An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/A
A, ア, 此 (ア) A ハ他動詞ニ加ヘル時ハ自動詞ヲ作リ得ルナリ．例セバ、ヌヱ、書ク、アヌヱ、記サレタ． A passive prefix to verbs. Thus Nuye, “to write;” anuye, “to be written.” Raige, “to kill;” araige “to be killed.” The old form still used among the Saghalin Ainu and also among those inhabiting the central districts of Yezo is an. Thus, an-nuye, “written;” an-raige, “killed.” Set akara? “Is the table to be prepared?” But this a or an is not always prefixed to the word it governs, other words may intervene between them. Thus, for wakka atare, “water was caused to be drawn,” we hear, awakka tare; and for akashiobas, “to be helped,” we hear ka hi-a-obas.
A, ア, 此 (ア) A ヲ動詞ニ加フル時ハ時トシテ過去ヲ示スナリ．例セバ、アオケレ、終リシ． Sometimes a or an represents past time only. Thus; aokere, “it has been finished,” anki ruwe ne “it has been done,” or “it was finished” or “done.”
A, ア, 時トシテコノ (ア) A ヲ賓格代名詞ノ直キ前ニ置クトキハ自動詞ノ第一人稱單數 ハ複數トナルナリ．例セバ、 アエンキック、我ハ打タレシ．アウンキック、吾々ハ打タレシ． When used immediately following the obj. per. pro. en, “me”, or un, “us,” and a verb, it, together with the pronoun should be translated by “I am” and “we are” respectively; for thus is formed the 1st per. sing. and pl. of the passive voice to verbs. Thus:—a-en-kik, “I am struck;” a-un-kik, “we are struck.” But when a en or a un are used before verbs made transitive by the addition of e they should be translated by “me” and “us.” Thus:—a en epotara ki ruwe ne, “they feel anxiety about me” (lit: “I am being felt anxiety about”); a un emik, “they bark at us” (lit: “we are barked at”).
A, ア, コノ (ア) A ノ後ニ ne トイフ語ヲオクトキハ第一人稱代名詞ノ複數トナルナリ．例セバ、エレンアネワ、吾々三人． When followed by ne, a represents the 1st. per. pl. pro. thus:—E ren a ne wa, “we three.” But it should also be remembered that under certain conditions eren a ne wa may mean “they three.” Cfo. also etun a ne wa with tun chi ne, “we two.” Literally translated eren a ne wa is, “we being three.” Syn: chi; anokai; chiutara; chiokai utara; this latter sometimes being corrupted into chokai utara.
A, ア, 或時 (ア) A ハ代名詞單數第一人稱ヲ示スモノナリ． セバ、トカプチウングルアネルエネ、我レハ十勝ノ人ナリ． Sometimes a is used for the 1st per. sing. pro. “I.” As, Tokapchi un guru a ne ruwe ne, “I am a Tokapchi man.” Ashinuma anak nei guru kot’turesh a ne ruwe ne, “I am that person’s younger sister.” Under certain conditions of context these illustrations might be translated in the 3rd person. Syn: Ku-ani.
A, ア, 時ニ Koro ナル動詞ト共ニ用ヰルトキハ (A) ア, ハ第三人複數、人代名詞トナル．例セバ、アコロアリキアムベ、彼等ノ持來タリタルモノ． Prefixed to koro, “to possess,” the 3rd per. pl. pro. “they” is formed. Thus, “the things they brought” is, akoro ariki ambe. Such is the idiom but the words mean in fact, “having the things they came.”
A, ア, 時ニ Koro（持）ト共ニ用ヰルトキハ第一人稱複數持格代名詞トナル．例セバ、アコロベ、我儕ノモノ． By prefixing a to the verb koro, “to have,” the 1st per. pl. poss. pro. “our” is obtained. Thus:—Akorobe, “our things.” Akoro michi, “our father.” But where there is no danger of ambiguity the koro may be dropped. As:—Shipakari, a uni wa ekbe, “only think; they came from our home!” Syn: Chikoro.
A, ア, 時ニ Koro ノ前ニ A ヲ加フルトキハ第一人稱單數持格代名詞トナルナリ、 セバ、アコロサポ、吾ガ姊． But when used with koro, a sometimes represents the 1st per. sing. poss. pro. “my.” Thus akoro sapo, “my elder sister.” akoro yupo, “my elder brother.”
A, ア, 時トシテ A ハ第二人稱持格單數代名詞トナルナリ、例セバ、アアクタリ、汝ノ弟等． Sometimes a is found for the 2nd per. sing. per. pro. “your,” and as such short for aokai or anokai, “you” and “ye.” Thus:—aakutari, “your younger brothers.” The full way of writing this would be a-koro akihi utari. See aakutari and aaktonoge.
A, ア, 時トシテ A ハ第二人稱單數代名詞ニ用ヰラルルコトアリ． Sometimes a represents the 2nd per. sing. per. pro. “you.” As:—Tokkari kotan wa ek a ruwe he an? “Have you come from Tokkari?” The more usual way however of using such phrases is by substituting e for a, e being a contraction of eani, “you.”
A, ア, 時トシテ A ハ第三人稱單數代名詞ニ用ヰラル． A is sometimes used for the 3rd per. sing. per. pro “he,” “she”; and even sometimes as the rel. pro. “who.” A-e-hotuyekara, “he is calling you.” Teda an a guru, “the person who was here.”
A, ア, 時トシテ A ハ動詞ノ後ニ用ヰラル其時ハ疑問或ハ確答ノ義アリ． Used after verbs a, sometimes hardened into ya, expresses interrogation, and sometimes affirmation. Thus an a? “Is there”; an a, “there is,” which is intended being determined by the tone of voice. Syn: ta a? ta an?
A, ア, 齒、肉叉ノ股、支流． A tine. A tooth. A prong of a fork, spear, or harrow. Thus:—Re a ush op, “a trident.”
A, ア, 誰、タレ、何、ナニ、所ノ、トコロノ． rel. pro. Who. Which. As:—E kik a guru nen ne ruwe? “Who struck you.”
A, ア, 嗚呼． inter. Ah. Oh. Alas. As:—A ku kon nishpa, “Ah, my master”! A e seta, “Ah, you dog”; Syn: Aa.
A, ア, 然、シカリ． adv. Yes. Syn: E. Ruwe ne wa. Kon ne.
A, ア, 一個、一方、全ク． adj. and adv. One. One of a pair. Entirely. Wholly. Thoroughly. Quite. As:—A-shik, “one eye”; also ara-shik. Syn: Ara; at.
A, ア, 坐スル、(單數)． v.i. (sing). To sit. As:—Kina kata a, “to sit on a mat.” Mo no a, “sit still.” A wa an, “to be sitting.” A kane an, “he is sitting.”
A, ア, 燃エル． v.i. To burn. As:—Abe a, “the fire is burning.” Syn: Rui. Paraparase.
A, ア, 豐饒ナル、ユタカナル、盛ナル、サカンナル． adj. and v.i. To be in plenty. Luxurious. To be.
Aa, アヽ, 嗚呼、アヽ． interj. Ah. Ah. Alas. See A.
Aahupkoropo, アヽフプコロポ, 貰子、モラヒコ． n. An adopted child. Syn: Aeahupkoropo. Ahupkoropo.
Aainukoro, アヽイヌコロ v.i. and adj. 敬ハレル、大切ニ思ハレル． To be treated with respect. Honoured. Revered. Important. Held in esteem.
Aainokorobe, アヽイヌコロベ, 大切ニ思ハレルモノ． n. A thing of importance. A thing of value.
Aakkari, アヽッカリ, 優リタル． adj. Surpassed. Passed by. As:—Hoshiki no an chip aakkari an na, “the ship which went out first has been passed.”
Aaktonoge, アヽクトノゲ, 弟、(尊敬スル語)． ph. “My younger brother.” “Your younger brother.”
Aakutari, アヽクタリ, 弟等． ph. “your” or “my” or “our younger brothers.” From aokai, aki, and utari.
Aani, アヽニ, 運バルヽ、持タルヽ． adj. Held. Carried. Led. As:—Aani pon guru, “the little fellow who is being carried.”
Aani-ushike, アヽニウシケ, 手、(物ヲ握ム柄) 例セバ、シユアアニウシケ、鍋ノ手． n. A handle. A place to take hold of. As:—Shu aani ushike, “a pot handle.” Apa ushta aani ushike, “a door handle.”
Aanka, アヽンカ, 出來上リシ、置カルル、負ケシ． v.i. Made. Finished. Defeated. Placed. Put.
Aanno, アヽンノ, 負ケタル． v.i. and adj. Over-come. Defeated. Syn: Aannu. Aapkara.
Aannokara, アヽンノカラ, 負カサレル． v.i. To be over-come or defeated. Syn: Aannoka. Aapkara.
Aanno-raige, アヽンノライゲ, 爭フテ殺サレル． v.i. To be killed in contest. Syn: Anno-a-raige. Annu-a-raige. Annu-a-koiki.
Aannu, アヽンヌ, 負カサレル． v.i. To be defeated.
Aannu-no-hachire, アヽンヌノハチレ, 爭フテ負カサレル． v.i. To be overthrown in contest.
Aannu no hachiri, アヽンヌノハチリ, 爭フテ負カサレル． v.i. To be overcome in contest.
Aannu-no-koiki, アヽンヌノコイキ, 鬪フテ殺サレル． v.i. To be killed in contest.
Aannu-no-ye, アヽンヌノヱ, 議論シテ負ケル． v.i. To get the worst of it in argument.
Aapkara, アヽプカラ, 負カサル、腐ル． v.i. To be defeated. To have become rotten through exposure to the elements.
Aapkarabe, アヽプカラベ, 腐シタ物． Anything rotten.
Aapte, アヽプテ, 力ヲ落ス、落膽スル、弱イ、例セバ、アアプテグスアプカシエアイカプ、弱イカラ歩メヌ． v.i. and adj. To be very weak. To have lost one’s strength. As:—Aapte gusu apkash eaikap, “he cannot walk through weakness.”
Aara, アヽラ, 美麗ナル、ウツクシキ． adj. Beautiful. Pretty. Neat. Syn: Atomte.
Aara-ushtek, アヽラウシテク, 斷絕シタ． v.i. Exterminated. Extinguished.
Aara-ushtekka, アヽラウシュテッカ, 斷絕スル． v.t. To exterminate. To extinguish.
Aashi, アヽシ, 閉ジラレル． v.i. To be shut. Closed. Set up (as a door in a door-way or a post).
Aashiri, , 他人、ホカノヒト． n. Other persons. Strangers.
Aashiri-oreshpa-utara, アヽシリオレシパウタラ, 孤兒、ミナシゴ、(複數)． n. Orphans. Lit: “persons brought up by others.”
Aashiri-oresu-guru, アヽシリオレスグル, 孤兒、ミナシゴ、(單數)． n. An orphan.
Aashte, アヽシテ, 立タシメル、設立サレル． n. To be established. To be set up.
Aatama, アヽタマ, 難產ノ時ノ咒． n. Name of a ceremony in which any woman suffering from hard labour is made to partake of a certain food in order to procure parturition.
|Aba or abaha,
Apa or apaha,
|親類、(單數)． n. A relation. Syn: Iriwak.|
|Aba or abahautara,
Apa or apahautara,
|親類、(複數)． n. Relations. Syn: Uiriwak utara.|
Abe, アベ, 託、カコツケ、假僞． n. Pretence. Appearance. Syn: Ap.
Abe, アベ, 火、例セバ、アベアレ、火ヲ燃ク． n. Fire. Abe are, “to kindle a fire.” Abe-erau, “to cover up fire with ashes.” Abe erepo, “to rake fire together.” Abe kuru, “to approach the fire.” Abe oraitek, “the fire is dying out.” Abe-pakakse, “the fire crackles.” Abe-pat-patke, “the fire splutters.” Abre-rui, “the fire burns.” Abe ukopoye, “to stir a fire.” Abe ush, the fire is out.” Sometimes pronounced api.
Abe-chikuni, アベチクニ, 薪、タキヾ． n. Fire-wood. Syn: Abe-ni.
Abe-bashui, アベバシュイ, 火箸、ヒバシ． n. Fire-tongs.
Abe-etok, アベエトク, 上坐、カミザ． n. The head of a fire-place.
Abe-etumbe, アベエツムベ, 蛾、夜ノ蝶、ガ． n. A kind of large butterfly moth. (Lit: “Fire-borrowers”).
Abe-kamui, アベカムイ, 火女神 n. The goddess of fire. Syn: Kamui huchi; Iresu kamui; Unchi kamui.
Abe-kes, アベケス, 燒ク木． n. A fire brand. By some Abe-kis.
Abe-keshi, アベケシ, n. Dragonet. ．Callionymus sp.
Abe-kis, アベキス, 燒ク木． n. Same as abe-kes.
Abe-koro, アベコロ, 託言スル、カコツケル、マネル． v.i. To pretend to be. To ape. Simulate. Syn: Ap-koro.
Abe-kot, アベコツ, 爐、ロ． n. The hearth. The bed of the fire.
Abe-mau, アベマウ, 火熱、カネツ． n. Fire heat.
|火花、ヒバナ． n. Fire sparks.|
Abe-nep-koro-humi-an-tashum, アベネプコロフミアンタシュム, 熱病、ネツビヤウ． n. Fever. (Lit: the disease which feels like fire). Syn: Sesekmau tashum.
Abe-ni, アベニ, 薪、タキギ． n. Fire-wood. Syn: Abe-chikuni.
Abe-ni, アベニ, エゾサンザシ、ヤチザクラ． Cratægus chlorosarca, Max.
|火光、ヒノヒカリ． n. Firelight.|
Abe-nui, アベヌイ, 火焰、ホノオ、例セバ、アベヌイコテレケ、火ガ付ク． n. A tongue of fire. A flame of fire. As:—Abe-nui kotereke, “to catch fire.”
Abe-oi, アベオイ, 竈、カマド、爐、ロ． n. A Fire-place. A Furnace. Syn: Abe-sokot.
Abe-oi, アベオプ, 火鉢、ヒバチ． n. A Fire-box. A brasier.
Abe-o-usat, アベオウサッ, 熾ツテ居ル炭． n. Live coals.
Abe-push, アベプシ, 火ガ跳ネル ph. The fire jumps.
Abe-sakunto, アベサクント, 僞造靑銅、ニセカラカネ． n. A kind of spurious bronze. Metal which has been subjected to fire to give it the color of bronze; usually an old sword guard.
|爐邊． n. The hearth. The fire-side.|
Abe-sam-karabe, アベサムカラベ, ロセン、(灰ナラシ)． n. A hearth-rake. Syn: Abe-sam kara kirai.
Abe-sam kara kirai, アベサムカラキライ, ロセン、(灰ナラシ)． n. A hearth-rake.
Abe-samta, アベサムタ, 爐邊ニ、ロバタニ． adv., By the fire-side. As:—Abe samta an, “it is by the fire.”
|火熱、ヒノネツ． n. Fire heat. Syn: Sesek mau.|
Abe-shinda, アベシンダ, 爐． n. A Fire-place.
Abe-shotki, アベシヨッキ, 爐ノ中、(火テオク所)． n. The very centre of a fire bed. The particular place in the centre of a fire in which the fire goddess is supposed to dwell.
Abe-sokot, アベソコッ, 爐、ロ． n. A furnace. A fire-place. Syn: Abe oi.
Abe-usat, アベウサッ, 熱灰、アツイハイ． n. Hot cinders. As:—Abe-o-usat, “living coals.”
Abe-ututta, アベウツッタ, 爐ノ下坐卽チ西端． n. The lower or western end of a fire-place.
Abi, アビ, 磨リ痕、スリキズ． n. A caused by rubbing.
Abo, アボ, 母、ハヽ、又は父、チヽ．(方言)． n. Mother in some districts and Father in others. Syn: Habo.
|海ノ氷、ウミノコホリ． n. Sea-ice.|
Acha, アチヤ, 小細ニ切ラルヽ、挽キ割ラレル、例セバ、チエプアチヤオケレ、魚切ラレタ． v.i. To be cut into fine pieces. To be sawn up as wood. As:—Chep acha okere, “the fish has been cut up.”
Acha, アチヤ, 父、チヽ、叔父、ヲヂ、老人、トシヨリ． n. An uncle. Father. Also used as a term of respect when addressing old men. Syn: Achapo; achipo.
Achapo, アチヤポ, 叔父、ヲヂ、父、チチ、老人、トシヨリ． n. An uncle. See acha.
Achi, アチ, 熱シタル． adj. Cooked. Ripe.
Achi, アチ, 他ノ、外ノ． adj. Other. Strange. Belonging elsewhere.
Achi, アチ, アル (複数)． v.i. Are. Pl. of an “to be.”
Achike, アチケ, 陰門． The vagina. The word to be used by a physician is chinuina-korobe. Syn: Chinunuke ambe.
Achikka, アチッカ, 滴タル． adj. and v.i. To drop. Dropped as water. v.t. chikka.
Achikka, アチッカ, 神ニ捧酒スル禮． n. The ceremony of offering libation to the gods and ancestral spirits. Syn: Icharapa an.
Achikka an, アチッカアン, 神ニ捧酒スル禮ヲ爲スコト． v.i. To perform the Achikka ceremony.
|流レヲ塞グ、(河ナド)． v.t. To obstruct the current of a river (as by logs of wood).|
Achipiyere, アチピイェレ, 訴ラル、 v.i. To be accused. To be reminded of one’s faults. ラル．
Achipiyere guru, アチピヱレグル, 私生子． n. A bastard. Syn: Apiya. Achiye. Chiappise.
Achipo, アチポ, 叔父、老人、父． n. Uncle. Father. An old man.
Achisei, アチセイ, 他ノ． adj. Other. Strange. Belonging elsewhere. Of another house. Syn: Atchisei.
Achisei un guru, アチセイウングル, 他ノ人、(單數)． n. A stranger. A person of another house or village. Syn: Achi-un-guru. Atchi-un-guru.
Achisei un utara, アチセイウンウタラ, 他ノ人、(複數)． n. Strangers, (pl: of achisei un guru).
Achiu, 刺込ム、サシコム． v.t. To stick in. To drive in.
|流レヲ塞ク、(河ナド)．v.i. To obstruct the current (as by logs).|
Achi-un-guru, アチウングル, 他人、(單數)． n. A stranger.
Achi-un-utara, アチウンウタラ, 他人、(複數)． n. Strangers.
Achiye, アチヱ, 私生子． n. A bastard. Syn: Apiya. Chiappise.
Ae, アエ, 食セラル． v.i. To be eaten. Ae wa isam, “it has been eaten up.” The transitive form is e, “to eat.”
Aeahupkarapo, アエアフㇷ゚カラポ, 貰ヒ子、モラヒコ． n. An adopted child. Syn: Ahupkarapo.
Aeankes, アエアンケス, 惡マルヽ． v.i. and adj. To be disliked. Hated. Despised. The transitive form is Eankes. Syn: Etunne.
Aearamuye, アエアラムイェ, 端折、ハシヨル． v.t. To tie the clothes back as for walking or running. Syn: Ayoaramuye.
|吐キ出スモノ． n. Vomit. (Lit: “ matter made to run forth by vomiting).”|
Aeatup, アエアトゥプ, 吐キ出スモノ． n. Vomit.
Aechake, アエチャケ, 坭ダラケナル、汚レタル． adj. Muddy. Dirty. Syn: Kapa.
Aechakkep, アエチヤッケプ, 不潔ナルモノ． n. A dirty thing. Dirt. Anything repulsive.
Aechararase, アエチャララセ, 靜ニ進ミ行ク． v.i. To glide along. To slip along. To go along stealthily. To go along and leave a trail behind one as drops of water falling from a bucket. Syn: Anechararase. Aeochararase.
Aechikopoye, アエチコポヱ, 擾亂サレタル、カキミダサレタル． adj. Mixed. Stirred up.
|分ケ與フル． v.i. To be given out in small portions. As: Amam aehapapu, "to apportion food sparingly." Syn: Aeyukke.|
- On comparing the English and Japanese titles of this work a discrepancy will be at once observed by those who read these two languages, for while the? work is called “An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary” in English, the Japanese title reads “An Ainu–Japanese–English Dictionary.” The explanation is two-fold. 1stly, Originally the Mss. were in Ainu and English only, the Japanese being added afterward at the request of Japanese friends. 2ndly, After going to press the order was changed by placing the Japanese before the English. But the work is essentially Ainu–English so that whereever any discrepancy should appear between the Ainu and Japanese the real sense must be settled by the English. Moreover, it will be found that many more examples have been given in English than in Japanese, while in some instances only sufficient Japanese has been written to give the bare key to the word defined in English.
- There are three species of the Callionymus in Yezo.