated ground, ascending in Coquetdale above Alwinton (250 yards), and to 300 yards near Gatton.

8. HONCKENEJA, Ehrh.

1. H. peploides, Ehrh. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in sandy ground all along the coast-line.

9. SPERGULARIA, Pers.

1. S. marina, Camb. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

All along the coast-line in muddy places; not so plentiful as the next.

2. S. neglecta, Syme. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common all along the coast-line in damp places.

3. S. rubra, St. Hil. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Sandy ground, somewhat local. Frequent about Wooler, Akeld, Ilderton, Roddam, &c. Alnwick Moor, Harbottle, Newcastle Town Moor, Gateshead Fell, Durham, &c. A maritime form is found on the coast occasionally, which must not be confounded with the preceding.

10. ARENARIA, L.

1. A. serpyllifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on walls and in dry places, ascending in Teesdale to the Main Limestone scars of Newbiggin Moor (550 yards). The var. leptoclados is not unfrequent.

2. A. verna, L. Native. Xerophilous. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Absent from the Cheviot, and in the northern district known only on the basalt at Spindlestone (R. Embleton). Frequent throughout the lead country, ascending to 750 yards on Highfield and 600 yards above Allenheads, descending to the Tees at Middleton and the Tyne at Wylam.

3. A. uliginosa, Schl. Native. Local type. Area D. Range 2.

In Teesdale very sparingly beside the streamlet that runs from the Sugar Limestone of Widdy Bank Fell to the Weel, and more abundant in the swamp above Widdy Bank House with Elyna and Juncus triglumis, 500–550 yards.

4. A. trinervis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and in bushy places, ascending in Coquetdale above Rothbury and in Teesdale to High Force (980 feet).

11. STELLARIA, L.

1. S. nemorum, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Damp and shaded woods, not unfrequent. By the Tweed at Wark, Cornhill, and Norham, the Aln in Hulne and Rugley Woods, the Coquet at Warkworth, the North Tyne at Simonburn, in the Derwent district at Cawsey and Ravensworth, ascending the Wear to Elm Ford west of St. John's Chapel (350 yards), descending to Chester-le-Street and Lambton Woods, ascending the Tees to Middleton-Teesdale, descending to Baydales.

2. S. mediaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria media, With. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Everywhere common in cultivated and waste ground, ascending on Highfield to 750 yards. Var. neglecta is frequent in woods and by stream sides, and var. Boreana grows on the basaltic dike at Gunnerton.

3. S. holosteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria holostea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1,2.

Common upon hedge-banks and in woods, ascending to 500 yards in East Allendale, and 550 yards in Harwood Dale.

4. S. glaucaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria glauca, With. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Rare in swamps. Margin of Newham and Spindlestone Loughs (Johnston. T.). Prestwick Carr (R.B. Bowman!). Morden Carr (Rev. A. M. Norman!). Rice Carr near Darlington (W. Backhouse!).

5. S. gramineaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria graminea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in damp and shaded places, ascending to 550 yards in Welhope and 1700 feet in West Allendale.

6. S. uliginosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria uliginosa, Murr. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Frequent in swampy spots, especially amongst the hills, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 700 yards on Highfield, 600 yards in Welhope.

12. CERASTIUM, L.

1. C. glomeratumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria glomeratum, Thuill. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in dry and grassy places, ascending to 400 yards in Burnhope, 350 yards in Teesdale.

2. C. trivialeWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Stellaria triviale, Link. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot and 750 yards on Highfield. A subglabrous variety (holostioides, Fries,) grows near the Tyne above Redheugh, in Langdon Dale, &c.

3. C. semidecandrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cerastium semidecandrum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.
Frequent in sandy ground both along the coast and inland, ascending Coquetdale to Holystone. On the basaltic dike at Gunnerton and Kyloe. In the Wansbeck district very fine on walks near Hartburn Grange, 150 yards.

4. C. tetrandrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cerastium diffusum, Curt. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.
Frequent in sandy ground along the coast-line. C. pumilum is given as a plant of the province by Winch, but his specimens are a mixture of this and the preceding.

5. C. arvenseWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cerastium arvense, L. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.
Frequent on the Magnesian Limestone and occasionally upon the coast-links, and in dry sandy soil elsewhere. Banks of the Tweed at Norham. On the limestone at Ratcheugh. Not known in the porphyritic tract.

Order 13. LINACEÆ.

1. LINUM, L.

1. L. usitatissimumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linum usitatissimum, L. Alien.
Occasionally cultivated and casually subspontaneous.

2. L. perenneWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linum perenne, L. Native. - Xerophilous. Germanic type. Area D. Range 1.
Dry places, almost confined to the Magnesian Limestone; Marsden, Tunstall Hill, dry banks between Coxhoe and Trimdon, by the Tees at Baydales, and in several places lower down about Middleton-one-Row and Yarm.

3. L. catharticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linum catharticum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in dry grassy places, ascending to 600 yards in Harwood Dale and the Main Limestone scars of Kilhope and Newbiggin Moor, 550 yards.

Order 14. MALVACEAE.

1. MALVA, L.

1. M. moschataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Malva moschata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent by road-sides in dry sandy or calcareous soil, ascending in Weardale above Stanhope, 250 yards. Plentiful in the lower part of Tynedale about Hexham and Corbridge.

2. M. sylvestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Malva sylvestris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common by road-sides and in waste ground in the country, ascending near Wooler to 150 yards.

3. M. rotundifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Malva rotundifolia, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in similar places to the preceding.

Order 15. TILLAGEAE.

1. TILIA, L.

1. T. intermediaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tilia intermedia, D. C.

Is not unfrequent in hedge-rows and plantations. T. grandifolia and parvifolia may be seen occasionally.

Order 16. HYPERICACEAE.

1. HYPERICUM, L.

1. H. AndrosoesmumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum androsoemum, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Planted in Hulne Woods. In Durham in a plantation at Twinkham Lea near Seaton Carew (John Hogg); and at Birch Carr near Middleton-one-Row (W. Backhouse! F.).

2. H. perforatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum perforatum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common by road-sides and on the edge of fields, ascending in Teesdale to 800 feet. Var. lineolatum has been gathered in North Tynedale not far from Hexham by Mr. W.H. Brown.

3. H. dubiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum dubium, Leers. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Tweed bank near the Chain Bridge and other places near Berwick (Johnston). In Coquetdale below Rothbury, and by the river side near Alwinton (B.). In several places in the lower part of Tynedale, Teesdale, and Weardale, ascending above Stanhope and Middleton, 800 feet.

4. H. quadrangulumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum quadrangulum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in ditches and swampy places, ascending to 350 yards in Harthope (Wear district), and to 400 yards in Teesdale west of the High Force.

5. H. humifusum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on sandy banks, ascending in Teesdale to High Force Wood, 350 yards (W. Foggitt).

6. H. pulchrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum pulchrum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on sandy heaths, ascending to 500 yards in the Dunsdale ravine of Cheviot, and nearly as high in Teesdale (Caldron Snout and Falcon Clints) and East Allendale.

7. H. hirsutumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum hirsutum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods and upon hedge-banks, especially on the limestone, ascending Coquetdale to porphyritic cliffs at Windyhaugh (250 yards), and Weardale to the wood above the village of Wearhead (1150 feet).

8. H. montanumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum montanum, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area D. Range 1.

In several of the Magnesian Limestone denes, as Castle Eden, Dalton, Hawthorne, and Ryhope.

9. H. calycinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypericum calycinum, L. Alien.

Planted near Cornhill (R. Embleton. A.); and at Hulne Abbey near Alnwick (T.). A native of Turkey.

Order 17. ACERACEAE.

1. ACER, L.

1. A. campestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Acer campestre, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Clearly native in the denes of the Magnesian Limestone, but doubtfully so north of the Tyne. It may be indigenous in the woods on the steep banks of the Wansbeck about Morpeth and Mitford, where there are trees by the stream side 30 to 40 feet high, but in Cheviot-land it seems evidently introduced.

2. A. pseudo-platanusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Acer pseudo-platanus, L. Alien.

Common in woods and hedge-rows, frequent in the low country, and one of the commonest trees about farm-houses in the dales, ascending in Harwood Dale to 1600 feet, and in East and West Allendale to 1650 feet. Winch regarded it as indigenous, and it is considered to be so by Mr. Carr, whose remarks on the subject will be found in the third volume of the Transactions, page 9.

Order 18. GERANIACEAE.

1. ERODIUM, L’Herit.

1. E. cicutariumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erodium cicutarium, Sm. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in dry sandy soil, especially near the sea. Near Wooler at 350 feet.

2. GERANIUM, L.

1. G. phaeumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium phaeum, L. Alien.

Twizell House Dene (Johnston). Mr. Cook's woods at Newton-on-the-Moor near Alnwick (J. Davison. F.). Tyne side near Bywell (R.). In Durham in Hardwick Dene (M.A. Lawson), and Lumley Woods near Chester-le-Street (G.T. Fox! F.). Indigenous in Holland and France.

2. G. sylvaticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium sylvaticum, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods and fields amongst the hills, descending to the denes of the Coal country and Magnesian Limestone. In the Dunsdale ravine of Cheviot at 1400 feet, in East Allendale at 1600 feet, in Teesdale as high as the Caldron Snout, and in Harwood Dale up to 550 yards, descending to Morpeth, Holywell Dene, Haydon Bridge, Staindrop, &c.

3. G. pratenseWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium pratense, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in meadows and by the side of streams, ascending in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge (400 yards).

4. G. pusillumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium pusillum, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and in cultivated fields, ascending in Weardale to Stanhope (700 feet).

5. G. molleWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium molle, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in similar situations to the preceding, ascending in Rookhope (Wear district) to 500 yards. The station near Hexham assigned to G. rotundifolium in the Flora is no doubt a mistake.

6. G. dissectumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium dissectum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in similar places to the preceding two, ascending to 800 yards in Teesdale and Weardale, and rather higher in Allendale.

7. G. columbinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium columbinum, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

On the basaltic dike at Walltown and Gnmnerton, 150 yards (F. R!). Lane at Anick Grange near Hexham (F. Scott. F.). On the Magnesian Limestone on Cleadon Hill and at Coniscliffe (F!).

8. G. lucidumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium lucidum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Scattered throughout the province, occurring principally in the dales. Wooler (Akeld Dene, Caldgate Mill, Humbledon Dene, all on the porphyry), Alwinton, Ratcheugh Crag, Barrasford, Stanhope, Cocken, Gainford, Upper Teesdale between Middleton and Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

9. G. RobertianumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium robertianum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and on shaded banks, ascending to the high limestone scars of Harwood Dale and Welhope (550 yards).

10. G. sanguineumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geranium sanguineum, L. Native. British type. Xerophilous. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon the coast links from Berwick to the Tees, inland known only upon the basalt at Ratcheugh, and in the lower part of Castle Eden Dene.

Order 19. BALSAMINACEAE.

1. IMPATIENS, L.

1. I. noli-me-tangereWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Impatiens noli-tangere, L. Alien.

Hulne Woods, now extinct (T.). Wood near the Muckle Moss (Miss Meredith, 1855). See note by Mr. Wailes, Trans., vol. II, p. 332.

Order 20. OXALIDACEAE.

1. OXALIS, L.

1. O. acetosella, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 3.

Common in woods and on shaded banks, ascending to 700 yards on Cheviot, 600 yards in Welhope, 550 in Harwood Dale, 500 yards near the head of Knucton Burn (Derwent).

Division 2. CALYCIELORAE.

Order 1. CELASTRACEAE.

1. STAPHYLEA, L.

1. S. pinnata, L. Alien.

Hulne Woods, Alnwick (R. Embleton. A.). Mainsforth near Ferryhill (T. Wood!).

2. EUONYMUS, L.

1. E. europaeus, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In the porphyritic tract on the banks of the College Burn (Johnston), and in Humbledon Dene (Rev. A. Baird). On the basalt at Ratcheugh, Belford, Kyloe, Spindlestone, &c. By the Wansbeck near Camboise (J. Storey!). In several of the Tyne denes as Tecket, Scotswood, and Heaton; and those of the Magnesian Limestone as Ryhope, Hesleden, and Castle Eden. Shipley Wood near Eglestone, 200 yards (Rev. J. Harriman. F.). In the Darlington lane a mile west of Norton (John Hogg).

Order 2. RHAMNACEAE.

1. RHAMNUS, L.

1. R. catharticus, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Very rare and not seen recently. Ryhope Dene (W. Weighell. F!). Lawson's Slack near Darlington (James Backhouse).

Order 3. LEGUMINOSAE.

l. SPARTIUM, L.

1. S. scoparium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on sandy heaths. It is apparently quite absent from the upper part of Teesdale and Weardale, but grows on the basaltic and porphyritic cliffs. The highest station measured was on the ridge between Wooler and the head of the Glen, 1260 feet.

2. ULEX, L.

1. U. europaeus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common upon heaths and in waste uncultivated ground, ascending to 410 yards in Rookhope (Wear district), and 350 yards in the Cheviot tract. Not seen in Teesdale above the High Force, Weardale above Westgate, Allendale above Studden.

2. U. Gallii, Planch. Native. English type. Area C, N. Range 1.

In considerable plenty on Wooler Common, porphyry at 200-250 yards. Baron House Bog, near Grilsland; in several places in Tynedale; near Staward Peel, near Haydon Bridge, and on the basalt at Coley Hill near Heddon. U. nanus is reported in the Flora from Durham Moor (Rev. J. Symons), but the true nanus is restricted to the South of England.

3. GENISTA, L.

1. G. tinctoria, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in grassy places, ascending to Whitsunbank Wood near Wooler (150 yards), and in North Tynedale to Nunwick. Rare in Cheviot-land.

2. G. anglica, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on heaths, ascending to Gunnerton Crags, Alwinton, and Ross Castle Moor near Wooler, 300 yards.

4. ONONIS, L.

1. O. arvensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in sandy ground, especially on the coast links, ascending in Coquetdale above Rothbury, in Allendale to Allentown, 250 yards, and in Weardale on the moor north of St. John's Chapel to 400 yards.

2. O. antiquorum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar places to the preceding, but less frequent.

5. ANTHYLLIS, L.

1. A. vulneraria, L. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent along the coast links and amongst the limestone, ascending to the plateau of Widdy Bank Fell, 500 yards, Not ascending amongst the Cheviots, but growing amongst the porphyritic debris by the stream sides as at Branton and Wooler.

6. MEDICAGO, L.

1. M. sativa, L. Alien.

An occasional weed in cultivated fields.

2. M. lupulina, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in dry sandy ground and cultivated fields, ascending in Teesdale to Eglestone, 960 feet, and in the Wear district in Rookhope to 1300 feet.

3. M. maculataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Medicago maculata, Sibth. Native. English type. Area N. Range 1.

Sandy field near the Spital Dene, old windmill near Tynemouth Church (W. H. Brown!) Reported in the Flora from under the banqueting house at Alnwick (Miss Forster), but not seen in Cheviot-land lately.

7. MELILOTUS, Lam.

1. M. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Melilotus officinalis, Willd. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in waste ground and on the borders of fields, ascending Coquetdale to Rothbury and Sharperton, 150 yards.

2. M. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Melilotus vulgaris, Willd. Alien.

Coupland plantations near Wooler (James Mitchell).

8. TRIFOLIUM, L.

1. T. repensWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trifolium repens, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 650 yards on Stangend Rigg, 750 yards on Highfield.

2. T. hybridumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trifolium hybridum, L. Alien.

Now quite replacing the preceding as a cultivated crop, and sometimes establishing itself by roadsides, &c.

3. T. pratenseWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trifolium pratense, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 550 yards in East Allendale, and 650 yards in Harwood Dale. It is grown as a crop in Teesdale up to 400 yards.

4. T. mediumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Trifolium medium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in bushy and grassy places, especially amongst the hills, ascending Coquetdale to Windyhaugh, the Derwent to 1300 feet, and Harwood Dale to 500 yards.

5. T. arvense, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, T). Range 1.

Not unfrequent in dry sandy soil. In the bed of the streams on porphyritic debris at Branton, Wooler, &c. On the basalt at Gunnerton, Bambro', and Belford. Seen also at Holy Island, Holystone, Rothbury, Barrasford, Gateshead, Fulwell, Tunstall, Seaton Carew, &c. Not ascending above 200 yards.

6. T. scabrum, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar situations to the preceding, rare. Holy Island, on the basalt (F.T.). On the coast sand-hills at Tynemouth (John Storey). In the paddock at Bishopwearmouth (W. Weighell. F.). Moor above the north sands, Hartlepool (Miss Wharton). Sandy grassy field near Tees Bay, Seaton Carew (John Hogg).

8. T. striatum, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar places to last two, rare. On the basalt at Gunnerton, Kyloe, Dunstanbro', Norwich, Spindlestone, and Holy Island. By the Coquet between Harbottle and Rothbury (Professor Oliver). Reported in the Flora from Gateshead. On the Magnesian Limestone at Whitburn, Cleadon, Sunderland, and near Darlington.

8. T. fragiferum, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In various places along the coast from the Tweed to the Tees amongst the sand-hills and by stream-sides. It is reported in the Flora from Halypike Lough, but if that means the little tarn of that name near Sewing Shields it is no doubt a mistake.

9. T. procumbens, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in dry sandy soil, ascending Weardale to Frosterley, Teesdale above Middleton, 800 feet.

10. T. agrarium, L. Alien.

Seen once in a field of T. hybridum near Roddam (B.). This species has been seen lately in many parts of England in forage fields laid down with imported seed.

11. T. minus, Smith. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in grassy and dry sandy places, ascending in Coquetdale to Linn Shiels, Allendale to Gatton Moor, Teesdale to Eglestone (300 yards).

12. T. filiforme, L. Native. English type. Area C, L Range 1.

In similar places to the preceding, rare. Howick and Alnmouth (T.). On the Magnesian Limestone at Fulwell, Whitburn, Cleadon, and Castle Eden (F !). Sand-hills at Seaton Carew (Rev. F. J. A. Hort).

9. LOTUS, L.

1. L. corniculatus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to the high limestone scars of Harwood Dale, 550 yards, and as high in West Allendale. Var. tenuis is not uncommon in dry soil.

2. L. major, Scop. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in ditches and damp pastures, ascending to 350 yards in Dunsdale, and 400 yards near Cowshill in Weardale.

10. ASTRAGALUS, L.

1. A. glycyphyllos, L. Native. Germanic type. Xerophilous. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Banks of Wooler Water near the Caldgate Mill, 150 yards (Johnston). Reported by Wallis from Cockle Hill near Learmouth, the mound of Wark Castle, and hilly pastures at Manylaws near Flodden. Wood near Earl (R. Embleton. A.). Sea banks at Budle (Miss Forster). On the basaltic cliffs at Ratcheugh, Craster, Spindlestone, Bambro', &c. Warden Banks near Hexham, and by the Tyne above Ovingham (F.). By the Wear in Pelaw Wood near Durham (M. A. Lawson). By the Tees near the Abbey Bridge at Eglestone, and on the Magnesian Limestone above Darlington.

2. A. hypoglottis, L. Native. Xerophilous. Germanic type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent along the coast sand-hills from the Tweed to the Tees. On the basalt at Ratcheugh near Alnwick, and on the Magnesian Limestone near West Boldon.

11. ORNITHOPUS, L.

1. O. perpusillus, L. Native. British type. Area D. Range 1.

Dry banks, gathered many years ago by Mr. Hogg near Urpeth, but not seen anywhere recently.

12. ONOBRYCHIS, Gaertn.

1. O. sativa, Lam. Native? Xerophilous. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Perhaps truly wild on the Magnesian Limestone cliff at Hartondown Hill, near Sunderland (F. James Backhouse). Grown occasionally as a forage crop.

13. VICIA, L.

1. V. sylvatica, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the woods of the hilly tracts and Magnesian Limestone. Tweed banks near Ord, Calish Woods near Alnwick, Roddam Dene, in Coquetdale near Rothbury, 150 yards, and Warkworth, in North Tynedale in Ramshaw and Tecket Denes and many other places about Hexham, and down the river to Newcastle, about Durham, Eglestone, Barnard Castle, &c. Own work 2. V. cracca, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in meadows and hedges, ascending Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards, and in the Derwent district, nearly to the source of the Knucton Burn, 466 yards.

3. V. sativa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

The typical plant is known in cultivation only, up to 300 yards in Teesdale, and 450 yards in Allendale. The var. segetalis is not unfrequent as a weed of cultivated ground, and the var. Bolartii is truly wild in grassy places.

4. V. lathyroides, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Amongst the porphyritic debris by the stream-side at Alwinton, 150 yards (Prof. Oliver). On the basalt at Ratcheugh, Howick, Belford, Spindlestone, Holy Island, &c. Edge of fields near Cullercoats (R. B. Bowman!). Salt Meadows below Gateshead (F!). Near the Gaunless in Auckland Park (Miss Wharton). The plant gathered at Westoe was V. Bobartii.

5. V. sepium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 350 yards in Dunsdale, 550 yards in Harwood Dale, and nearly as high in Allendale.

6. V. hirsuta, Koch. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common as a weed in cultivated ground.

7. V. tetrasperma, Koch. Colonist. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

In similar situations to the last but less frequent, and not noted in Cheviot-land.

8. V. monanthaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vicia monantha, Koch. Alien.

Plentiful in a field of cultivated V. sativa at Allenheads, July, 1865 (B.).

14. LATHYRUS, L.

1. L. pratensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lathyrus pratensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in hedge-rows and grassy places, ascending to 500 yards in Harwood Dale and East Allendale.

15. OROBUS, L.

1. O. tuberosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Orobus tuberosus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common upon heaths and the borders of pastures, ascending to the high limestone scars of Harwood Dale, 550 yards. O. niger is not satisfactorily ascertained as a Cheviot-land plant.

Order 4. ROSACEAE.

l. PRUNUS, L.

1. P. spinosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Prunus spinosa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

The varieties spinosa and insititia common in hedge-rows and thickets, the former ascending to 400 yards at Moor Rigs in Teesdale, perhaps not native there, but no doubt truly so at 1150 feet in the wood above the village of Wearhead, on the porphyry about Alwinton, and on the basalt at Kyloe. Fine and plentiful in the woods about Hareshaw Linn. The var. domestica occurs as a straggler from cultivation only, and is grown in Allendale as high as 1700 feet.

2. P. padusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Prunus padus, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods and thickets, principally amongst the hills, ascending in Teesdale to Falcon Clints, 500 yards.

3. P. aviumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Prunus avium, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not unfrequent in woods and by stream-sides, but doubtfully indigenous, ascending to 1100 feet in Rookhope (Wear district).

4. P. cerasusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Prunus cerasus, L. Alien.

In plantations in several places near Embleton, but always planted (R. Embleton).

2. SPIRAEA, L.

1. S. ulmariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Filipendula ulmaria, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common by stream-sides and in damp woods, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot in Dunsdale, and as high in Harwood Dale.

2. S. filipendulaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Filipendula vulgaris, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

On the basalt at Crag Close near Barrasford (T. R.); and at Spindlestone, plentiful in the plantations (W. Richardson. T.). On the Magnesian Limestone at Byers Quarry near Whitburn, and at Coniscliffe and Baydales near Darlington (E. R!).

3. S. salicifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Spiraea salicifolia, L. Alien.

In several places in parks and plantations, as Hulne, Howick, Wallington, and Gibside.

3. GEUM, Linn.

1. G. urbanumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geum urbanum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and on hedge-banks, ascending in Coquetdale to Harbottle, Weardale to Elm Ford Wood, 1150 feet, and Teesdale to 350 yards. This and the next frequently produce natural hybrids, like the primrose and cowslip.

2. G. rivaleWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Geum rivale, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in woods and damp places, ascending to 500 yards in East Allendale, 650 yards on Highfield.

4. AGRIMONIA, L.

1. A. eupatoriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Agrimonia eupatoria, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on dry banks and in pastures, ascending Weardale above Stanhope to 250 yards. The var. odorata has been gathered by Professor Oliver and Mr. W. H. Brown in Simonburn Dene near Nunwick, and on Kyloe Crags; by the Rev. W. W. Newbould and Mr. J. G. Baker in the woods near Staward Peel (200 yards), and by the latter by the Coquet at Linn Shiels above Alwinton.

5. POTENTILLA, L.

1. P. fruticosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla fruticosa, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area D. Range 1, 2.

In Teesdale by the river side from Langdon Beck down to Middleton Bridge, plentiful in many places. Range of altitude 250-400 yards.

2. P. anserinaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla anserina, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common by road-sides and on the edge of cultivated fields, ascending Coquetdale above Alwinton, Weardale above St. John's Chapel, 1100 feet, and Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

3. P. argenteaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla argentea, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

In Tynedale at Beaufront, near Hexham (F. Scott), and near the mill at Corbridge (J. Adamson!) On the Magnesian Limestone cliffs between Shields and Sunderland (E. Robson. F!).

4. P. alpestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla alpestris, Hall. Native. Highland type. Area C, D. Range 1, 2.

On the basaltic dike at Spindlestone, now nearly or quite extinct; specimens from this locality are referred to P. verna by Winch and Johnston, but seem to belong to the present species. In Teesdale sparingly on the the basalt at Falcon Clints and by the Tees side at Winch Bridge, 300-500 yards. The Tynedale plant placed here in the Flora is really P. argentea.

5. P. reptansWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla reptans, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent by road-sides and upon hedge-banks, ascending in Teesdale to Middleton, 300 yards, and in Coquetdale to Holystone.

6. P. tormentillaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla tormentilla, Nesl. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in heathy places at all levels, ascending to 850 yards on Cheviot, and 750 yards on Highfield. The var. procumbens is not uncommon.

7. P. fragariastrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Potentilla sterilis, Ebrh. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common upon grassy banks, ascending to 550 yards in Harwood Dale, 450 yards in East Allendale.

6. COMARUM, L.

1. C. palustreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Comarum palustre, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent on swampy heaths, ascending, with Car ex ampullacea, to 500 yards in the swamps by the Weel, 600 yards in Coal Cleugh, 650 yards on Highfield.

7. FRAGARIA, L.

1. F. vescaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fragaria vesca, L. Native. British type. Area C, N. D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and on hedge-banks, ascending to 1400 feet in the Cheviot ravines, 500 yards on Falcon Clints, and 550 yards in Harwood Dale. The Wallington Fragaria, reported in the Flora as elatior, is only a woodland form of this species. What is called the Simonburn Strawberry is a variety with white fruit, very deep green leaves, the central one cuneate at the base, which is figured in the Supplement to English Botany 2742, and is the F. calycina of Lindley but not of Loiseleur.

8. RUBUS, L.

1. R. chamaemorusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus chamaemorus, L. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 2, 3.

Found on all the peaks which ascend into the Upper zone, but scarcely descending below 1500 feet. Abundant on Cheviot, Hedgehope, and the peaks at the head of Allendale, Weardale, and Teesdale. It is said to have been gathered on Simonside and the Dead water Fell, at the head of North Tynedale.

2. R. saxatilisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus saxatilis, L. Native. Xerophilous. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on damp cliffs and by the stream sides in the dales, in the Cheviot tract in Roddam Dene, the Langlee-ford ravine, and ascending to Harthope Linn and in Dunsdale to 500 yards. Calish Woods near Alnwick. On the basalt at Sewing Shields and Gunnerton. In the Wansbeck district at Hartburn Banks and near Wallington. Banks of the Irthing at Gilsland, and in many of the Tyne denes about Bellingham and Hexham. Nouns Wood near Butsfield. In the Wear District in Burnhope. In Teesdale in numerous places, ascending to 550 yards in Harwood Dale and down the river as far as Eglestone. Castle Eden Dene.

3. R. idaeusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus idaeus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in thickets, especially amongst the hills, ascending to 500 yards in the Brizzle, and to 330 yards in Harwood Dale.

4. R. suberectusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus suberectus, And. (including pticatus, W. and N). Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Twizell House Dene and copses on Kyloe Crags (Johnston). By the Coquet below Alwinton, and in a fir wood by the roadside between Alwinton Bridge and Harbottle, and again between the latter village and Holystone (B.). Near Rothley Lake (Sir W. C. Trevelyan. A.). In several places about Slealey and Corbridge Moor, also at Staward Peel and in the wood at the High Force above the highway, 350 yards (B.).

5. R. LindleianusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus lindleianus, Lees. Native. English type. Area F. Range 1.

In Tynedale in hedges between Dilston and Slealey (B.) In a hedge at Wellington (W. Robertson!).

6. R. cordifoliusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus cordifolius, W. and N Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

By the side of the road on the hill south of Roddam. By the side of the road just out of Harbottle eastward. Corbridge Moor and in a lane near Bardon Mills. Thickets on the coast north of Whitley. In Weardale by the side of the road between Eastgate and Westgate, 250 yards (B.).

7. R. discolorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus discolor, W. and 1ST. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In some districts the commonest form, but not ascending amongst the hills.

8. R. leucostachysWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus leucostachys, Sm. Native. English type. Area N. Range 1.

In South Tynedale by the road-side north of Fourstones Station and about Corbridge, and by way of Dilston up to Slealey, plentiful. Thickets amongst the coast sand-hills near Seaton Sluice (B.).

9. R. umbrosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus umbrosus, Arrh. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Woods and thickets, frequent, ascending to 950 feet in Allendale. It is to this that the plant marked R. fruticosus in Winch's collection belongs.

10. R. macrophyllusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus macrophyllus, W. and N. Native. English type. Area C, Range 1.

The typical plant seen only from West Buston near Alnwick (J. Chrisp!), and thickets by the road-side near Akeld and at the base of Yevering Bell (B.); the var. amplificatus, Lees, in the wood on the back of Kyloe Crags, 150 yards, and by the side of the road near Beal (B.).

11. R. villicaulisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus villicaulis, W. and N. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In the wood at Langlee-ford near Wooler, road-sides near Kyloe, in Tynedale about Dilston, Slealey, Bardon Mills, and the lead mines below Langley Castle, and in Weardale between Eastgate and Westgate, 250 yards (B.).

12. R. calvatusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus calvatus, Bloxam. Native. English type. Area N. Range 1.

In South Tynedale in thickets by the road-side south of Haydon Bridge (B.).

13. R. radulaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus radula, W. and N. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in hedges and thickets, ascending Allendale to 250 yards.

14. R. rudisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus rudis, W. and N. Native. English type. Area C, N. Range 1.

In Coquetdale in a hedge by the road-side between Rothbury and Thropton. In South Tynedale near Langley Castle, 150 yards. Thickets near the mouth of Holywell Dene (B.).

15. R. infestusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus infestus, W. and N. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

By the side of the road between Kyloe and the crags. In North Tynedale between Wark and Nunwick. In South Tynedale plentiful about Dilston, Lennel, and Slealey, and by the side of the road between Gatton and Staward, 200 yards. In Weardale between Stanhope and Westgate (B.).

16. R. KoehleriWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus Koehleri, W. and N. (including pallidus, W. and N.) Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

The common woodland bramble and seen in hedges occasionally, ascending to 350 yards in Weardale, 960 feet in Teesdale, 250 yards in Allendale.

17. R. diversifoliusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus diversifolius, Lindl. Bab. Native. English type. Area C, N. Range 1.

Lane at West Buston near Alnwick (J. Chrisp!). By the railway side near Beal Station, in Coquetdale below Rothbury, in the lane between Morpeth and Long Horsley, in North Tynedale at Wark, 150 yards, in South Tynedale at Dilston, and in the dene of the Bardon Burn below Chesterholme (B.).

18. R. corylifoliusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus corylifolius, Sm. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

The common hedge-row bramble, ascending to 250 yards in Weardale, 800 feet in Teesdale, and 950 feet in Allendale.

19. R. caesiusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rubus caesius, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in hedges and thickets, ascending in Weardale above Stanhope, and in Teesdale above Middleton, 820 feet.

9. ROSA, L.

1. R. cinnamomeaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rosa majalis, L. Alien.

Hulne Woods near Alnwick (T.).

2. R. spinosissimaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rosa spinosissima, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent along the coast links (var. pusilla, Woods), and inland in numerous localities, ascending both into the limestone and sandstone dales. Yevering Bell on porphyry and high up the Cheviot ravines, and in about Alwinton. On the basalt at Kyloe, Ratcheugh, Howick, and Bambro'. In Teesdale on Falcon Clints and Force Garth scars, 500 yards.

3. R. rubella, Smith. Incognit.

All the specimens we have seen under this name belong to spinosissima except two, which are in Winch's collection in the Newcastle Museum, and are marked "Durham coast." The fruit here is bright red and drooping, in the preceding much stouter and rounder, deep purple in colour, and erect. Very likely there has been some mistake in regarding these two specimens as British, as the plant is not known elsewhere in the country.

4. R. hibernica, Smith. Native. Intermediate type. Area C, D.

In Weardale near Witton-le-Wear, and in Coquetdale in thickets near Flotterton, gathered in both stations by Professor Oliver. The Coquetdale plant (var. cordifolia, Baker,) differs from the type of the species by its setose peduncles and broader cordate leaves.

5. R. Sabini, Woods. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Banks of the Wansbeck near Sheepwash (John Storey!). In Tynedale near Shield Hall in the hedges near where the road from Dilston to Slealey divides from that which leads to Allendale (B.). Wood between Pipewellgate and the Redheugh, near Gateshead (W. Robertson). Road-side between Hylton and Washington (Professor Oliver!). Hedge near Sedgefield (Rev. A. M. Norman!). Near Darlington at Baydales, in Birch Carr, and by the side of the Stockton and Darlington road near Middleton-one-Row (W. Backhouse. B.). Hedges between Yarm and Stockton (W. Robertson!). Var. Robertsoni, Baker, still grows in the upper part of Heaton Dene.

6. R. mollissima, Fries.! R. mollis, Smith! R. villosa, Linn. herb! Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in hedges and thickets, ascending to 400 yards in Teesdale, and 450 yards in Allendale. Var. caerulea, Woods, in thickets in the Seaton Delaval avenue, and an extreme form with perfectly smooth peduncles in thickets by the side of the road south of Haydon Bridge (B.).

7. R. tomentosa, Smith. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in hedges and thickets, ascending to 350 yards in Glendale, 450 yards in East Allendale, and in Teesdale to Falcon Clints 1450 feet, and the high limestone scars of Harwood Dale 550 yards. Var. scabriuscula, Winch, is not unfrequent, and a form with leaves very glandular beneath, approaching R. britannica, Deseglise, gathered by Mr. Robertson on the side of the Roman wall between Carville and Byker Hall, and by Mr. Baker by the side of the road between Earl and Caldgate Mill.

8. R. Borreri, Woods. R. inodora Auct. Angl. non., Fries. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Bank of the Wooler Water below the town and hedges between Wooler and Yevering, gathered originally by Dr. Johnston, seen by Messrs. Hardy and Baker in 1866. Ravensworth Woods and hedge at Spring Gardens near Newcastle (W. Robertson!).

9. R. ruliginosa, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in hedges, but perhaps not truly wild. Scremerston, Wooler, South Middleton, Lilburn, Bambro', Alnwick, Embleton, Warkworth, Chollerford, Dilston, Gateshead, Westoe, Sunderland, Raby, Seaton Carew, &c.

10. R. canina, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in hedges and thickets, ascending in Teesdale to 1450 feet. Vars. latetiana, dumalis, urbica, and dumetorum are common. Var. cordifolia gathered at Mason Dinnington by Robertson, var. Watsoni at Prestwick Carr by Robertson, var. Crepiniana in thickets at Chesterholme, var. celerata in Holywell Dene, vars. pruinosa, arvatica, and subcristata in several places, var. Blondeana in Coquetdale near Tosson on the slope of Simonside, var. caesia in thickets near Caldgate Mill, and a form of var. tormentella with glandular peduncles by the side of the Wooler Water below the town.

11. R. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rosa arvensis, Huds. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Between the Broom House and Haggerstone (Thompson). Between Cold Harbour and Ealloden West Farm (R. Embleton). Elswick Dene near Newcastle (E.). In Durham in woods and thickets at Gateshead, Cocken, Washington, Marsden, Ryhope, and Norton (E. R!).

10. SANGUISORBA, L.

1. S. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sanguisorba officinalis, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in the two southern divisions in damp grassy places, ascending in Teesdale to 1400 feet on Falcon Clints.

11. POTERIUM, L.

1. P. sanguisorbaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Poterium sanguisorba, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent upon the limestone and basalt, and occasionally amongst the coast sand-hills, as near Tynemouth.

12. ALCHEMILLA, L.

1. A. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Alchemila vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in grassy places, ascending to 500 yards on Cheviot, 750 yards on Highfield.

2. A. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aphanes arvensis, Lam. Native? British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields, especially on a sandy soil, ascending to 300 yards in Teesdale. On the basalt at Gunnerton with Draba verna and Cerastium semidecandrum.

13. CRATŒGUS, L.

1. C. oxyacanthaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Crataegus oxyacantha, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in hedges and thickets. Not seen above 350 yards amongst the Cheviots, but ascending to 550 yards in East and West Allendale, and nearly as high in Harwood Dale. The only variety truly wild in the province is monogyna, Jacq.

14. PYRUS, L.

1. P. communisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pyrus communis, L. Alien.

To be seen sometimes in hedge-rows, as between Scots' Gap Station and Hartburn, but with no claim to be considered truly wild.

2. P. malusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pyrus malus, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in hedge-rows and thickets, ascending both in Teesdale and the Wear district to 1100 feet.

3. P. ariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sorbus aria, Sm. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Truly wild in the bed of the Tees at Winch Bridge, 300 yards, in small quantity (var. rupicola, Syme), and reported also from Castle Eden Dene. The typical form is to be seen occasionally in hedge-rows and plantations.

4. P. aucupariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sorbus aucuparia, Gaertn. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods, ascending to 500 yards in the Cheviot ravines, 550 yards on the limestone scars of Harwood Dale.

Order 5. ONAGRACEÆ.

1. EPILOBIUM, L.

1. E. angustifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Chamerion angustifolium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Banks of nearly all the hill streams. On the Cheviot near Langlee-ford, banks of Common Burn, Hethpool Linn, and lower part of Henhole. By the Coquet about Shillmoor and Alwinton. On the basalt at Crag Lake and near Barrington. Hareshaw Linn, Knaresdale, by the Allen at Pryhill and Peckriding near Allentown, and by the Derwent near Edmundbyers and Blanchland. In numerous places in Weardale and Teesdale, ascending to Falcon Clints and Langdon Dale scars, 500 yards, descending to Barnard Castle.

2. E. hirsutumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium hirsutum, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the low country in ditches and by stream sides, ascending Coquetdale to Sharperton, Weardale to Frosterley and Teesdale, 200 yards.

3. E. parviflorumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium parviflorum, Schreb. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in similar situations to the preceding, ascending in Weardale to Copthill, 400 yards, in Teesdale to the High Force, 350 yards.

4. E. montanumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium montanum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common by stream-sides and on shaded banks, ascending to the high limestone scars of Harwood Dale, 550 yards, and as high in East Allendale.

5. E. roseumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium roseum, Schreb. Alien.

A weed in garden ground, Darlington (W. Backhouse !). Doubtless will be found truly wild in the province eventually, as it is not unfrequent in North Yorkshire.

6. E. palustreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium palustre, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in ditches and swampy places, ascending to 600 yards in West Allendale, 500 yards in the Derwent district. Own work 7. E. obscurumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium obscurum, Schreb. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in ditches and swamps, ascending on Cheviot to 550 yards, and nearly as high on the moors at the head of East Allendale. We have not seen the true E. tetragonum within the province.

8. E. anagallidifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium anagallidifolium, Lam. Native. Highland type. Area C, D.

On Cheviot near the top of Henhole and Goldscleugh (Dr. F. Douglas. T.). In Teesdale on the moor near the Caldron Snout (Sir W. C. Trevelyan. F!). Probable altitude 500-600 yards.

9. E. alsinifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Epilobium alsinifolium, Vill. Native. Highland type. Area C, D.

Abundant in all the high Cheviot sykes. In the Wear district in the streams that issue from the Main Limestone in Welhope, and in the Tees district sparingly on Highfield above Grasshill. Range of altitude 500-850 yards.

2. CIRCAEA., L.

1. C. lutetianaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Circaea lutetiana, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in woods, ascending in North Tynedale to Tecket and Hareshaw Denes, 200 yards. We have not seen the true C. alpina from the province. Winch's specimen thus named is C. lutetiana only, but C. intermedia, Ehrh., was gathered by Mr. Storey near Ryton.

Order 6. HALORAGACEAE.

1. HIPPURIS, L.

1. H. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hippuris vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ponds and slow streams, not unfrequent. Near Lucker and in Learmouth Bog (T.). Newham Bog (R. Embleton). Ditch above Fleatham Bridge (W. Richardson). In the Reed Water below Otterburn, 150 yards (Professor Oliver and Brown.) In the Blyth below Bedlington (W. H. Brown). Prestwick Carr (F. R!). Hell Kettles near Croft (B.). In the Skerne at Darlington (W. Backhouse). In the stells about Norton (J. Hogg).

2. MYPIOPHYLLUM, L.

1. M. verticillatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Myriophyllum verticillatum, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

In a pond at Walker near Newcastle (R. B. Bowman. A.). In a pond at Polam near Darlington (W. Backhouse. F.).

2. M. spicatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Myriophyllum spicatum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in ditches and slow streams, ascending Coquetdale to Rothbury, 150 yards.

3. M. alterniflorumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Myriophyllum alterniflorum, D. C. Native. British type. Area C, N. Range 1.

Heathy ponds. Shipley near Alnwick (John Storey!). Prestwick Carr and Crag Lake, 250 yards (R!). In the Chirdon Burn near Bellingham (W.H. Brown!) Easily passed over as the preceding.

3. CERATOPHYLLUM, L.

1. C. demersumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ceratophyllum demersum, L. Native. English type. AreaD. Range 1.

Ditches on Durham Moor (Rev. J. Symons. F.).

4. CALLITRICHE, L.

1. C. vernaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Callitriche stagnalis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in ditches and ponds, ascending to 500 yards in Allendale.

2. C. platycarpaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Callitriche platycarpa, Kutz. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in swamps and on the edges of ponds, ascending to 1700 feet in West Allendale.

3. C. pedunculataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Callitriche pedunculata, D. C. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in ponds and ditches, ascending in Teesdale to the Weel, 500 yards.

4. C. autumnalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Callitriche autumnalis, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, Range 1.

We have seen specimens of the true plant only from Prestwick Carr, 250 feet, where it is very likely now destroyed (B.), and above Powburn near the Breamish (T.).

Order 7. LYTHRACEAE.

1. LYTHRUM, L.

1. L. salicariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lythrum salicaria, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ditches and stream-sides, not unfrequent in the low country.

2. PEPLIS, L.

1. P. portulaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Peplis portula, L. Native. British type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Heathy swamps. Prestwick Carr, Kibblesworth, &c.

Order 8. CUCURBITACEAE.

1. BRYONIA, L.

1. B. dioicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bryonia dioica, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Pound formerly at Rugley near Alnwick, but not indigenous (R. Embleton). In Tynedale in the Haugh Lane near Hexham (R. Wigham!). Not uncommon in the south-east of Durham about Bishop Auckland, Darlington, Hartlepool, and Stockton.

Order 9. PORTULACEAE.

1. MONTIA, L.

1. M. fontanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Montia fontana, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in swamps and streamlets, especially amongst the hills, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 550 yards in Welhope. Var. rivularis is frequent in the hill sykes.

Order 10. SCLERANTHACEAE.

1. SCLERANTHUS, L.

1. S. annuusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scleranthus annuus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in dry sandy soil, ascending on porphyry above Alwinton to 300 yards, and nearly as high on the banks of Common Burn near Wooler. S. perennis of Winch's Flora is no doubt a mistake for this.

Order 11. GROSSULARIACEAE.

1. RIBES, L.

1. R. nigrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ribes nigrum, L. Denizen. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent by stream-sides, but very doubtfully indigenous. The most wild-looking station we have seen is in Tecket Dene, 150 yards.

2. R. rubrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ribes rubrum, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

The typical plant doubtfully indigenous like the preceding. Var. petraeum in Tynedale near Warden, Haydon Bridge, and some of the denes nearer Newcastle, and in Teesdale from Moor Rigs, 400 yards, down to Coniscliffe.

3. R. alpinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ribes alpinum, L. Denizen. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Woods, doubtfully indigenous. Ratcheugh, Denwick, Hulne, Felton, Wallington, Sunderland, Chester-le- Street, and by the Tees above Darlington.

4. R. grossulariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ribes uva-crispa, L. Denizen. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in hedge-rows and by stream-sides. Perhaps indigenous in Hesleden Dene, where it grows on the limestone cliff (W.H. Brown).

Order 12. CRASSULACEAE.

1. SEDUM, L.

1. S. rhodiolaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum rhodiola, D. C. Native. Highland type. Area C. Range 2.

Sparingly low down in Henhole, at an elevation of about 400 yards (James Hardy. T.).

2. S. telephiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum telephium, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Walls of Hulne Abbey and plantation near Greensfield (T.). Near Belsay (Miss Trevelyan. F.). Banks between Nunwick and Simonburn (Wallis). Hedge-banks near Hexham, and by the Tyne below Paradise (F.). Wood at Butterby and by the mill at Shincliffe (John Hogg. F.). Hedges near Durham and Lanchester, and by the road-side near Urpeth Mill (F!). Var. purpureum, Tausch., in Teesdale on Falcon Clints, 500 yards, and on the rocks in High Force Wood (B.).

3. S. villosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum villosum, L. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Scattered amongst the Cheviots, descending with the Wooler Water to Earl, and the Coquet to Alwinton and Rothbury. On the basaltic dike at Great Bavington, Spindlestone, and Bambro'. Gathered by John Thompson near Haltwhistle. In the Allendale district in Coal Cleugh, in the Wear district in Irishope, Welhope, and Swinhope, in Teesdale fine above Widdy Bank House and in many other places. Range of elevation from 100 feet to 550 yards.

4. S. anglicumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum anglicum, Huds. Native. Atlantic type. Area C. Range 1.

On the Heugh and near the castle on Holy Island on basalt.

5. S. albumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum album, L. Alien.

Old walks at Ilderton and Embleton (T.). Walls at Hexham ("W. Eobertson). On the abbey bridge below Barnard Castle (E. Robson. F.).

6. S. acreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum acre, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on dry banks and walls, ascending Teesdale to Newbiggin, 300 yards, and to the basaltic rocks at Gunnerton.

7. S. reflexumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sedum reflexum, S. rupestre, and Sempervivum tectorum are all three not unfrequently to be seen on roofs and old walls, but have no claim to be considered indigenous.

Order 13. SAXIFEAGACEAE.

1. SAXIFRAGA, L.

1. S. umbrosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga umbrosa, and S. geumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga geum, L.

Are to be seen occasionally in a half-wild condition where they have strayed from parks or old gardens.

2. S. stellarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga stellaris, L. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D). Range 1-3.

Plentiful by the side of some of the Cheviot sykes, ascending to 850 yards on Cheviot itself (T.), descending to the Careburn near Earl, 150 yards, and in the Coquet district to the banks of the Usway Burn below Usway Ford. In the Allen district both in Coal Cleugh and on Kilhope Law, and in the Derwent district near Riddlehamhope, and on the banks of the Beldon Burn. In the Wear district by the streams that issue from the Main Limestone of Welhope and Irishope. In the Tees district in many places, from Widdy Bank Fell and 750 yards on Highfield eastward to Eglestone Moor and the High Force.

3. S. hirculusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga hirculus, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area D. Range 2.

In two places in the Wear district in Irishope, one three and the other five miles distant from St. John's Chapel (James Backhouse). Estimated altitude 400-500 yards.

4. S. aizoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga aizoides, L. Native. Highland type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not known amongst the Cheviots. Banks of the Irthing near Gilsland, where it was first noticed by Wallis, a very low station (about 150 yards) for so thoroughly montane a plant when it is not known higher up the river. In Teesdale fine and plentiful on the banks of the Widdy Bank streamlets and carried down the river to the High Force. Range of altitude 150-500 yards. The station of Cawsey Dene, reported in the New Botanists' Guide, is no doubt a mistake.

5. S. granulataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga granulata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Dry sandy banks and cliffs of limestone and basalt, frequent, ascending from the coast links to 500 yards in the Cheviot denes.

6. S. tridactylitesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga tridactylites, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on walls and rocks, ascending in Teesdale to Newbiggin, 300 yards.

7. S. hypnoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Saxifraga hypnoides, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, D. Range 2, 3.

Plentiful in Henhole, Goldscleugh, and the Brizzle, descending to Fleethope. In the Tees district on the peak of Highfield, and abundant on Falcon Clints. Range of altitude 200-750 yards.

1. CHRYSOSPLENIUM, L.

1. C. oppositifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in damp woods and about the hill streams, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 550 yards in Welhope, and 1000 feet in East Allendale.

2. C. alternifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Chrysosplenium alternifolium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

In similar situations to the preceding but less frequent, ascending to 500 yards in the Brizzle (James Hardy).

3. PARNASSIA, L.

1. P. palustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Parnassia palustris, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Damp places near the sea and upland bogs. Frequent in the Magnesian Limestone denes. On the links at Holy Island, Alnmouth, Beadnell, &c. Ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot and in Welhope, to 500 yards on Widdy Bank, and nearly as high in Allendale and the Derwent district.

Order 14. ARALIACEAE.

1. ADOXA, L.

1. A. moschatellinaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Adoxa moschatellina, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D.

Frequent in woods, ascending in North Tynedale to Hareshaw Dene, 200 yards, and the British huts of Yevering Bell and Homilheugh.

2. HEDERA, L.

1. H. helixWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hedera helix, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on hedge-banks, rocks, and trees, ascending to the porphyritic crags of Yevering Bell and Coquetdale, and to 400 yards on the limestone scars of Langdon Dale and Weardale.

Order 15. COENACEAE.

l. CORNUS, L.

1. C. sanguineaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cornus sanguinea, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1. Truly wild in the Magnesian Limestone denes, and probably also in hedges in the south-east of Durham, but apparently planted only north of the Tyne.

2. C. suecicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cornus suecica, L. Native. Highland type. Area C. Range 2.

On Cheviot in a hollow facing Wooler Common between the head of the Glen and Wooler Water, and found also by the Rev. J.F. Bigge on Rimside Moor. Estimated altitude 300-500 yards.

Order 16. UMBELLIFERAE.

1. HYDROCOTYLE, L.

1. H. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in swampy places, especially amongst the hills, ascending to 650 feet on Wooler Common.

2. SANICULA, L.

1. S. europaeaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sanicula europea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in woods and on shaded hedge-banks, ascending in North Tynedale to Tecket Dene, 150 yards.

3. ERYNGIUM, L.

1. E. maritimumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Eryngium maritimum, L. Native. Maritime. British type. Area D. Range 1.

Has been gathered in various places along the Durham coast, as near South Shields, Hartlepool, Castle Eden, and Seaton Carew, but not seen recently.

4. CONIUM, L.

1. C. maculatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Conium maculatum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in ditches and waste ground, ascending Coquetdale to Linn Shiels and Allendale to Allentown, 250 yards.

5. SMYRNIUM, L.

1. S. olusatrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Smyrnium olusatrum, L. Denizen. English type. Area N, D.

Reported from Dunstanbro', probably in error for Ligusticum. On the rocks below Tynemouth Castle, first noted there by Wallis and still holding its ground. Behind the town walls above the Close Gate, Newcastle (F!). Willington Dene (W.H. Brown). In the church-yard at Hurworth (Rev. J. Harriman! F.). Below the church in Hesleden Dene (M.A. Lawson).

6. CICUTA, L.

1. C. virosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cicuta virosa, L. Native. English type. Area C. Range 1.

Learmouth Bog, and a single specimen found in 1840 on Charlton Moor (R. Embleton!) Ditches at Ewart near Wooler (T.). Reported by "Wallis from the bank of the North Tyne at Low Park End near Nunwick.

7. APIUM, L.

1. A. graveolensWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Apium graveolens, L. Native. Maritime. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the marshes and about the mouth of the streams all along the coast.

8. PETROSELINUM, Hoffm.

1. P. sativumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm. Alien.

Old walls, introduced. Hulne Abbey, Barnard Castle, and on the Magnesian Limestone rocks at Tunstall and Coniscliffe.

9. HELOSCIADIUM, Koch.

1. H. nodiflorumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Helosciadium nodiflorum, Koch. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in ditches and slow streams in the low country, ascending in the Cheviot tract to Earl, and in North Tynedale to Barrasford, 100 yards.

2. H. inundatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Apium inundatum, Koch. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Moory swamps, not unfrequent, ascending to Gateshead Fell, 150 yards.

10. AEGOPODIUM, L.

1. AE. podagrariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aegopodium podagraria, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Stream-sides and road-sides, frequent, ascending to 450 yards in East Allendale, 350 yards in Teesdale, and nearly as high in Weardale.

11. SISON, L.

1. S. amomumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sison amomum, L. Incognit.

On a gravelly bank by the road on the south-east side of the bridge at Barrasford, and also in the lane between the Edge House and Chollerton Road (Wallis).

12. CARUM, L.

1. C. caruiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carum carvi, L. Alien.

Occasionally introduced. Abundant in waste ground about Shorngate House near Allenheads, 1865 (B.). Corn-fields near Beamish (Winch).

13. SIUM, L.

1. S. latifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sium latifolium, L. Native. English type. Area C. Range 1.

Ditches near Embleton and Beadnell (R. Embleton). Formerly found at Friars Goose near Gateshead, but the pond where it grew was drained long ago.

2. S. angustifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sium angustifolium, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in ditches and slow streams in the low country.

14. BUNIUM, L.

1. B. flexuosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Conopodium majus, With. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 650 yards on Highfield, 550 yards in both East and West Allendale, 350 yards in Dunsdale.

15. PIMPINELLA, L.

1. P. saxifragaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pimpinella saxifraga, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on dry banks, ascending from the coast-links to Falcon Clints, 500 yards, and the Main Limestone scars of Burnhope, 550 yards.

2. P. magnaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pimpinella major, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

About the Wansbeck at Morpeth and Skeepwash (John Storey. B.). In North Tynedale at Long Rigg and Barrasford, discovered by Wallis, gathered by the Club, 1858. In Durham in several places on the Magnesian Limestone about Sunderland and Hartlepool.

16. BUPLEURUM, L.

1. B. tenuissimumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bupleurum tenuissimum, L. Native. Maritime. English type. Area D. Range 1.

On the sea-banks about the mouth of the Tees (F. R!).

2. B. rotundifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. Colonist. Germanic type. Area D. Range 1.

Corn-fields to the north and west of Norton and about Carlton and Redmarshal (John Hogg. F. R.). Corn-field adjoining the Common, Hartlepool (M. A. Lawson).

17. OENANTHE, L.

1. OE. fistulosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Oenanthe fistulosa, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ponds in the low country, not unfrequent.

2. OE. LachenaliiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Oenanthe lachenalii, Gmel. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in salt marshes along the coast. Warren Mills, Alnmouth, Howick, Embleton, Newton-by-the-Sea, Swinhoe, Warkworth, Willington, Southwick, Hylton, Hartlepool, Seaton Carew. The plants called peucedanifolia and pimpinelloides in Winch's Flora both belong here.

3. OE. crocataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Oenanthe crocata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on the banks of streams in the low country, ascending North Tynedale to Barrasford, Weardale to Frosterley, 150 yards.

4. OE. phellandriumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Oenanthe phellandrium, Lam. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Prestwick Carr (F. R!). In a large pond at Walker at the foot of the ballast hill (R.B. Bowman!). Ponds near Cocken and Durham (F.). In a swamp near Bear Park (Rev. J. Symons. F.). Fine in Morden Carr in the ditches.

18. AETHUSA, L.

1. AE. cynapiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aethusa cynapium, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending in Weardale to Frosterley, 200 yards.

19. LIGUSTICUM, L.

1. L. scoticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ligusticum scoticum, L. Native. Maritime. Scottish type. Area C. Range 1.

On the beach a quarter of a mile south of Bambro' Castle (Sir W.C. Trevelyan!). Amongst the rocks on the north side of Dunstanbro' Castle, now eradicated (R. Embleton!).

20. SILAUS, Besser.

1. S. pratensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Silaum silaus, Bess. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in grassy places in the low country, ascending to 150 yards at Lowick.

21. MEUM, Tourn.

1. M. athamanticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Meum athamanticum, Jacq. Native. Scottish type. Area N. Range 1.

On the basaltic ridge a quarter of a mile north of the village of Throckington, recorded by Wallis, gathered lately by Mr. Makepeace. Estimated altitude, 150 yards.

22. ANGELICA, L.

1. A. sylvestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Angelica sylvestris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common by stream-sides and in damp woods, ascending to 500 yards in the Cheviot ravines and as high in Allendale. The plant recorded in the Flora as A. archangelica, L., is this only.

23. PEUCEDANUM, Linn.

1. P. ostruthiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Peucedanum ostruthium, Koch. Alien.

About some of the dale farm-houses, apparently planted to use as a cow medicine. Bleakhope farm on the Breamish (Professor Oliver and W. H. Brown!). In Weardale on the banks of Daddre Burn below Daddre Shield (F.). Sparingly in Welhope. Abundant near a farm-house at 1600 feet not far from the head of Harwood Dale, also at Langdon Bridge (B.).

24. PASTINACA, L.

1. P. sativaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pastinaca sativa, L. Denizen. English type. Area D. Range 1.

A common ballast plant all along the coast, but probably indigenous on the Magnesian Limestone, as at Tunstall near Sunderland.

25. HERACLEUM, L.

1. H. sphondyliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Heracleum sphondylium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and meadows, ascending to 600 yards in Kilhope, 550 in Harwood Dale and East Allendale, 350 yards in Goldscleugh. Var. angustifolium near Denwick (T.), and a form with narrow leaves and oblong fruit in the wood above Haydon Bridge (B.).

26. DAUCUS, L.

1. D. carotaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Daucus carota, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Dry sandy fields and banks, not unfrequent, ascending to 1000 feet in Rookhope in a cultivated field. Truly wild about the Frosterley lime-quarries at 200 yards, and ascending Coquetdale to Sharperton.

27. CAUCALIS, L.

1. C. daucoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Caucalis daucoides, L. Colonist. Germanic type. Area D. Range 1.

Cultivated fields bordering the lane between the village of Fulwell and the sea (F. R!). Clayey corn-fields half a mile north of Norton (John Hogg. F.). Fields near Whitburn (B.G.). Near the Old Park Lodge, Bishop Auckland (Miss Wharton).

28. TORILIS, Adans.

1. T. anthriscusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Torilis japonica, Gaertn. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Hedge-banks and dry ground, frequent, ascending in Teesdale to High Force Wood, 980 feet, in Rookhope to 1100 feet, in Coquetdale to Alwinton.

2. T. nodosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Torilis nodosa, Gaertn. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in sandy fields and the foot of walls along the coast, associated usually with Anthriscus vulgaris.

29. SCANDIX, L.

1. S. pecten-venerisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scandix pecten-veneris, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending in Teesdale to the High Force, 350 yards, and in Weardale to St. John's Chapel, 950 feet.

30. ANTHRISCUS, Hoffm.

1. A. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthriscus vulgaris, Pers. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Sandy ground, frequent all along the coast.

1. A. cerefoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthriscus cerefolium, Hoffru. Alien.

Casually subspontaneous. Hexham, Gateshead, &c.

3. A. sylvestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthriscus sylvestris, Hoffm. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common everywhere in grassy places, ascending to 650 yards on Highfield, 550 yards in East Allendale. A form with deep green nearly naked leaves with narrow divisions, on limestone scars in Harwood Dale (B.).

31. CHAEROPHYLLUM, L.

1. C. temulumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthriscus temulum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Thickets and hedge-banks, common, ascending to 250 yards in Teesdale, and in Weardale to Stanhope.

32. MYRRHIS, Scop.

1. M. odorataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthriscus odorata, Scop. Native. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Rare in Cheviot-land. Road-side near Cornhill (Dr. Johnston). Road-side near Lilburn (James Hardy). In Coquetdale at Holystone (B.). Banks of the Aln below Denwick Bridge, and of the Coquet opposite Warkworth Hermitage. Common by stream-sides in Tyneland and Durham, ascending in East Allendale to 550 yards, in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

Division 3. COROLLIFLORAE.

Order 1. CAPRIFOLIACEAE.

1. SAMBUCUS, L.

1. S. nigraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sambucus nigra, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in woods and hedges, ascending in East Allendale to 300 yards.

2. S. ebulusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sambucus ebulus, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

On the west side of the church-yard wall at Chatton (Wallis). Bambro', and on an old dike at Ingram (Sir W.C. Trevelyan): gathered recently at the latter station by W. Richardson. Holy Island (T.). Lane behind the church at North Sunderland (R. Embleton). In Tynedale at Purley Green (Wallis); and at the Crooks near Mumps Hall (John Thompson). In several places near Newcastle, as near Benwell, Felling, and between Stella and Blaydon (F. R!). Shincliffe Vale, and between Pelaw Wood and Old Durham (Miss Wharton). Tees bank between Yarm and Worsall (B.).

2. VIBURNUM, L.

1. V. opulusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viburnum opulus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in hedges and thickets, ascending in Teesdale to 350 yards.

2. V. lantanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Viburnum lantana, L. Alien.

Hedge-row by the high road near Shilbottle (T.). Chipchase Woods, North Tynedale (B.). Hell Kettles near Croft (W. Foggitt). Hedge near Sedgefield (Rev. A. M. Norman).

3. LONICERA, L.

1. L. periclymerinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lonicera periclymerinum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Eange 1, 2.

Common in woods and hedge-rows, ascending in Teesdale to Falcon Clints, 500 yards.

2. L. xylosteumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lonicera xylosteum, L. Alien. Occasionally subspontaneous in plantations, as at Alnwick, Warkworth, Wallington, Durham, &c.

4. LINNAEA, Gronov.

1. L. borealisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linnaea borealis, Gron. Native ? Scottish type. Area N. Range 1.

In a plantation of Pinus sylvestris at Catcherside, near Scots' Gap Station, possibly introduced, as it grows very sparingly in one corner of the wood only, and the trees were imported direct from Norway by Sir W. Blackett about 1770. It was planted by Mr. Selby in the dene near Twizell House, and has become established. Altitude about 200 yards.

Order 2. RUBIACEAE.

1. GALIUM, L.

1. G. verumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium verum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common on dry grassy banks, ascending to 350 yards in Goldscleugh, to 450 yards in East Allendale, and to the Alain Limestone scars of Ivilhope, Welhope, and Newbiggin Moor, 550 yards.

2. G. palustreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium palustre, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent upon the edges of ponds and on damp moors, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot, 600 yards in Coal Cleugh, and 650 yards on Highfield. Var. elongatum is not unfrequent in swamps in the low country, and ascends Coquetdale to Rothbury.

3. G. cruciatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium cruciatum, "With. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and the edge of fields, ascending in Teesdale to 400 yards, and nearly as high in Rookhope.

4. G. uliginosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium uliginosum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in damp places, especially amongst the moors, ascending in Welhope to 550 yards.

5. G. saxatileWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium saxatile, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in heathy places, ascending the peaks of all the higher hills, Cheviot, 850 yards, Highfield, Kilhope Law, &c.

6. G. mollugoWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium mollugo, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Hedge-rows and thickets, very rare in Cheviot-land, more frequent in Tyneland and Durham. Very fine about Hexham, Wark, Nunwick, &c., ascending to 200 yards at Staward Peel.

7. G. sylvestreWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium sylvestre, Poll. Native. Xerophilous. Intermediate type. Area C, D. Range 1, 2.

Not observed yet in the neighbourhood of Wooler, but plentiful on the porphyry at Windyhaugh and Alwinton. In the Wear district sparingly on the Main Limestone scars of Burnhope, and more abundant in Kilhope. Common in Harwood Dale, ascending to the Upper Limestone of Bleak Law. Range of altitude, 150-550 yards.

8. G. tricorneWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium tricorne, With. Colonist. Germanic type. Area C, D. Range 1.

Barley-field near Beal Station, 1866 (B.). On the Magnesian Limestone not uncommon about Marsden, Cleadon, Fulwell, &c. Corn-fields near Seaton Carew (W. Backhouse. F!). Corn-field west of the railway at Greatham (M.A. Lawson).

9. G. aparineWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium aparine, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Eange 1, 2.

Common in hedges and cultivated fields, ascending to 350 yards in Teesdale, and as high in Rookhope.

10. G. borealeWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Galium boreale, L. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

By the Tweed side near Cornhill (R. Embleton). Not known amongst the Cheviots. Banks of the Tyne at Tarset, Bellingham, Nunwick, Hexham, Wylam, Bywell, &c.; and of the Irthing at Wardrew. Common by the Tees, beginning at the Caldron Snout, 500 yards, and carried down to Darlington and Yarm.

2. SHERARDIA, L.

1. S. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sherardia arvensis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated fields, ascending to 850 feet in Teesdale.

3. ASPERULA, L.

1. A. odorataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Asperula odorata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods, ascending in Teesdale to High Force Wood, 980 feet, and in the Wear district to Elm Ford near St. John's Chapel, 850 yards.

Order 3. VALERIANACEAE.

1. CENTRANTHUS, D. C.

1. C. ruberWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Centranthus ruber, D.C. Alien.

Sometimes on old walls, as at Hulne Abbey.

2. VALERIANA, L.

1. V. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valeriana officinalis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Stream-sides and ditches, common, ascending to 450 yards in the Cheviot ravines, to 1600 feet in Harwood Dale.

2. V. dioicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valeriana dioica, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in damp grassy places, ascending near Grasshill in Harwood Dale to 650 yards.

3. FEDIA, Vahl.

1. F. olitoriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valerianella locusta, Valil. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Hedge-banks and cultivated fields, frequent.

2. F. dentataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Valerianella dentata, Bieb. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated fields, ascending to 150 yards at Lilburn near Wooler.

Order 4. DIPSACEAE.

1. DIPSACUS, L.

1. D. sylvestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Dipsacus sylvestris, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Dry sandy soil in the low country, not unfrequent.

2. SCABIOSA, L.

1. S. succisaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scabiosa succisa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 550 yards in Harwood Dale, nearly as high in East Allendale, and to 1400 feet in the Cheviot ravines.

2. S. columbariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scabiosa columbaria, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not known amongst the porphyry of the Cheviot, and in the northern subprovince known only upon the basalt, as at Ratcheugh and Spindlestone, and the coast links. In Tyneland and Durham frequent on the limestone, ascending to the Main Limestone scars of Harwood Dale and Newbiggin Moor, 550 yards.

3. KNAUTIA, Coult.

1. K. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Knautia arvensis, Coult. Native. British type. Area C, N, Range 1.

Dry banks and on the borders of cultivated fields, common, ascending to 300 yards in Teesdale and East Allendale.

Order 5. COMPOSITE.

1. TRAGOPOGON, L.

1. T. pratensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tragopogon pratensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in grassy places, ascending Coquetdale to Alwinton, Teesdale to Middleton, and to 1100 feet in Rookhope. Var. minor, Fries, is more frequent than the type.

2. T. porrifoliusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tragopogon porrifolius, L. Alien.

A single specimen in waste ground near Beal Station, 1851 (T.).

2. HELMINTHIA, Juss.

1. H. echioidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Helminthotheca echioides, Gaertn. Native. English type. Area C, D. Range 1.

On the sea-banks at Howick and Amble ("W. Richardson). Not unfrequent upon the Magnesian Limestone, and about Sedgefield and Stockton.

3. PICRIS, L.

1. P. hieracioidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Picris hieracioides, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Shull near Wolsingham, 150 yards, and Bay dales near Darlington (W. Backhouse !). At the lower end of Hawthorn Dene (F.). Near Norton (John Hogg. F.).

4. THRINCIA, Roth.

1. T. hirtaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Leontodon hispidus, D.C. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Sandy ground along the coast-line. Seaton Delaval, Blytb, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, Hartlepool, &c.

5. APARGIA, Schreb.

1. A. hispidaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Leontodon hispidus, Willd. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 350 yards in Groldscleugh, 650 yards in Harwood Dale near Grasshill.

2. A. autumnalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scorzoneroides autumnalis, Willd. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot, 650 yards on Highfield, and nearly as high in Welhope and East Allendale.

6. HYPOCHOERIS, L.

1. H. radicataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hypochaeris radicata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on dry banks and grassy places, ascending to 450 yards in East Allendale.

7. LACTUCA, L.

1. L. virosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lactuca virosa, L. Native. Germanic type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Dry banks, not unfrequent. Banks of the Tweed above Coldstream Bridge and below Norham; also near the toll-bar at Twizell (Johnston. T.). Banks of the Coquet at Warkworth (W. Richardson!). Near Cullercoats (F.). Scattered over the Magnesian Limestone and Red Sandstone tract from Cleadon to Pierce Bridge and Stockton. By the Tees on the bank beneath the castle at Barnard Castle, 150 yards (E.)

2. L. muralisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mycelis muralis, Less. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in Tynedale and Durham on shaded rocks and walls, especially in the Magnesian Limestone denes, ascending Weardale to Hamsterley, 150 yards (Professor Oliver).

8. SONCHUS, L.

1. S. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sonchus arvensis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending in Allendale to Studden, 300 yards, and to 1000 feet in Rookhope.

2. S. asperWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sonchus asper, Hoffm. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in waste ground and by road-sides, ascending to 1100 feet in Rookhope, and in Weardale to Copthill, 1300 feet.

3. S. oleraceusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Sonchus oleraceus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar situations to the preceding, ascending in Weardale to Stanhope, 250 yards.

9. CREPIS, L.

1. C. virensWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Crepis capillaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Hedge-banks and cultivated fields, frequent, ascending in Coquetdale to Alwinton, Weardale to Stanhope, and Teesdale to Middleton, 250 yards. C. biennis is given by Winch as a plant of the province, but his specimens are in part C. virens, and in part (those from ballast) Barkhausia taraxacifolia.

2. C. succisaefoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Crepis succisaefolia, Tausch. Native. Intermediate type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not unfrequent in the hill denes. Amongst the Cheviots in Roddam Dene (James Hardy), and on the banks of the Common Burn (T. B.). Dene near Kyloe (R. Embleton). Near Alnwick in Rugley and White House Woods (T.). In Coquetdale near Alwinton and Rothbury (Professor Oliver). In North Tynedale near Smalesmouth (Professor Oliver!), in Tecket Dene (B.), and Hareshaw Dene (John Thompson). Thickets near Kirkwhelpington (W. Borrer). In South Tynedale in Cockton Wood near Chesterholme (John Thompson!). In the Wear district in Rookhope near Bolt's Burn, 1100 feet, and plentiful in Burnhope and woods near St. John's Chapel, 400 yards (B.). In Teesdale from Langdon Dale by the Tees side down to Winch Bridge (B.).

3. C. paludosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Crepis paludosa, Moench. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1–3.

Plentiful by the stream-sides and in damp woods amongst the hills, ascending from the Magnesian Limestone denes to 550 yards in Dunsdale, Cheviot, and as high both in East and West Allendale, and to 650 yards on Highfield near Grasshill.

10. HIERACIUM, L.

1. H. pilosellaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium pilosella, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to the Main Limestone scars of Welhope, 550 yards, and Highfield, 650 yards.

2. H. aurantiacumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium aurantiacum, L. Alien.

Hulne Woods near Alnwick (T.).

3. H. anglicumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium anglicum, Fries. Native. Highland type. Area D. Range 1, 2.

In Teesdale sparingly from Falcon Clints down to Winch Bridge, 300-450 yards (B.). We see no valid reason for dropping Smith's name of H. Lawsoni for this species.

4. H. iricumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium iricum, Fries. Native. Highland type. Area D. Range 1, 2.

In Teesdale with the preceding from Langdon Bridge and Falcon Clints by the river-side down to Winch Bridge, 300-450 yards.

5. H. argenteumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium argenteum, Fries. Native. Highland type. Area C. Range 1, 2.

In several places amongst the Cheviots on porphyritic crags. Abundant at Heathpool Linn (James Hardy and J. Gr. Baker), and gathered by Professor Oliver and Mr. W. H. Brown high up in the Brizzle ravine and also by the Coquet near Shillmoor, where it was regathered by Mr. Baker in 1866. Range of altitude 100-500 yards.

6. H. pallidum, Biv. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

On Cheviot high up in the Brizzle (Professor Oliver. W.H. Brown. B.). On the basalt at Kyloe and Spindlestone (W. Richardson!). On the Magnesian Limestone at Tunstall Hill near Sunderland (W.H. Brown!). In Teesdale on the basalt at Falcon Clints and Winch Bridge. There is a specimen in the Newcastle Museum collection from the neighbourhood of Gilsland. Range of elevation 150-500 yards.

7. H. lasiophyllum, Koch. Native. Highland type. Area C. Range 1.

By the Coquet in the porphyritic ravine at Linn Shiels, 2 miles above Alwinton. Discovered by Professor Oliver and Mr. W.H. Brown and regathered by Mr. Baker in 1866. Altitude 200-250 yards.

8. H. murorum, L., Fries.! Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not unfrequent on rocks, especially of limestone, in the denes, ascending from Castle Eden Dene to 600 yards in Dunsdale (B.), and as high in the Brizzle (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown!).

9. H. caesium, Fries. Native. Scottish type. Area C, D. Range 1, 2.

On porphyritic cliffs at Usway Ford near Alwinton (B.). On the basaltic dike at Kyloe (W. Richardson !). In Teesdale on limestone at Langdon Bridge (B.). Range of altitude 150-400 yards.

10. H. vulgatum, Fries. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent upon walls and rocks, and in woods, ascending to 600 yards on Cheviot, and in the Tees district to the Main Limestone of Highfield, 700 yards.

11. H. gothicumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium gothicum, Fries. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

In Coquetdale in the ravine at Linn Shiels (B.). In North Tynedale near Smalesmouth (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown!). In South Tynedale in a small ravine near Thorngrafton, first gathered by John Thompson. In the Wear district in Burnhope Woods, and by the Wear side above St. John's Chapel (B.). In Teesdale from the Caldron Snout and Langdon Bridge down to Winch Bridge (B.). Range of altitude 150-500 yards.

12. H. tridentatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium tridentatum, Fries. Native. British type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

In South Tynedale in the woods on the edge of the road on Corbridge Fell and higher up near Shield Hall (B.). In the Wear district in the wood at the bottom of Burnhope, and by the waterfall of the Harthope stream close to St. John's Chapel (B.). In Teesdale sparingly in High Force Wood (B.). Range of altitude 200-400 yards.

13. H. prenanthoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium prenanthoides, Vill. Native. Highland type. Area C, N. Range 1.

In the Cheviot tract on the banks of the Common Burn, 150 yards (T. B.), and cliffs near Bleakhope on the Breamish (Professor Oliver and W. H. Brown!). In the Coquet district near Rothbury (W. Boyd). In North Tynedale in Tecket Dene (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown). Banks of the Allen near its junction with the Tyne, first gathered by John Thompson.

14. H. umbellatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium umbellatum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in woods and thickets, ascending in North Tynedale to Smalesmouth, 200 yards (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown!).

15. H. crocatumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium crocatum, Fries. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Plentiful at Heathpool Linn, both the narrow and broad-leaved varieties (James Hardy and J.G. Baker). In North Tynedale near Smalesmouth (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown !). Plentiful by the Wear side both above and below St. John's Chapel, and in Teesdale from Moor Eigs down to the High Force and Winch Bridge (B.). Range of altitude 100-400 yards.

16. H. corymlosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium corymbosum, Fries. Native. Montane. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

In Coquetdale in the ravine at Linn Shiels (B.). In North Tynedale by the stream-side at Tarset (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown!). Abundant by the Tees from Langdon Bridge down to Winch Bridge. Range of altitude 150-400 yards.

17. H. borealeWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hieracium boreale, Fries. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and in woods, ascending in Allendale to Sinderhope, 350 yards, and in Weardale and Teesdale to 400 yards. Very plentiful on some of the railway embankments near Newcastle.

11. BARKHAUSIA, Moench.

1. B. setosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Crepis setosa, D. C. Alien. Ratcheugh near Alnwick, introduced with clover seed.

12. TARAXACUM, Juss.

1. T. officinaleWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in waste and grassy places, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot, 650. yards on Stangend Rigg, 750 yards on Highfield. Var. palustre is frequent in swamps, especially amongst the hills. Var. laevigatum grows on the Magnesian Limestone in Hesleden Dene and on the sand-links at Alnmouth (T.).

13. LAPSANA, L.

1. L. communisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lapsana commumis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and in cultivated fields, ascending in Teesdale to High Force Wood, 350 yards, and in East Allendale to 450 yards.

14. CICHORIUM, L.

1. C. intybusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cichorium intybus, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent as a weed in cultivated fields. Berwick, Twizell Castle, Alnwick, Linden, Belsay, Willington, Howdon, Snipperley, Sunderland, Murton Honse, Wynyard, Norton, &c.

15. ARCTIUM, L.

1. A. lappaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Arctium lappa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

A. minus, Schk., is frequent by the road-sides and in waste ground, ascending in Teesdale to High Force, in East Allendale to Studden, 800 yards. A. intermedium, Bab., occurs in South Tynedale at Staward Peel and Haydon Bridge. We have not seen A. majus, Schk. from the province.

16. SERRATULA, L.

1. S. tinctoriaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Serratula tinctoria, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Very rare in Northumberland. On the coast between Craster and Howick, sparingly (T.). In South Tynedale at West Dipton near Hexham (B. Wigham). On the Magnesian Limestone at Cleadon, Whitburn, and on the cliffs at Marsden. Hedge-banks near Hylton Ferry (F.). In Castle Eden Dene and a lane leading from Cold Knuckles to Brereton (M.A. Lawson). Near Norton (John Hogg). In the Wear district at Hamsterley (W. Backhouse). By the Tees side at Winch Bridge, 300 yards (B.).

17. CARDUUS, L.

1. C. nutansWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus nutans, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in waste ground, especially on the Magnesian Limestone, ascending to 150 yards at Roddam. A hybrid between this species and the next was gathered by Mr. Baker in 1866 at North Middleton near Wooler, in a field where they grew intermixed. The stem was about three feet high, the leaves similar to those of C. nutans but the spines rather feebler, the heads three to five in a cluster, mostly on distinct stalks but casually two together, two-thirds the size of ordinary C. nutans, and the outer phyllaries not more than half as broad and hardly at all reflexed. This form is about midway between C. nutans and the Continental C. acanthoides, differing from the former about as much as the latter does from C. crispus.

2. C. crispusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus crispus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in waste ground, ascending Weardale to Frosterley, and Coqueidale to Linn Shiels, 150 yard's.

3. C. tenuiflorusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus tenuiflorus, Curt. Native. Maritime. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in waste ground all along the coast-line.

4. C. marianusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus marianus, D. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

On the rocks at Bambro' Castle and near the priory on Holy Island (F. T.). Willington Dene and Close Houses near Ovingham (F.). On the Priory Hill at Tynemouth, where it was noted by Wallis, and grows there still. Hartlepool and banks of the Wear at Durham (F.). Gathered also by W. Backhouse at Houghton-le-Skerne and J. Hogg near Norton.

5. C. lanceolatusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus lanceolatus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common everywhere in waste ground, ascending to the Main Limestone scars of Kilhope, Welhope, and Highfield, 600 yards.

6. C. eriophorusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Carduus eriophorus, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Recorded by Wallis from under the hill near the church at Wallsend. Rare on the Magnesian Limestone. In the lane near the quarry at Fulwell (F.). Between Pittington Hallgarth and Elemore (James Backhouse. F.). Railway bank north of Hartlepool (M. A. Lawson).

7. C. palustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cirsium palustris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in damp fields, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot, 600 yards on Highfield.

8. C. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cirsium arvensis, Curt. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in fields and waste ground, ascending to 600 yards above Allenheads, to 2000 feet on Highfield: a peculiar form, with broad flat leaves pinnatifid half-way down, gathered by John Storey at Newburn.

9. C. heterophyllusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cirsium heterophyllus, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Hilly woods, frequent. In the Cheviot district in the Brizzle, Goldscleugh, Glanton, and on Heathpool Bell and banks of the Wooler Water. In the Aln district near Kyloe, Ellingham, and in Rugley and White House Woods and Twizell Dene. In Coquetdale plentiful at Shillmoor. In the Wansbeck district in ditches north of Cambo, and at Roadley and Long Witton. In North Tynedale at Tarset and in Tecket and Hareshaw Denes. In the South Tyne district at Sinderhope, Allentown, Haltwhistle, Chesterholme, &c.; once carried down the Tyne to Newcastle. In the Derwent district in Gibside Woods, &c. Castle Eden Dene. Frequent in Weardale and Teesdale, ascending to Burnhope Woods and the high limestone scars up Harwood Beck, 550 yards, descending to Middleton.

18. ONOPORDUM, L.

1. O. acanthiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Onopordum acanthium, L. Alien.

Occasionally in waste ground. Holy Island, road-sides, and corners of fields, well established (W. Richardson!). Waste ground at Gateshead (John Storey!). Railway hank north of Hartlepool (M. A. Lawson). Tees side at Croft (W. Foggitt).

19. CARLINA, L.

1. C. vulgaris, L. Native. Xerophilous. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Only known in Cheviot-land on the coast links, as at Holy Island, Bambro', and the mouth of the Coquet. In Tyneland and Durham scattered amongst the limestone, ascending in Teesdale to Falcon Clints, 400 yards. Occasionally on the sandstone moors, as Gateshead Fell.

20. CENTAUREA, L.

1. C. nigra, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common upon hedge-banks and in meadows, ascending to the high limestone scars of Kilhope and Harwood Dale, 550 yards. The radiate form is frequent in the upper part of Teesdale and Wear dale.

2. C. cyanus, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

An occasional weed in cultivated fields, ascending Coquetdale to Rothbury, 150 yards.

3. C. scabiosa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Rare in Northumberland. In Cheviot-land gathered by Mr. Richardson near Warkworth. In Tynedale about Dilston, Corbridge, and Hexham. In Durham frequent upon the Magnesian Limestone.

4. C. solstitialis, L. Alien.

A weed in a field of lucerne between Marsden and Whitburn, 1864 (B.).

21. BIDENS, L.

1. B. cernuaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bidens cernua, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Ditches, rare. In Tyneland at Prestwick Carr, and gathered by John Thompson near Crowhall Mill. In Durham at Norton (Miss Wharton), and near Birtley and Chester-le-Street (F.).

2. B. tripartitaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bidens tripartita, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar places to the preceding, more frequent. Chatton, Harnham, Corbridge, Prestwick Carr, Lamesley, Chester-le-Street, Durham, Bradbury, Morden Carr, &c.

22. EUPATORIUM, L.

1. E. cannabinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Eupatorium cannabinum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in ditches and swamps and by river-sides in the low country, ascending to 200 yards in Teesdale.

23. TANACETUM, L.

1. T. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tanacetum vulgare, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in the low country by stream-sides and in waste ground.

24. ARTEMISIA, L.

1. A. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Artemisia vulgare, L. Native. Maritime. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent along the coast-line in the salt marshes and by the stream-sides, both the type and var. gattica.

2. A. absinthiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Artemisia absinthium, L. Denizen. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

One of the commonest ballast plants, and occurring occasionally inland near villages and farm-houses. Seen in Teesdale at 400 yards.

3. A. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Artemisia vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and in waste ground, ascending in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards, and in Coquetdale to Linn Shiels.

25. GNAPHALIUM, L.

1. G. dioicumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gnaphalium dioicum, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon upland heaths, ascending to 500 yards in Teesdale, and 550 yards in West Allendale, descending to Prestwick Carr, and in Coquetdale to the road-side near Holystone. On the basalt at Dunstanbro', Spindlestone, and Gunnerton.

2. G. sylvaticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Not unfrequent in uncultivated sandy soil, ascending to Wooler Common, to 300 yards in Allendale, and 450 yards in Weardale.

3. G. uliginosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gnaphalium uliginosum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated fields and sandy soil, ascending North Tynedale to Hareshaw Moor (Professor Oliver and W.H. Brown), and in Allendale near Gatton to 300 yards.

26. FILAGO, L.

1. F. minimaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Filago minima, Fries. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Scattered in sandy soil. Frequent on the porphyritic debris round the base of the Cheviots about Alwinton and Wooler, especially in the beds of the streams. Alnwick Moor, Howick, Kyloe Crags, Rothbury, Cockfield Fell, Winch Bridge, 300 yards, &c.

2. F. germanicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Filago germanica, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated fields on sandy soil, ascending to the ridge of Kyloe Crags, and in North Tynedale to Tarset Moor, 250 yards (W. H. Brown).

27. PETASITES, Gaertn.

1. P. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Petasites vulgaris, Deaf. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in swamps and by stream-sides, ascending in Weardale to St. John's Chapel, 950 feet, in Coquetdale to Linn Shiels, in North Tynedale high up in Tecket Dene.

28. TUSSILAGO, L.

1. T. farfaraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tussilago farfara, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common on clayey banks and in cultivated fields, ascending to 650 yards on Highfield, 600 yards in Welhope, 550 yards in West Allendale.

29. ERIGERON, L.

1. E. acrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erigeron acris, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Sandy ground, rare. On Holy Island on the links north of the castle (F.), not seen recently. On the links north of Seaton Sluice (F. B.). Scattered on the Magnesian Limestone; Byers Quarry near Whitburn, Fawdon, Hesleden Dene, Castle Eden Dene (F. R.). Gathered also by John Hogg at Owton near Greatham, and M. A. Lawson at Seaton Carew.

30. ASTER, L.

1. A. tripoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Aster tripolium, L. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent along the coast-line in salt marshes and at the mouth of the streams.

31. SOLIDAGO, L.

1. S. virgaurcaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Solidago virgaurca, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in woods and on shaded rocks, especially amongst the hills, ascending to 1400 feet in Dunsdale on Cheviot, as high in the Derwent district, and to 500 yards in Teesdale.

32. SENECIO, L.

1. S. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio vulgaris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common everywhere in waste ground, ascending to 550 yards in Harwood Dale and East and West Allendale, to 350 yards at Broadstruther House near Wooler.

2. S. sylvaticusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio sylvaticus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on sandy heaths, ascending to 250 yards near Alwinton. Very fine all round the base of the Cheviots amongst the porphyritic debris.

3. S. viscosusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio viscosus, L. Native. Germanic type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Waste ground in sandy soil. Near Budle (T.). Alnwick Moor (R. Embleton). Near the riding stables at Easington (Johnston). Alnmouth (F.). Heaton Dene and Benwell near Newcastle (F.). Road-sides near Chirton and Wallsend (W. H. Brown). In a quarry of Magnesian Limestone at Marsden (B.). On the ballast hills about Sunderland, Seaham, and Hartlepool (F. R.).

4. S. erucaefoliusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio erucifolius, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Hedge-banks about Whitley and along the Magnesian Limestone from Shields to Hartlepool and Darlington. By the Tweed near Ord Mill (Dr. Thompson. F.).

5. S. JacoboeaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio jacoboea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1,2.

Common everywhere in waste and grassy places, ascending in Harwood Dale to 600 yards, and to 550 yards in Welhope and Allendale. A rayless form gathered by the Tees near Upper Cronkley Bridge (B.).

6. S. aquaticusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio aquaticus, Huds. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in ditches and damp fields, ascending to 500 yards in Irishope, the Wear district, and in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

7. S. saracenicusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Senecio saracenicus, L. Alien.

Gathered by John Thompson many years ago on the banks of the Erring Burn near Hallington.

33. DORONICUM, L.

1. D. pardalianchesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Doronicum pardalianches, L. Alien.

Road-side near West Balton near Alnwick (T.). In a plantation near Cresswell (John Storey !). Wear banks at Durham below Mr. Fox's garden (F!).

34. INULA, L.

1. I. heleniumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Inula helenium, L. Native? English type. Area D. Range 1.

On the north side of Castle Eden Dene about a mile from the sea (Jas. Jansen. F!). In Hardwick Dene, but perhaps planted (M. A. Lawson). Gathered long ago by Stephen Bobson by the Tees near Darlington, but not seen recently.

35. PULICARIA, Gaertn.

1. P. dysentericaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pulicaria dysenterica, Gaert. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in damp places in the low country. Becoming rare in Cheviot-land. Meadow near Calish Wood, Alnwick, Embleton, Holy Island, and by the side of the Wooler Water below the town.

36. BELLIS, L.

1. B. perennisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bellis perennis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 750 yards on Highfield, 650 yards on Stangend Rigg.

37. CHRYSANTHEMUM, L.

1. C. segetumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Chrysanthemum segeum, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D.

An occasional weed of cultivated fields, once plentiful, now rare. Warkworth, Haltwhistle, Newcastle, Hartlepool, Stockton, &c.

2. C. leucanthemumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Leucanthemum vulgare, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 500 yards in East Allendale, 550 yards in Harwood Dale.

38. PYRETHRUM, L.

1. P. partheniumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tanacetum parthenium, Sm. Denizen. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Waste places, not uncommon, but always near villages and farm-houses, ascending to 300 yards in East Allendale.

2. P. inodorumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tripleurospermum inodorum, Sm. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

A common weed of cultivated fields, ascending in Coquetdale above Alwinton, in Teesdale to Eglestone, and in Weardale to St. John's Chapel, 1000 feet.

3. P. maritimumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Tripleurospermum maritimum, Sm. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C, N, D.

Not unfrequent along the coast. Holy Island, Dunstanbro', Bambro', Tynemouth, Marsden, &c. Care must be taken not to confound this with forms of the preceding, from which it differs in the fruit.

39. MATRICARIA, L.

1. M. chamomillaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Matricaria chamomilla, L. Colonist. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

A weed of cultivated ground, rare. Gateshead, Ponteland, Mason Dinnington, Kenton, &c.

40. ANTHEMIS, L.

1. A. nobilisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthemis nobilis, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Between Lintz Green Hall and the turnpike (R. Waugh and John Thornhill. F.).

2. A. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthemis arvensis, L. Colonist. English type. Arear C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in cultivated fields, ascending to the ridge above Doddington near Wooler, 400 feet. The plant called A. maritima has been shown by Professor Oliver (see Transactions, vol. IV, p. 45,) to be likely to be a form of this species.

3. A. cotulaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Anthemis cotula, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in Tyneland and Durham as a weed of cultivated fields. Said to be rare in Cheviot-land and not included in Johnston's Flora of the Eastern Borders, but gathered lately by Dr. Maclagan near Lucker.

41. ACHILLEA, L.

1. A. ptarmicaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Achillea ptarmica, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in undrained pastures and on the edges of heaths, ascending to 550 yards in Allendale, 650 yards in Harwood Dale.

2. A. millefoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Achillea millefolium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in grassy places, ascending to 700 yards on Highfield.

Order 6. CAMPANULACEAE.

1. CAMPANULA, L.

1. C. rotundifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula rotundifolia, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common on pastures and heaths, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot.

2. C. rapunculusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula rapunculus, L. Alien.

In a grassy field of the glebe at Norton (John Hogg. F.).

3. C. latifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula latifolia, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent by stream-sides and in ditches, ascending in Coquetdale to Rothbury, Teesdale to High Force Woods, Weardale above Wearhead Village, 1150 feet.

4. C. rapunculoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula rapunculoides, L. Alien.

An occasional garden weed, as at Shields and Yarm. Right bank of the Derwent between Swalwell and the Tyne (R. B. Bowman).

5. C. tracheliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula trachelium, L. Alien.

Hulne Woods near Alnwick (R. Embleton. A.).

6. C. glomerataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Campanula glomerata, L. Native. Xerophilous. Germanic type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Stocking Woods near Alnwick, formerly plentiful (R. Embleton): now apparently lost. In Tynedale from Gunnerton Crags, 150 yards, and the lime-kilns at Walldown past Hexham by the river-side to Riding Mills and Wylam. Woods near Cocken (F.). Gainford and Barbara Rigs near Barnard Castle (Rev. J. Harriman. F.). Meadow below Hesleden Church and woods near Pierce Bridge (M. A. Lawson).

2. SPECULARIA, Herit.

1. S. hybridaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Legousia hybrida, A. D. C. Colonist. Germanic type. Area D. Range 1.

Corn-fields on Tunstall Hill near Sunderland (F!). Corn-fields near Norton (John Hogg. F. R!).

3. JASIONE, L.

1. J. montanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Jasione montana, L. Native. British type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

Sandy ground, rare, and not known in Cheviot-land. Hedgebanks in Tynedale near Haltwhistle, Bardon Mills, and Hexham (F. R!). Plentiful in Stella Dene (W. Robertson). Lanes between Winlaton and Crawcrook (R. B. Bowman). Dry banks near Durham city (John Thompson). Sandy ground near Hamsterley and Witton-le-Wear (F. R!). In Teesdale above High Force, 350 yards (M. A. Lawson).

Order 7. ERICACEAE.

l. ERICA, L.

1. E. tetralixWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erica tetralix, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent on damp heaths, ascending to 600 yards on Cheviot, 700 yards on Kilhope.

2. E. cinereaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Erica cinerea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on heaths, but preferring drier ones than the preceding, and consequently not so common amongst the upland moors or ascending so high. Rare for instance in the upper part of Teesdale, but seen on the basalt at 500 yards at the Caldron Snout and as high in the Cheviot tract. There are fine specimens of E. vagans in Robertson's collection in the Newcastle Museum, labelled "Near Corbridge, July, 1844, Mr. T. Johnson," but doubtless some mistake has occurred.

2. CALLUNA, Salish.

1. C. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Calluna vulgaris, Salisb. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere very common on heaths, ascending to all the high peaks, Cheviot, 850 yards, Kilhope Law, &c.

3. ANDROMEDA. L.

1. A. polifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Andromeda polifolia, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area N. Range 1.

Rare in peat bogs. In the Wansbeck tract at Darden Lough and in Green Leighton Moss, in South Tynedale in Muckle Moss and Prestwick Carr (F. E!). Range of altitude 100-600 feet.

4. ARBUTUS, L.

1. A. uva-ursiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Arbutus uva-ursi, L. Native. Highland type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

Reported by Wallis from Little Wanny House Crags near the head of the Wansbeck. In South Tynedale on the moor above Dipton Dene near Dilston, where it was first gathered by Lightfoot, the author of the Flora Scotica. On the Northumberland side of the Derwent in Acton Cleugh (F.). Reported also from the Allendale Moors. In Teesdale sparingly on Falcon Clints at 500 yards (B.).

5. VACCINIUM, L.

1. V. myrtillusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vaccinium myrtillus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common in denes and on heaths, ascending to all the peaks, 850 yards on Cheviot.

2. V. vitis-idaeaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vaccinium vitis-idaea, L. Native. Highland type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent on all the higher moors, ascending to 700 yards on Kilhope Law and Highfield, 850 yards on Cheviot, descending to 150 yards in Alnwick Park (W. Richardson).

3. V. uliginosumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vaccinium uliginosum, L. Native. Highland type. Area N, D. Range 1, 2.

Turfy bogs, rare. In South Tynedale on Caervoran Moor, the summit and slope towards the north of Walltown Crags, and plentiful in Baron House Bog (F. R!). Near an old camp on the south side of the Tyne at Lambley (Sir W. C. Trevelyan!). Reported by Wallis from the woods of Dipton Dene near Dilston. In Teesdale sparingly on the Moor Rigs above the High Force. Range of altitude 150-450 yards.

4. V. oxycoccosWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vaccinium oxycoccos, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent in turf bogs at all levels, Hoselaw Loch, Learmouth Bog, Yevering Bell, Coldmorton Bog near Wooler, Howburn Bog near Lowick, Horton Bog near Doddington, Alnwick Moor, Kemmer Lough, Black Lough, Harbottle Loch, Wallington Moors, Baron House Bog, Crag Lough, Muckle Moss, Staward Peel, Kilhope Law, 700 yards, Derwent, Beamish, Urpeth, Irishope, Burnhope and Teesdale Moors.

6. PYROLA, L.

1. P. rotundifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pyrola rotundifolia, L. Native. Germanic type. Area C, D. Range 1.

In Cheviot-land in Learmouth Bog, Newham Bog, Haiden Dene, and Allerton Dene (F. T.). In the Magnesian Limestone denes in several places; Castle Eden Dene, Hawthorne Dene, Hesleden Dene, and on the coast near Horden Hall (F. R!). In Birch Carr near Middleton-one-Row (James Ianson!).

2. P. mediaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pyrola media, Swz. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In Cheviot-land in Haiden, Twizell, Longridge and Ancroft Denes and on the heathy slope of Kyloe Crags (F. R!). In the Wansbeck tract in Roadley Woods (Miss Trevelyan. F!). In South Tynedale in Dipton and Scotswood Denes (F. R!). In Durham in Howns Wood near Medomsley, and the fir plantations of the Shull, Waskerley and Lanchester Moors, 250 yards (F. R!).

3. P. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pyrola minor, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in fir plantations, ascending from the Magnesian Limestone denes to 400 yards in Teesdale (James Backhouse).

4. P. secundaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Orthilia secunda, L. Native. Scottish type. Area C. Range 1.

Sparingly on the north face of Yevering Bell, just above the wood, discovered by Dr. Johnston and the Rev. A. Baird in 1834; regathered by Dr. Tate in 1866. Altitude about 200 yards.

7. MONOTROPA, L.

1. M. hypopitys, L. Incognit. Reported by Wallis as not unfrequent in the woods about Wark in North Tynedale, probably in mistake for Lathrea.

Order 9. AQUIFOLIACEAE.

1. ILEX, L.

1. I. aquifoliumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ilex aquifolium, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in woods and hedge-rows, ascending to 950 feet in East Allendale, 200 yards on the banks of the Common Burn, Cheviot.

Order 10. OLEACEAE.

1. LIGUSTRUM, L.

1. L. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Ligustrum vulgare, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Truly wild in some of the Magnesian Limestone denes, as Hesleden and Castle Eden, on the sea-banks between Seaham and Hawthorn, and occasionally subspontaneous in hedges.

2. FRAXINUS, L.

1. F. excelsiorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Fraxinus excelsior, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in woods and hedge-rows, ascending to 350 yards in Goldscleugh, and high up in Tecket and Hareshaw Denes. Planted in Teesdale up to 1600 feet.

Order 11. APOCYNACEAE.

l. VINCA, L.

1. V. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vinca minor and majorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Vinca major, L. Aliens.

Are both occasional stragglers from garden cultivation.

Order 12. GENTIANACEAE.

1. GENTIANA, L.

1. G. vernaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gentiana verna, L. Native. Xerophilous. Intermediate type. Area D. Range 2.

In Teesdale plentiful on Fendrith Hill and Widdy Bank Fell, and carried down the streams into the dale. Range of altitude 350-550 yards.

2. G. amarellaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gentianella amarella, L. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on the coast links and limestone hills, ascending to the Sugar Limestone of Widdy Bank, 500 yards.

3. G. campestrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Gentianella campestris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in dry pastures, ascending from the coast links to 500 yards in Langdon Dale.

2. ERYTHEMA, Renealm.

1. E. centauriumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Centaurium erythraea, Pers. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in dry pastures and sandy ground. The Northumbrian plants referred to pulchella and latifolia both seem to be only forms of this.

2. E. littoralisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Centaurium littorale, Hook. Native. Maritime. British type. Area C. Range 1.

On the coast links at Ross, Holy Island, and Bambro'.

3. CHLORA, L.

1. C. perfoliataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Blackstonia perfoliata, L. Incognit.

Reported by Wallis from "dry pastures a quarter of a mile west of Honeycleugh Crag near Chesterwood and Whinetly in South Tynedale."

4. VILLARSIA, Vent.

1. V. nymphoeoidesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Nymphoides peltata, Tent. Alien.

Planted in the ponds at Wallington (F.). In a pond near the Tyne below Howdon opposite Jarrow (W. H. Brown!).

5. MENYANTHES, L.

1. M. trifoliataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Menyanthes trifoliata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on damp heaths and in peat bogs, ascending in Teesdale above the Caldron Snout, 500 yards, and in Goldscleugh, Cheviot, to 350 yards.

Order 13. POLEMONIACEAE.

1. POLEMONIUM, L.

1. P. caeruleumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Polemonium caeruleum, L. Native. Xerophilous. Intermediate type. Area C. Range 1.

On a steep porphyritic crag by the side of the Coquet at Shildykes above Alwinton (Professor Oliver!). Altitude about 200 yards.

Order 14. CONVOLVULACEAE.

1. CONVOLVULUS, L.

1. C. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Convolvulus arvensis, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Corn-fields and hedge-banks, frequent in Durham and Tyneland, but becoming unfrequent in Cheviot-land and not known about Wooler.

2. C. sepiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Calystegia sepium, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Hedge-rows and stream-sides in the low country, not unfrequent southward, but a doubtful native of Cheviot-land.

3. C. soldanellaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Calystegia soldanella, L. Native. Maritime. English type. Area D. Range 1.

On the South Shields sand-hills, first gathered by Messrs. Hancock and Bowman in 1828.

2. CUSCUTA, L.

1. C. epilinumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cuscuta epilinum, Weihe. Alien.

In a flax-field at Windygyle near Alnwick (T.).

2. C. epithymumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cuscuta epithymum, Murr. Native. English type. Area C. Range 1.

Gathered once by Dr. Johnston on Calluna between Heathpool Linn and Yevering Bell.

3. C. trifoliiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cuscuta trifolii, Bab. Colonist. English type. Area N, D.

Parasitic on clover. Field at Norton Grange near Blyth, 1858. In two clover-fields near Stanton in 1822, and near Norton in 1858 (John Hogg!).

Order 15. SOLANACEAE.

1. HYOSCYAMUS, L.

1. H. nigerWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Hyoscyamus niger, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent, especially near the coast in newly disturbed ground, but soon disappearing.

2. DATURA, L.

1. D. stramoniumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Datura stramonium, L. Alien. Has been gathered in waste ground at Alnwick, Durham, Darlington, Norton, &c.

3. SOLANUM, L.

1. S. nigrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Solanum nigrum, L. Colonist. English type. Area C, D. Range 1.

An occasional weed. Seen at Embleton, Shincliffe, Chester-le-Street, &c.

1. S. dulcamaraWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Solanum dulcamara, L. Native. English, type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in hedge-rows and damp woods, ascending in Weardale to St. John's Chapel, 1000 feet.

4. ATROPA, L.

1. A. belladonnaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Atropa belladonna, L. Denizen. Xerophilous. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Bank of the stream that enters the Tweed at Horncliffe (H. Carr). Reported from the banks of the Wooler stream, but the plant was really the preceding. On the cliff below Tynemouth Castle, and by the waggon-way between Walbottle and Newburn (F. R!). Bank of the Wear near Durham Abbey (F.). Near Low Team (A.). Near the old mill at Coniscliffe (Rev. J. Harriman. F.). Near Pierce Bridge (E. Robson. F.).

Order 16. SCROPHULARIACEAE.

1. VERBASCUM, L.

1. V. thapsusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Verbascum thapsus, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent on hedge-banks in sandy soil, ascending North Tynedale to Barrasford, and near Wooler to Caldgate Mill (J. Mitchell).

2. V. nigrumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Verbascum nigrum, L. Alien.

Waste ground at Ord (Dr. Johnston). Hulne Abbey near Alnwick (T.).

2. VERONICA, L.

1. V. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica arvensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in cultivated fields and on dry banks, ascending to 600 yards above Allenheads, and in Teesdale to the Main Limestone of Newbiggin Moor, 550 yards.

2. V. serpyllifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica serpyllifolia, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Frequent by road-sides and in cultivated fields, ascending to 750 yards on Highfield. Var. humifusa on Cheviot in Goldscleugh (T.).

3. V. scutellataWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica scutellata, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in swamps, especially amongst the moors, ascending to 1300 feet at the head of the Broadstruther Burn, Cheviot, and to 550 yards in Welhope, Weardale. Var. parmularia on a moor south of Bellingham (W. H. Brown!).

4. V. anagallisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica anagallis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in ditches in the low country, ascending in Coquetdale to Rothbury and Netherton, 150 yards.

5. V. beccabungaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica beccabunga, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in ditches and by the side of streams, ascending to 650 yards on Highfield, 600 yards on the moor behind Allenheads.

6. V. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica officinalis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on dry banks and in heathy ground, ascending to 550 yards in Harwood Dale and West Allendale.

7. V. montanaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica montana, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in shaded woods, ascending to 200 yards in Roddam Dene, Cheviot.

8. V. chamaedrysWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica chamaedrys, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 2000 feet on Highfield.

9. V. hederifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica hederifolia, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Common in cultivated fields and on hedge-banks.

10. V. agrestisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica agrestis, L. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in cultivated fields, ascending in Coquetdale to Alwinton, in Teesdale to Langdon Bridge, 400 yards.

11. V. politaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica polita, Fries. Colonist. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In similar places to the preceding but less frequent, ascending in St. John's Chapel, 1000 feet.

12. V. BuxbaumiiWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Veronica persica, Ten. Colonist. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent as a weed in forage fields, ascending in Weardale to 1000 feet near St. John's.

3. BARTSIA, L.

1. B. alpinaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Bartsia alpina, L. Native. Intermediate type. Area D. Range 2.

On the banks of the Whey Sike and other streamlets that descend Widdy Bank Fell to Harwood Beck and the Tees. Range of altitude 350-550 yards.

2. B. odontitesWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Odontites vernus, Huds. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent by road-sides and in cultivated fields, ascending in Teesdale to 350 yards near the High Force, and nearly as high in Rookhope.

4. EUPHRASIA, L.

1. E. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Euphrasia officinalis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in pastures and on heaths, ascending to 800 yards on Cheviot, 600 yards on Kilhope Law.

5. RHINANTHUS, L.

1. R. crista-galliWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rhinanthus minor, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Common in grassy places, ascending to 650 yards in Harwood Dale, 600 yards in Allendale, 350 yards on the banks of the Broadstruther Burn, Cheviot.

2. R. majorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Rhinanthus major, Angl. Colonist. Intermediate type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Gathered in Cheviot-land in corn-fields near West Newton in 1723 by Dr. Richardson, as recorded in the Dilleman edition of Ray's Synopsis, but not seen recently. In Tyneland and Durham it has been seen in many places, but it has no permanence in its stations: Benwell, Denton, Hartley, Elswick, Ryton, Crawcrook, Shotley Bridge, Bishop Auckland, Barnard Castle, &c.

6. MELAMPYRUM, L.

1. M. pratenseWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Melampyrum pratense, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in hilly woods and on heaths. Var. montanum, Johnst., occurs in Cheviot, Hedgehope, and many of our higher hills. Range 0-500 yards.

2. M. sylvaticumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Melampyrum sylvaticum, L. Native. Scottish type. Area D. Range 1.

Recorded from woods near Hexham on the authority of Mr. F. Scott, but we have not seen specimens, and the only station we can give with certainty is the island in the Tees just above Winch Bridge, 300 yards (B.).

7. PEDICULARIS, L.

1. P. sylvaticaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pedicularis sylvatica, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in damp pastures, ascending to 500 yards in Burnhope, 550 yards in Harwood Dale.

2. P. palustrisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Pedicularis palustris, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent in peaty swamps, ascending to 550 yards in Welhope, 1700 feet in Harwood Dale.

8. SCROPHULARIA, L.

1. S. aquaticaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scrophularia aquatica, L. Native. English type. Area N, D. Range 1.

Frequent by the side of streams in the low country in the two southern divisions.

2. S. nodosaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scrophularia nodosa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent upon hedge-banks and by the side of streams, ascending in Coquetdale to Linn Shiels, 1150 feet near Wear Head, and 850 yards in Teesdale. A plant, gathered by Professor Oliver between Hylton and Washington, Durham, is most likely S. Ehrharti.

3. S. vernalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Scrophularia vernalis, L. Alien.

Gathered by Mr. Makepeace near Otterburn.

9. DIGITALIS, L.

1. D. purpureaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Digitalis purpurea, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Frequent on heaths and amongst the rocks, especially of the sandstone and porphyritic hills, ascending to 500 yards in the Cheviot district, and to 1600 feet in Harwood Dale and Allendale. Said to be absent from the Magnesian Limestone. Is it really so?

10. ANTIRRHINUM, L.

1. A. majusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Antirrhinum majus, L. Alien.

Occasionally subspontaneous on old walls. Hulne Abbey, Warkworth Hermitage, the castle at Barnard Castle, wall at Kibblesworth, Chirton, &c.

11. LINARIA, Mill.

1. L. cymbalariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Cymbalaria muralis, Mill. Alien.

Like the preceding. Wall at Cleadon, Whitburn, Otterburn, Mitford, Seaton Sluice, &c.

2. L. vulgarisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linaria vulgaris, Mill. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent on dry soil and hedge-banks, ascending to 200 yards in South Tynedale near Haydon Bridge.

3. L. purpureaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linaria purpurea, Mill. Alien.

On the walls of the castle at Barnard Castle (B.).

4. L. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Linaria minor, Desf. Colonist. English type. Area C, D. Range 1.

An occasional weed. Waste ground near the Union Bridge, Berwick (Dr. Johnston). Seen casually several times near Embleton (R. Embleton). Fulwell Hills near Sunderland (F. R!). Corn-fields between Merrington and the Auckland turnpike (Miss Wharton). Railway bank near Old Stillington Station (M. A. Lawson).

12. LIMOSELLA, L.

1. L. aquaticaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Limosella aquatica, L. Native. Germanic type. Area D. Range 1.

Ditches near Cocken (W. Weighell. F.). In a piece of marshy ground surrounding a spring close to the village of Morden, with Bidens tripartita (Rev. A. M. Norman).

13. MIMULUS, L.

1. M. luteusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mimulus luteus, L. Alien.

By the Wooler Water near Earl Mill, and both above and below Wooler Bridge (J. Hardy. T. B.). By the Coquet below Holystone (O. Corder). Ditch by the road-side above the High Force (James Backhouse!).

Order 17. OROBANCHACEAE.

1. OROBANCHE, L.

1. O. majorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Orobanche major, Angl. Native. English, type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent, parasitic on broom. Ellingham, Eglingham, Bothal, Fourstones, Riding Mills, Scotswood, Elswick, Shotley Bridge, Cawsey, Urpeth, Beamish, West Dipton, Brancepeth, Raby, Hexham, &c. O. elatior is recorded by the Rev. J. Dalton from "near Elemore and not far from the gates of Burn Hall," but has not been seen lately.

2. O. minorWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Orobanche minor, Sutt. Colonist. Germanic type. Area C. Range 1.

In a clover-field near Warkworth, 1865 (J. Chrisp!).

2. LATHREA, L.

1. L. squamariaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lathrea squamaria, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Not unfrequent in loamy woods on the roots of the hazel, ascending from Lumley and Popple Woods on the Wear to High Force Wood, 1000 feet.

Order 18. VERBENACEAE.

1. VERBENA, L.

1. V. officinalisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Verbena officinalis, L. Native? English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Road-sides near villages and farm-houses, not unfrequent. Beadnell, Little Houghton, Corbridge, Riding Mills, Bywell, Ovington, Middleham, Hartlepool, Stainton, Bishopton, Chester-le-Street, Darlington, Norton, &c.

Order 19. LABIATAE.

1. SALVIA, L.

1. S. verbenacaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Salvia verbenaea, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Ruins of Norham Castle and on the basalt on Holy Island (F. T.). Banks below Tynemouth Castle, near Willington, and by the waggon-way near Newburn (F. B.). In Hawthorne Dene near Sailors' Hall (F.). On the limestone at Hartlepool, and on a dry gravelly hedge-bank between Blakiston and Thorpe (John Hogg.).

2. LYCOPUS, L.

1. L. europaeusWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Lycopus europeaus, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Stream-sides and marshes, rare. In Cheviot-land in Newham Bog (R. Embleton. T.). Near Newcastle in Heaton Dene and Prestwick Carr (F. R!). By the Tyne near Bensham, and by the Team in several places (F. R!). Near Durham in Butterby Marsh (M. A. Lawson).

3. MENTHA, L.

1. M. rotundifoliaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha rotundifolia, L. Native? English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

In Coquetdale at Alwinton, 150 yards, one patch only, not far from the church (B.). Ponteland (F.). In the lane between Pittington and Elemore, near where the road to Sunderland branches off (Rev. J. Dalton. F.). Near Barnard Castle on the Middleton road near where the first lane on the north branches off (James Backhouse).

2. M. viridisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha viridis, L. Denizen. English type. Area D. Range 1.

By the Blackstone Burn near Waskerley (W. Backhouse). By the Tees at Nesham and Tarm (F. B.).

3. M. piperitaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha piperita, L. Native. English type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Watery places, rare. Ditch at Haggerstone near the blacksmith's shop (Dr. Johnston). Swineclose Wood near Ellingham (R. Embleton). Stannington and Mason Dinnington (F.). In the dene lane near Castle Eden (W. Backhouse. F.). By the Tees side near Yarm (B.). M. crispa, L., a commonly- cultivated mint, not known anywhere in a wild state, is figured in the Supplement to English Botany 2785, from specimens gathered by the late Mr. James Mitchell on the banks of the Wooler Water between Langlee-ford and the town.

4. M. hirsutaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha hirsuta, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Common in watery places, ascending in Teesdale to 400 yards near Langdon Bridge.

5. M. sativaWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha sativa, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D.

Ditches and stream-sides, not unfrequent, ascending in Weardale near Stanhope to 200 yards. M. rubra, Smith, occurs in Rugley Wood near Alnwick, and on the banks of the Team and Tees, M. gentilis, L., was gathered by Mr. Robertson in cornfields at Cleadon, M. cardiaca, Baker, by Winch on the banks of the Team, and M. variegata, Sole, a cultivated form, by Winch on the banks of the Wooler Water near the town.

6. M. arvensisWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha arvensis, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1.

Frequent in cultivated fields and watery places, ascending to 300 yards in Teesdale, and 200 yards in North Tynedale.

7. M. pulegiumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Mentha pulegium, L. Native. English type. Area D. Range 1.

Borders of a pond at "Winston near Gainford (Rev. J. Harriman. F!).

4. THYMUS, L.

1. T. serpyllumWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Thymus serpyllum, L. Native. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1-3.

Everywhere common on dry heathy banks, ascending to 550 yards on Cheviot, 750 yards on Highfield. T. chamaedrys, Fries., was gathered by the late Mr. John Storey at Craster near Howick on the basalt. T. lanuginosus, Schk., occurs on Falcon Clints.

6. ORIGANUM, L.

1. O. vulgareWikispecies-logo.svgCommons-logo.svg Origanum vulgare, L. Native. Xerophilous. British type. Area C, N, D. Range 1, 2.

Woods and thickets, especially on the limestone and basalt, ascending to 350 yards in Teesdale near the High Force. By the Aln below Denwick Bridge. By the Coquet at Alwinton, Sharperton, Warkworth, &c. Walls of Mitford Castle. In North Tynedale in Tecket Dene, and down the Tyne as far as Bywell.

7. CALAMINTHA, Moench.

1. C. acinosWikispecies-logo.svg