Album of photographs of Peking and its environs

Album of photographs of Peking and its environs
by Lai Afong
TUNG-CHOW
No. 840, TUNG-CHOW.

On the Grand Canal is a small straggling place. The Canal said to be completed during the Tsin dynasty in about the year 605, A. D. has been allowed to fall into great decay, many parts of this once fine waterway are completely filled in or not navigable throughout its ancient course.

The Junks in our view resemble those of the South too closely to require any special notice, the Coolies when working them denude themselves of all clothing. Under favourable circumstances the time occupied in reaching this place from Tientsin is three days.
TUNG-CHOW
No. 841, TUNG-CHOW.

Although not possessing any special features for a picture this town is introduced as it is the halting place between Tientsin and Pekin.

Travellers to the Capital by the Grand-Canal here leave their Junk and proceed by the paved road, the usual vehicles are carts or wheelbarrows, the ingenious driver of the latter, will frequently avail himself of the assistance of a fair wind and rig a sail, steadying the barrow and guiding it by the deep ruts and inequalites of the road, apart from the novelty of these rude conveyances we have no desire to recommend them to Tourists, but would advise them to hire either Ponies or Mules which are easily procured.

There is a good sized Pagoda here which is best seen from the Canal.
Tien-Ning-Szu pagoda
No. 843, TIEN-NING-SZU PAGODA.

This is one of many such Pagodas erected in the neighbourhood of Pekin, and that resemble each other very closely, the base of these Columns are built of white marble very elaborately carved, and all bearing an impress of the same idolatrous worship.

As our photograph plainly indicates these structures are very much neglected, and are fast crumbling into decay: As we approach the Capital from Tung-chow these commanding's towers are discernable a considerable distance off and are well calculated to improve the landscape.
Tien-Ning-Szu pagoda
No. 844, TIEN-NING-SZU PAGODA.
This fine specimen of Chinese architecture in past ages stands in the extensive plains that supervene between Tung-chow and Pekin, and is one of its handsomest monuments, as before described it is partly built of white marble, and richly carved, the huge slabs of handsome stone work scattered around it is evidence of the former existence of a very elaborate entrance, and other ornamental appendages, but neglect, and ruin seem to pertain here as elsewhere to all the national erections whether for ornament or use.
Hwang-Hai-Low Bridge
No. 845, HWANG-HAI-LOW BRIDGE.
This water-way is a branch of the Grand Canal, and is celebrated for supplying a sort of white bait. Again we see the same appearence of neglect which is so apparent in the Buddhist Towers.
Tien-Ning-Szu Pagoda
No. 847, TIEN-NING-SZU PAGODA.
We have here selected a more distant view than the preceding two by of the same structure, with the object of introducing an accompanying tower of smaller size, the base less ornamental is composed of bricks intermixed with white marble. These ornamental columns are very numerous in the plains of Pekin, while further on the hills are enriched many of unique form, quite neglected by the natives, but very interesting to Foreigners.
South Gate Pekin
No. 848, SOUTH GATE PEKIN.

In this view we have the south wall and south-east entrance called the Tung-ping-mun; this gateway which is close to the right of the tower is entered by travellers from the town of Tung-chow and leads to the outside or Chinese city from which there is another entrance gate through a second wall that separates it from the Tartar city, these walls are well built of solid masonry: On the road which is formed on the top, weeds of a pleasant odour are permitted to grow abundantly, and there is a complete absence of guns.

The third or Imperial city is again walled in from the Tartar city and none but the banner men or immediate followers of the Emperor are permitted to enter it, for this reason these Imperial precincts are also known as the prohibited city.
The Observatory Pekin
No. 849, THE OBSERVATORY PEKIN.
These fine bronzes were erected by the jesuits on the walls of the Chinese city about 200 years ago, and although possessing in addition to their scientific uses great merit as works of art, they are quite neglected and unused. The celestial globe measures 7 feet in diameter, the various constellations are represented by small copper stars of different magnitudes.
The Observatory Pekin
No. 851, THE OBSERVATORY PEKIN.
In the court yard which leads to that part of the wall on which the fore-going bronzes are, is erected this armillary sphere used in ascertaining the course and sizes of the various planets, it is made of copper bronze, and beautifully adjusted on its support.
The Observatory Pekin
No. 851, THE OBSERVATORY PEKIN.
To to other side and in the same court yard as the armillary sphere the above astrolobe is situated, the bronze supports are in the form of the well known Chinese Dragon, and are fine specimens of early art.
The Observatory Pekin
No. 852, THE OBSERVATORY PEKIN.
To to other side and in the same court yard as the armillary sphere the above astrolobe is situated, the bronze supports are in the form of the well known Chinese Dragon, and are fine specimens of early art.
金鳌玉蝀桥
No. 853, PEKIN.
The Imperial palace grounds occupy a central position in the Tartar City, and none but banner, men or immediate-followers of the Imperial house hold are permitted to enter its enclosure the visitor to the capital must be satisfied with such views of it as are to be had from the outside, our view gives a portion of one of the pavilions and a Buddhist shrine built on a high mound, a very handsome bridge of white marble spans, the lake and completes a fine landscape.
The Imperial park
No. 854, PEKIN.
The Imperial park is very extensive and in this view we have another portion of it, the pavilions are roofed with yellow tiles and painted green and red in parts these being the Imperial colours.
the Imperial palace grounds, lake, and temple
No. 855, PEKIN.

In this illustration we have another view of the Imperial palace grounds, lake, and temple.

These grounds are situated inside the walls the circumference of the city being computed as 14 miles round the N. City, and 10 miles round the South City, the outside wall has a circumference of about 21 miles.
A Dagoba in Pekin.jpg
No. 856, PEKIN.
This shrine built after the same style as those of India is said to contain one of Buddhists teeth, in consequence of which those in charge of the premises are somewhat conceited, and will be certain to acquaint strangers of this sacred advantage to their temple.
Audience Hall
No. 857, AUDIENCE HALL: PEKIN.
After much wrangling the Foreign Ministers enjoyed the honour of a reception here in 1875, the tiles of the roof are yellow and portions of the wood work, are painted red and green, the steps and balustrade are composed of white marble and enjoy the exception of being free from weeds.
The Dragon Throne Pekin
No. 858, THE DRAGON THRONE PEKIN.
The Imperial throne of the “Son of Heaven,” is here illustrated but unfortunately without its august occupant, the chair is of black Canton wood or ebony handsomely carved and gilt, the cushion is covered with dark blue satin, on each side of the chair is placed a fan cut and painted to represent the feathers of a bird; the large cases one on either side are said to contain robes of state and the whole of these articles are appropriately backed up by a magnificently constructed screen very richly gilt, and having the usual quaint carvings of Dragons and other monsters with very large staring eyes.
Temple of Light Pekin
No. 859, TEMPLE OF LIGHT PEKIN.
This circular temple is situated in an extensive enclosure neglected and seemingly uncared for, weeds growing luxuriantly from basement to roofs, the terraces and pavements are of white marble but the building itself is composed of wood in the universal style of Chinese workmanship.
Temple of Light Pekin
No. 860, TEMPLE OF LIGHT PEKIN.
Like most other of the Chinese temples all the elaborate and substancial portion of this structure is confined to the basement which consists of two well built circular terraces one above the other composed of white marble, the whole is however thickly covered with weeds.
Temple of Light Pekin
No. 861, TEMPLE OF LIGHT PEKIN.
In this view is represented the principal hall of the temple which is to the rear of the circular hall and approached by an avenue pleasantly shaded with trees, in this portion of the premises is situated dwelling apartments where hospitable entertainment may be secured by distinguished travellers who have taken care to bring their own supplies with them and are equally well prepared to remunerate the liberality of their hosts.
A Pekin Cart
No. 862, A PEKIN CART.
These primitive conveyances are without springs, and for long journeys are generally furnished with two ponies or mules yoked in tandem fashion, none but those who have experienced travelling in these barbarous vehicles can realize the horrors of its joltings, Irish jaunting cars have the nearest approach to the motion, but any one fresh from the luxuries of a London handsome cab, or a Paris voiture, will probably decide to run by its side rather than run the risk of dislocating a limb, or injuring their spine in its locomotion over the deep ruts of a celestial highway.
金鰲
No. 863, PEKIN.
Ornamental archways are very numerous not only in the cities of China, but also in small villages and country places: These structures are called Pas-lou, and are erected as honorary memorials to the memory of virtuous widows, or virgins; Huc when writing of these arches says. “At Ningpo, a celebrated seaport in the province of Tche-kiang, there is a long street entirely composed of such monuments, all of stone and of a rich and majestic architecture. The beauty of the sculptures has excited the admiration of all Europeans who have seen them; in 1842 when the English took the town, there was some talk of their carrying off these triumphal arches, and making with them a complete Chinese street in London.” Those who bear in mind the history of the “Elgin marbles," will have no hesitation in giving credence to the Abbés sarcastic remarks upon English eccentricity.
瓊華島
No. 864, PEKIN.
This Buddhist shrine, sometimes called the white pagoda, is built on an Island of the lake within the Imperial park enclosure. Close to the waters edge, there is a small but handsome bridge composed of white marble, which leads to a landing pier, and there are several good sized pavilions as well.
京醬園.jpg
No. 865, PEKIN.

It is no easy matter to get views in the northern capital, the people are very inquisitive, and will sometimes resort to the playful pastime of stone throwing, or by crowding around the Photographers dark tent they will quite obscure the light with their interesting countenances, for these reasons the assistance of a foreign constable is sometimes necessary to keep the crowds back.

The large Chinese characters painted on the wall and so prominent in the view, is an announcement of the good things procurable at the restaurant, that adjoins it.

The white pagoda is in the middle distance.
Loo-mau-szu street
No. 866, PEKIN.

It is now the wet season in the capital, and in lieu of the clouds of dust that prevail during the dry weather, a soft thick mud covers the streets formed into deep tramways by the wheels of the carts; the shop fronts are gorgeous with paint, and gilding, but all these houses have more the appearance of temporary shanties than the settled abodes and stores, of a great city

The street here selected as a type of the rest is called Loo-mau-szu, and is in the Tartar city.
the street that divides Pekin into north and south
No. 867, PEKIN.
We have here a view of the street that divides the Chinese city into north and south; it is one of the principal thoroughfares, and exhibits very fine specimens of native shop fronts all very handsomely carved and gilt: Unlike most other cities of China these streets are very wide, but many of them are very much narrowed by tents, and other temporary erections, built for the accomodation of a poorer class of tradespeople whose sundry wares are well spread about to tempt the passers by; many of the foot passengers are necessarily lost from our illustration, but the camera has secured some rather good specimens of the city vehicles, these are built more for durability than ease.
a narrower street in Pekin
No. 868, PEKIN.

This view illustrates a narrower and less important street, than the foregoing; the shop in the right hand corner of the view is a hat manufactory, and a sign indicative of the occupation is suspended overhead.

It may not be difficult to observe from our views the great deficiency there is in lighting and a paving all the streets of the capital, and a seeming absence of any regular body of police to keep order, and protect the public: but the Chinese are naturally law abiding and hence none miss or desire them; a greater want will be experienced in the absence of any official appointed to look after the sanitary arrangements of the city and to keep the road ways repaired.
a portion of the Imperial palace
No. 869, PEKIN.
View of a portion of the Imperial palace, with the moat in the foreground.
the back of the Imperial palace and grounds
No. 870, PEKIN.
We have in this view the back of the Imperial palace and grounds.
Jade Belt Bridge.jpg
No. 871, PEKIN.
This is a fine specimen of art and the desolation of its surroundings show it up to much advantage; it is needless to say this bridge is strictly Chinese, for where else can we find the eccentric, and the curious, if not in the Central Kingdom, and amongst the sons of Han. There is nothing in this view we would like to see altered, and could not spare even the solitary celestal whose figure is the apex of it all, nor the little tuft of grass, nor the water lily, that relieves the smooth if not clear water of the lake; it is these trifles of nature to which art attaches so much importance as best suited to show up, and ornament, its best works ; the bridge is called Lu-kow, and is in the plain close to Wan-shou-shan.
Seventeen Arch Bridge
No. 872, PEKIN.

The plains in the vicinity of the Emperors summer palace are rich with handsome monuments, and none are more perfect than this suburb brige of seventeen arches.

The ruins of the palace so well known to foreigners as Wan-shou-shan, may be observed on a distant knoll, that rises in the right hand side of the view
Bronze Ox
No. 873, PEKIN.
In this we have another of the interesting monuments of the plains of Wan-shou-shan, it is composed of bronze, and rests on a handsome pedestal of white marble.
Bronze Ox
No. 874, PEKIN.
We have here a different view of the bronze cow, from the one given in No. 873.
Marble terrace.jpg
No. 875, PEKIN.
Approaching the palace by the lake, the next object that arrests attention is this fine marble terrace, which encloses the grounds; from this spot there is also a good view of the distant hills, with pagodas on the summits of two; half way down one of them, may also be observed a Chinese grave called the horse shoe, or omega shape, from its resemblance to the Greek letter omega.
The Bronze Temple
No. 876, PEKIN.
Entering the palace grounds, the visitor by ascending one side of the eminence, gets to a fine commanding point overlooking the adjacent plains, and land will not fail to observe this small shrine, which being constructed of bronze goes by the appellation of the bronze temple.
眾香界
No. 877, PEKIN.
The accompanying is a view of a temple crowning the hill, and forming the apex of the numerous buildings of the palace of Wan-shou-shan, it is composed in great part of bright yellow tiles, and is richly carved.
北京城外萬壽山昆明湖 No. 878, WAN-SHOU-SHAN PALACE.
北京城外萬壽山昆明湖
No. 878, WAN-SHOU-SHAN PALACE.

The ruins of this palace are also known to Foreigners as Yuen-ming-yuen, which has been interpreted as, “round bright garden,” this place is about 10 miles from Pekin ; it was bombarded by the British in the year 1860 and has since that time remained in ruins, its situation is very beautiful, and the grounds extensive. The writer of a grotesque balad which is well known to residents in China refers to this locality in his opening verse:—

“In Yuen-ming-yuen, all gaily arrayed In Malachite kirtles and slippers of jade, ‘Neath the wide-spreading tea-tree fair damsels are seen

All singing to Joss on the soft candareen.
萬壽山昆明湖 No. 879, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
萬壽山昆明湖
No. 879, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
Several of the small pavilions escaped the destructive bombardment of 1860; nearly all of which like the main buildings are roofed with yellow glazed tiles. In the centre there is a commemorative tablet.
玉泉山右便白塔 No. 880, YU-CH’UAN-SHAN.
玉泉山右便白塔
No. 880, YU-CH’UAN-SHAN.
This hill and monument is in the same plain as Wan-shou-shan and is decernable from the Imperial park and lake.
玉泉塔在北京城外.jpg
玉泉塔在北京城外
No. 881, YU-CH’UAN-SHAN.
This hill is also descernable from Wan-shou-shan. The pagoda consists of seven stories very plain in its structure.
玉泉山腳宮內用水由此取用 No. 882, YU-CH’UAN-SHAN.
玉泉山腳宮內用水由此取用
No. 882, YU-CH’UAN-SHAN.
In this portion of the palace grounds there is a spring celebrated for the purity of its water, and as the water in Pekin is about the worst in the Empire, the Imperial household has its supply from this neighbourhood.
北京城外寶藏寺老太監退院之居 No. 883, PAO-TSANG-TSU.
北京城外寶藏寺老太監退院之居
No. 883, PAO-TSANG-TSU.
In the neighbourhood of Wan-shou-shan.
北京城外寶藏殿 No. 884, PAO-TSANG-TSU.
北京城外寶藏殿
No. 884, PAO-TSANG-TSU.
This pavilion is the residence of Eunuchs who having grown old in the Imperial service are sent here to end their days in the quiet and retirement of the place. From its elevated sitnation there is a fine view of the country.
北京城外卧佛寺頭門 No. 885, WOO-FA-TSU TEMPLE.
北京城外卧佛寺頭門
No. 885, WOO-FA-TSU TEMPLE.
The Temple of the Sleeping Buddah has some celebrity in northern China, and is kept in tolerable repair; it is within an easy distance from Yuen-ming-yuen, and may be visited either going to, or returning from the ruins of the summer palace, our illustration gives one of its handsomest arches.
卧佛寺右殿莲塘 No. 886, WOO-FA-TSU TEMPLE.
卧佛寺右殿莲塘
No. 886, WOO-FA-TSU TEMPLE.
We have here one of the many court-yards of the temple, very snugly situated at the base of a thickly wooded knoll, this building is called the Silent Chamber; the baluster round the pond is composed of white marble and is handsomely carved, the water lily (the root of which is edible and largely consumed by the Chinese,) may be observed growing on its surface.
卧佛爺身長二十四尺 No. 887, THE SLEEPING BUDDAH.
卧佛爺身長二十四尺
No. 887, THE SLEEPING BUDDAH.
Here we have the sleeping God, with all the paraphernnalia of idolatrous worship; the reclining figure measures twenty-four feet in length.
北京城外碧雲寺二頭門 No. 888, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
北京城外碧雲寺二頭門
No. 888, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
Buddhist temples are very numerous in the capital, this temple is one of the most important in China, and possesses ample accomodation for entertaining Travellers, and Pilgrims, it is built on neighbourhood of the l a slight elevation of the plain, and consists of several court yards in some of which are very handsome shrines, and pagodas.
北京城外碧雲寺四層門 No. 889, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
北京城外碧雲寺四層門
No. 889, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
There are numerous courtyards and avenues in this temple, or monastery most of which are embellished with richly carved structures of white marble some of these arches or pas-lou are in part composed of brick l and this illustration gives one of them.
碧雲寺牌楼脚石狮人物俱係全石刻成 No. 890, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雲寺牌楼脚石狮人物俱係全石刻成
No. 890, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.

Handsome sculptures like the accompanying abound in this temple and illustrate events of Buddha's life.

The stone monster with a wide gaping mouth and large staring eyes is a familier object to Travellers in all parts of the Chinese Empire and may be seen at the entrance gates of Ya-muns as well as temples.
碧雲寺內御牌亭乃乾隆爺親筆畫下 No. 891, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雪寺內御牌亭乃乾隆爺親筆畫下
No. 891, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
The small pavilion in the centre of this court yard contains a commemorative tablet to Ch'ien-lung, the pavement and approach are composed of white marble.
碧雲寺內牌楼石桂俱刻人物
碧雲寺內牌楼石桂俱刻人物
No. 892, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.

This is a portion of a superb avenue containing the finest sculpture of the temple, it leads through several arches, and over some small bridges, to a large marble pagoda elaborately carved with illustrations of the life of Buddha.

The religion of Buddha is very popular in China and was introduced into the country from India early in the first century of the Christian era.

The Monks living in this monastery appear to lead quiet and harmless lives, and judging from the appearance of neglect of even their finest temples they are also very lazy.
碧雲寺內在三門觀上五指塔 No. 893, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雪寺內在三門觀上五指塔
No. 893, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.

As we enter the first gateway of this Buddhist temple, a fine long avenue stretches out before us leading to flights of steps and the grand central pagoda.

Buddha is known to the Chinese by the name of Fo, and is stated by several writers to have been born as early as the year 960 B.C. In his childhood he was recognised as a divine person and is said to have miraculously disappeared when 84 years of age.
碧雲寺五指塔之頭門 No. 894, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雲寺五指塔之頭門
No. 894, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.

Built on a plateau and commanding a fine view of the sorrounding country the Monks of this Monastery are pleasantly housed.

Our view gives the entrance gate; and the first terrace.
碧雲寺內羅漢堂堂內五百零八尊 No. 895, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雪寺內羅漢堂堂內五百零八尊
No. 895, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
There are so many handsome buildings in this monastery that court yard and its hall are apt to be left unnoticed theyare however of some consequence, and a visitor will find much to interest him.
碧雲寺內茶亭乾隆爺在此飲茶 No. 896, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE
碧雪寺內茶亭乾隆爺在此飲茶
No. 896, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
This court is well shaded with trees, and is a fitting site for this pavilion which is called Ch’ien-lungs Tea house, there are reception rooms for visitors close by, with pleasant cool retreats from the glare and heat of the sun, romantic looking little walks lead round rugged points of artificial rocks which are brought very prominently out by the clear azure of the sky, and a group of bamboos, or a tiny temple, here and there break the sameness and relieve their barrenness.
碧雲寺三門碑亭 No. 897, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雲寺三門碑亭
No. 897, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
Continuing our illustrations of this Buddhist monastery the accompanying pavilion is noteworthy, not only as making a good view, but as it contains the tablet of Ch’ien-lung ,who lived in the year a. d. 1736.
碧雲寺五指塔在塔脚照上之景 No. 898, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雲寺五指塔在塔脚照上之景
No. 898, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.

“TO DEIFY ERROR AND TO ADORE VAIN THINGS.” ‘Novum Organum.’ Buddhist temples in China still retain the characteristic of their origin in the form of their minarets and motley carvings. Many of these carvings are excellent in design and execution, when we remember the probable early period of their erection.

These towers are constructed of white marble, and are placed on the most elevated site of the temple.
碧雲寺在石級下照上共計一百七十級 No. 899, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
碧雪寺在石級下照上共計一百七十級
No. 899, PI-YUEN-TSZU TEMPLE.
Well sorrounded by dark foliage this beautiful structure of white marble shows out to much advantage Theological writers when reviewing the religion of Buddha point out its close resemblance to Christianity; Bacon writing his Essay on Superstition probably had the fact in view when penning the lines:—Again superstition without a veil, is a deformed thing; for as it addeth deformity to an Ape to be so like a Man; so the similitude of superstition to religion makes it the more deformed.”
北京城外在碧雲寺塔頂照出玉泉山一帶 No. 900, VALLEY OF PI-YUEN-TSZU.
北京城外在碧雲寺塔頂照出玉泉山一帶
No. 900, VALLEY OF PI-YUEN-TSZU.
The Monks of China like those nearer home don't seem to be quite indifferent to the picturesque, the view of this charming valley completes our illustrations of Pi-Yuen-tszue monastery.
北京城外十三陵明朝之皇陵此乃石駱陀 No. 901, THE MING TOMBS.
北京城外十三陵明朝之皇陵此乃石駱陀
No. 901, THE MING TOMBS.

The tombs are four good days journey from the metropolis and are similar in every respect to those in the plains near the southern capital of Nankin, where the founder of the Ming dynasty and his son are both buried: those that followed are buried here.

This avenue of stone animals is one of the ancient approaches to the tombs.
北京城外十三陵明朝之石宰相即石人石馬 No. 902, THE MING TOMBS.
北京城外十三陵明朝之石宰相即石人石馬
No. 902, THE MING TOMBS.

Another approach to the tombs is an avenue of stone men, all similarly carved in the garb of Warriors grasping the hilt of a sword with one hand, and a baton with the other.

When we consider that the Ming Dynasty reigned in China between the years 1368 to 1644, the freshness of some of these sculptured figures is surprising, exposed as they are to the full force of the weather.
十三陵前之石碑古人言碑後有月能照三里之遥 No. 903, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵前之石碑古人言碑後有月能照三里之遥
No. 903, THE MING TOMBS.
Similar stone tablets to this are erected in the plains of Nankin where Hung-wa the founder of the Ming Dynasty is buried, the base is carved to represent a tortoise.
十三陵名叫定陵係明神宗顯皇陵在北京城外約五十里 No. 904, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵名叫定陵係明神宗顯皇陵在北京城外約五十里
No. 904, THE MING TOMBS.

ENTRANCE PAVILION TO THE TOMBS OF THE MING (i.e. BRIGHT) DYNASTY.

The founder of this Imperial line and his grand-son are buried in the tombs near Nankin on the river Yang-tsze-kiang.
十三陵此係明塚之碑樓碑樓後便安置先皇之棺槨 No. 905, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵此係明塚之碑樓碑樓後便安置先皇之棺槨
No. 905, THE MING TOMBS.
An exterior view of Yung-lo's Mausoleum who was the third monarch of the Ming Dynasty.
the Valley from Young-lo's tomb
No. 906, THE MING TOMBS.
From Young-lo's tomb there is a good view of the Valley; the hills in the distance rising into rugged and sharp peaks.
十三陵即永樂皇之頭進殿士名長陵此殿廣闊之極 No. 907, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵即永樂皇之頭進殿士名長陵此殿廣闊之極
No. 907, THE MING TOMBS.
Entering the first Court yard the Visitor is only separated from the great hall of Yung-lo's tomb by this pavilion
北京城外永樂皇之大殿殿內照京城大殿一樣即成祖文皇陵
北京城外永樂皇之大殿殿內照京城大殿一樣即成祖文皇陵
No. 908, THE MING TOMBS.

Having passed through the first pavilion the Visitor is in view of the great hall of Yung-lo's tomb.

The triple baluster is composed of white marble,
十三陵之砾砂碑樓樓脚之拜台石週年有生水流出真乃奇妙 No. 909, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵之砾砂碑樓樓脚之拜台石週年有生水流出真乃奇妙
No. 909, THE MING TOMBS.

The Mausoleum of Yung-lo, a strong tower of thick masonry is partly sorrounded with foliage.

Yung-lo is also known in Chinese history as Chêng-Tsu, he reigned in the year A.D. 1403 and was the third reigning prince of the Ming Dynasty.
十三陵成文皇陵之鐘鼓樓二百餘年其新如常 No. 910, THE MING TOMBS.
十三陵成文皇陵之鐘鼓樓二百餘年其新如常
No. 910, THE MING TOMBS.
We have here another view of Yung-lo's Mausoleum.
永樂皇之殿内所有擺置龍殿龍牌位殿內造成九九八十一間 No. 911, THE MING TOMBS.
永樂皇之殿内所有擺置龍殿龍牌位殿內造成九九八十一間
No. 911, THE MING TOMBS.

The great hall of Yung-lo's tomb is constructed after the same fashion as the familiar “Joss house."

The roof is handsomely carved and painted and is supported by plain wooden pillars. In front of the sepulchral structure there is a carved bench that supports an incense burner and urns to hold what foreigners term "Joss sticks."
北京城外圓明園之凉亭現時破爛 No. 912, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
北京城外圓明園之凉亭現時破爛
No. 912, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
Resuming our illustrations of Yuen-ming-yuen or the Emperor's summer palace we give in this a view of a small tea-pavilion situated in the palace grounds.
圓明園之宮殿皇上乘凉到此前時未破龍舟遊玩 No. 913, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
圓明園之宮殿皇上乘凉到此前時未破龍舟遊玩
No. 913, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.

This pavilion is built close to a pond that is completely choked up with weeds.

These ponds are the usual accompaniment of buildings built for recreation and as they are generaly neglected a rank vegetation springs up from them exhaling most unpleasant odours during the hot season, this however seems in no way to affect the nasal organ of celestials.
圓明園之殿宇皇上到此乘凉 No. 914, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
圓明園之殿宇皇上到此乘凉
No. 914, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
Another view of a pavilion in the Emperor's summer palace grounds.
圓明園之龍月橋所有龍舟由橋穿過雅致之極 No. 915, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.
圓明園之龍月橋所有龍舟由橋穿過雅致之極
No. 915, WAN-SHOU-SHAN.

Our selection of this small bridge was made as affording a capital idea of a style very common in China and that may be seen in almost any of the small hamlets.

This leads to one of the imperial pavilions in the grounds of Yuen-ming-yuen and is roofed in from the rain, or heat of the sun : the tiles are glazed yellow that being the imperial colour.
北京城內天壇塔塔內四龍綑柱 No. 916, THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.
北京城內天壇塔塔內四龍綑柱
No. 916, THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.

This handsome rotunda is the most noteworthy of any of the edifices in China, it is built on the top tier of three circular terraces that form an elegant base for the grand dome; these terraces are eighteen feet wide and are reached by three flights of steps having handsome balustrades of elaborately carved marble, on the apex of the triple roof is placed a gilt ball. The height of the pavilion to the top of this ball is a trifle under one hundred feet.

In the interior of the building there is a tablet to Yuh-hwang-shan-ti on each side of which there are placed handsomely carved chairs.
北京城天壇面前觀到塔處 No. 917, THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.
北京城天壇面前觀到塔處
No. 917, THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.
In this is given a general view of the Imperial Temple.
北京城大天壇皇上往祭掃 No. 918, THE ALTAR OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.
北京城大天壇皇上往祭掃
No. 918, THE ALTAR OF HEAVEN, PEKIN.

The Altar is circular and built in terraces like the base of the grand dome.

Near this Altar there is an immense furnace where is annually consumed a bullock, this offering is presided over by the Emperor in person who also performs other rites in connection with the worship of the “Supreme Ruler of the Imperial Heavens.”
北京城神武外省官員到京引見必從此門進 No. 919, PEKIN.
北京城神武外省官員到京引見必從此門進
No. 919, PEKIN.
View of the Sen-Bao-Moon showing the entrance gate to the Audience hall for receiving the visits of Civil and Military functionaries, this being the precinct of the imperial palace, the gateway is jealously guarded against the entrance of all foreigners.
北京城内德國欽差府 No. 920, PEKIN.
北京城内德國欽差府
No. 920, PEKIN.
The new premises of the German Legation were not built with any pretension to architectural effect but more in keeping with the general style of Chinese Ya-muns, and sufficient foreign accessories to make it a comfortable residence.
北京城內英國欽差府 No. 921, PEKIN.
北京城內英國欽差府
No. 921, PEKIN.

The astonishing indifference of the Chinese authorites to the state of the roads in and about the imperial city is here well illustrated, in portions of this vast metropolis the ravages of time is such as leaves the appearance of its having suffered a recent bombardment.

Apathetic by nature and education the celestial citizen traverses its neglected streets apparently quite regardless of the inconvenience caused by the inequality of the roads; here and there, a fallen slab may obstruct the direct route but as it is nobody's business to remove the obstacle each driver guides his vehicle by it as best he may.

The British Legation is situated on this ruinous highway.
北京城內太子廠街衆國欽差府俱在此 No. 922, PEKIN.
北京城內太子廠街衆國欽差府俱在此
No. 922, PEKIN.

The several European Legations are situated in close proximity in the Tartar division of the Capital.

This street leads from the creek, on the bank of which is built the British Legation and contains the French, German, and Belgian Legations; Russia, Austria, Italy, Spain, the United States of America, Peru, and Japan, have also resident representatives.
北京城及口外轉運粮食貨物俱用此駱駝 No. 923, PEKIN.
北京城及口外轉運粮食貨物俱用此駱駝
No. 923, PEKIN.

The traffic from the capital to and from the plains of Manchuria and Mongolia is conducted by Transport Camels.

By means of these animals large quantites of Brick Tea is conveyed to remote districts; compressed into this form tea passes as money with the nomadic tribes.

Pleasant little groups of traders are constantly to be met with on the road, when they make a halt, a camp being formed the camels are ranged round it in the form of a circle guarded by large shaggy and ferocious dogs.

The people themselves are of a kindly disposition and are most hospitable.
外國駐京各欽差大臣 No. 924, FOREIGN MINISTERS, PEKIN.
外國駐京各欽差大臣
No. 924, FOREIGN MINISTERS, PEKIN.

REPRESENTING THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES.

America. Spain. Germany. France. Belgium.
Austria. Peru. Japan. Russia.

Gt. Britain.
外國駐京各欽差大臣 No. 925, FOREIGN MINISTERS, PEKIN.
外國駐京各欽差大臣
No. 925, FOREIGN MINISTERS, PEKIN.

REPRESENTING THE FOLLOWING COUNTRIES.

Gt. Britain. Austria. Spain. Russia.
America. Japan. Germany. France.
Belgium.

Peru.
北京城内英國欽差府眾人員 No. 926, PEKIN.
北京城内英國欽差府眾人員
No. 926, PEKIN.
H.E. Sir Thos. Francis Wade, British Minister to the Court of Pekin, and members of the Legation.
北京城内英國欽差府眾人員 (2).jpg
北京城内英國欽差大府 No. 928, THE BRITISH LEGATION PEKIN.
北京城内英國欽差大府
No. 928, THE BRITISH LEGATION PEKIN.
The convention of peace between China and Great Britain was signed at Pekin on October the 25th 1860 as a formal recognition of the right of the latter power to have a resident Representative in the celestial capital. This is a view of the entrance to the offices and dwelling house of the British Legation.
北京城内英國欽差大臣中進府 No. 929, THE BRITISH LEGATION PEKIN
北京城内英國欽差大臣中進府
No. 929, THE BRITISH LEGATION PEKIN
Is built so as to form several compounds or court yards after the universal style of Chinese Ya-muns, but without the ponds that are so inseparable from native houses of a pretensions kind.
大英國欽差威大人與各聽差人員 No. 930, PEKIN.
大英國欽差威大人與各聽差人員
No. 930, PEKIN.
H. E. Sir Thos. Francis Wade, K.C.B., and a group of his servants photographed in the Legation compound 1879.
A carriage in Pekin.jpg
Juan Federico Elmore and Chinese officers.jpg
Panorama of Pekin.jpg

Unknown building in Pekin (1).jpg
Unknown building in Pekin (2).jpg
Unknown building in Pekin (3).jpg

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926.


The author died in 1958, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.