An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/R

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain


ràbach, litigious, Ir. rábach, litigious, bullying:

rabhadh, a warning, so Ir., E. Ir. robuth, forewarning: ro+buth, latter from *buto-, root ꬶu, cry, Gr. βοή, shout, Skr. gu, be heard. W. rhybudd is from the Root qu (Stokes, Rev.Celt.12).

rabhairt, reothairt, springtide, Manx royart, Ir. romhairt, rabharta, M. Ir. robarta, O. Ir. robarti, malinas, (sing. *robarte), W. fhyferth: ro+bertio-, "pro-fero", root bher of beir.

rabhan, rhapsody, repetition, Ir. rabhán, repetition: from ro and *ba, say, root bhâ, Lat. fâri, speak, Eng. fame, fate.

rabhart, upbraiding, senseless talk; from ro and ber of abair, say, q.v.

rabhd, idle talk: *ro-bant, root ba, speak, as in rabhan.

rac, the ring kepping the yard to the mast, the "traveller"; from Norse rakki (do.).

ràc, a rake, Ir. ráca, W. rhacan; from M. Eng. rake, Eng. rake.

ràc, a drake; from the Eng., earlier Eng. endrake. The loss of d is due to the article.

racadh, tearing; see sracadh.

racadal, horse-radish (Sh., H.S.D., Arm.), ràcadal (M'E.), Ir. rácadal; see rotacal.

racaid, noise; cf. the Sc., Eng. racket. Skeat takes the Eng. from the Gaelic, referring the G. to rac, to make a noise like geese or ducks. See next word.

ràcail, noise of geese (H.S.D.); cf. Sc. rackle. See next word.

ràcain, noise, riot, mischief, ràcaireachd, croaking, Ir. racan; cf. Br. rakat, rakal, croak, raklat, cry as a hen; Lat. raccare, cry as a tiger, Lit. rėkti, cry, root rak. The words are greatly onomatopoetic.

racan, a bandy or crooked stick; cf. rac.

racas, sail hoop; see rac.

rach, go, Ir. rachad, I will go, E. Ir. ragat, ibo, O. Ir. doreg, veniam; root reg, stretch. See éirich for the root connections.

rachd, vexation, moan, Ir. rachd, a fit as of crying or tears: cf. racaid.

rachd, strength (Carm.):

rachdan, a tartan plaid worn mantle-wise:

racuis, rack, roasting apparatus, Ir. raca; from the Eng. rack, M. Eng. racke.

radan, a rat; from Sc. ratton, M. Eng. raton, now rat.

ràdh, sayinng, Ir. rádh, O. Ir. rád, ráidiu, I speak: I. E. rôdh-éjô; Got. rôdja, I speak; Skr. râdhayati, brings about; root rēdh, rē-dh, , of Lat. reor, think, ratio, reason.

radharc, sight, Ir. radharc, E. Ir. radarc, rodarc: ro+darc; for darc see dearc, behold.

rag, a wrinkle, Ir. rag (O'B., etc.); see roc.

rag, stiff, benumbed, unwilling, Manx, rag, stiff, Ir. rag (Fol.); *razgo-, root reg, rag, Lat. rigeo, rigid, Eng. rack, N. rakr, straight, Lit. rezgù, knit. Hence rogaim (so Ir. in Lh., etc.), sneeze-wort (Cam.).

rag, a rag; from the Eng.

ragair, extortioner, villain; from Eng. rack, as in rack-rent. Dial. G. has rògair, for and from "rogue".

ragha, raghadh, choice; see roghainn.

raghan, churchyard (Sutherland); cf. Ir. ráth, barrow, the same as G. ràth.

raghar, radhar, an arable but untilled field (H.S.D., Dial.):

ràichd, impertinence, idle prating (M'F., etc.):

ràideil, inventive, sly, Ir. raideamhuil, cunning, sly:

raidhlich, rag, cast off clothes (Suth.); Lat. reliquiae.

ràidse, a prating fellow; founded on ràdh

ràinig, came, Ir. ránaig, O. Ir. ránic, vênit; for r-ánic, ro-ánic; see tháinig.

raip, filth, foul mouth, raipeas, foul mouth, rapach, slovenly, foul-mouthed; M. Ir. rap, annimals that draw food to them from earth, as the pig and its like (O'Cl.), E. Ir. rap (Corm., rop for cows, etc.): rab-tho-, root rab, srab, Lat. sorbeo? Stokes gives the stem as *rapno-, root rap of Lat. rapio, I seize. The Ger. raffen, seize, snatch, has also been suggested.

raisean, goat's tail:

ràite, a saying, dictum; for ràdhte, a participial formation.

ràiteach, covenanting, affiancing (Suth.); see ràth, ràthan.

ràith, a quarter of a year, Ir. ráithe, M. Ir. raithe: *râtio, from ṝt-, Skr. ṛtu, season of the year, appointed time for worship, Zend (ratu) do.

ràith, a threatening:

raith, prating largely (M'D.):

raithneach, raineach, fern, Ir. raithneach, raith, W. rhedyn, cor. reden, O. Br. raten, Br. raden, Gaul. ratis: *pratis; Lit. papartis, Russ. paporotǐ; Eng. fern.

ramachdair, a coarse fellow:

ramair, a blockhead, a romp; cf. ramalair.

ramasg, sea tangle:

ràmh, an oar, Ir. rámha, O. Ir. ráme, W. rhaw, spade, Corn. rêv, oar, Br. roenv: *râmo-; root ere , ; Lat. rêmus, (resmo-); Gr. ἐρετμός; Eng. rudder; Skr. aritras.

ramhlair, humorous, noisy fellow; from Eng. rambler. Also, Badenoch Dial., ramalair, rambler.

ràn, roar, cry; Skr. , bark, raṇ, sound, râyaṇa, crying; Ch. Sl. rarŭ, sonitus, Lettic rát, scold; and cf. Lat. rânu, frog.

rangoir, a wrangler; founded on the Eng.

rann, a division, portion, Ir., O. Ir. rann, W. rhan, Cor. ran, later radn, O. Br. rannou, partimonia: *(p)rannâ, *pratsnâ, root par, per; Lat. pars, partis, portio; Gr. πορεῖν, supply, πέπωται (perf.pass. of πορεῖν).

rann, a quatrain, stave, Ir. rann, E. Ir. rann, rand; from rann above (rann, stave, is mas. in E. Ir., the other rann is fem.).

ranndair, a murmuring, complaining (H.S.D., Dial.); cf. ràn.

rannsaich, search, scrutinize, Ir. rannsuighim; from Norse rannsaka, search a house, ransack, whence Eng. ransack.

ranntair, a range, extent of territory: "division", from rann.

raog, a rushing (H.S.D., Dial.); cf. ruaig.

raoic, raoichd, hoarse sound or cry, wild roaring, as of bull; raibheic (M'A.), pronounced raoi'c, roar: *ro-beuc.

raoine, a young barren cow that had calf; cf. Sc. rhind, as in rhind mart, Ger. rind, cattle, beeves. In Suth. reithneach.

raoir, an raoir, last night, Ir. a raoir, a réir, O. Ir. aréir, *pre-ri, root as in riamh (Asc., St.). The Skr. râtri, night, has been compared, but the phonetics do not suit, and also Lat. retro. Cf. also earar, uiridh.

raoit, indecent mirth; from Sc. riot (do.), Eng. riot.

raon, a field, plain, road, so Ir., E. Ir. roen, road, O. Ir. roe, rói, plain: *roves-no-, *roves-jâ? Lat. rus, rûris; Eng. room. Norse rein, a strip of land, suggests the possibility of a Gadelic *roino-.

rapach, dirty-mouthed; see raip.

ràpach, noisy, ràpal, noise, Ir. rápal, noise, bustle; founded on Eng. rabble.

ras, a shrub (M'F., not M'A. or M'E.), Ir. ras (O'B., etc.):

ràsan, harsh, grating noise, loquacity, ràsanach, discordant, Ir. ráscach, clamorous, talkative; cf. ràn, for ultimate root.

ràsdail, a rake, harrow, E. Ir. rastal; from Lat. rastellus, rake, hoe, rastrum, from râdo, scrape, Eng. raze, rash, etc.

ràsdail, sound of frying meat; cf. ròsd.

rath, prosperity, so Ir., O. Ir. rath, gratia, W. rhad, grace, favour: *rato-n, root , give; Skr. râti, gift, râs, rayis, property, Zend râta, gift; Lat. rês.

ràth, a raft, Ir. rathannaibh, (on) rafts (F.M.); Lat. ratis. The root is the same as that of ràmh (= ret, rât here).

ràth, ràthan, surety, vadimonium, Ir. rath (O'B., O'Cl.), O. Ir. ráth; cf. O. Br. rad, stipulationes, which Stokes equates with Ir. rath, and says that it is from Lat. rătum (ratum facere = "ratify"), a derivation to which Loth objects. Hibernian Lat. has rata for surety. The Lat. and G. are ultimately from the same root in any case (see ràdh).

ràth, a fortress, residence, Ir. ráth, E. Ir. ráth, ráith, g. rátha, Gaul. ratin, Argento-ratum: *râti-s, *râto-n; cf. Lat. prâtum, a mead. W. rhath, cleared spot; borrowed from G.? (Rhys).

rathad, a road, Ir. ráthad, ród; from M. Eng. roade, road, Ag. S. rád; cf. M. Ir. ramhad (O'Cl.), E. Ir. ramut (Corm.).

, the moon, Ir., O. Ir. , luna: *revi, Skr. ravi, sun.

, time, space, Ir. , O. Ir. , g. ree, space: *revesi-, the e form of O. Ir. rói, *rovesjâ, discussed under raon, q.v. Hence the prep. , during, which governs the genitive.

reabh, wile, trick, reabhair, subtle fellow, reabhradh, disporting, as boys (Badenoch), Ir. reabh (O'Cl.), reabhach, mountebank, the devil, reabhradh, E. Ir. rebrad, boys playing, sporting; root reb, play. Bez. compares M.H.G. reben, move, stir, Swiss räbeln, to brawl, be noisy, to which add Eng. rabble. Cf. Zim. Stud.1 83,84.

reachd, law, statute, so Ir., O. Ir. recht, W. rhaith, Br. reiz, just: *rektu-, from the root reg; Lat. rectum, right, rego, rule; Eng. right.

reachd, a loud sob, keen sorrow, Ir. rachd (also G. rachd), E. Ir. recht; cf. Eng. reck.

reamhar, fat, Ir. reamhar, ramhar, E. Ir. remor (remro-), W. rhef, thick; root rem, to be thick; Norse ramr, strong, stark. Stokes gives the alternatives of M.H.G. fram, vrom, sound, brave, O.Sax. furm, or Gr. πρέμνον, stem, thick end.

reang, a wrinkle in the face: "a rib"; see reang, boat-rib.

reang, a rank, series; from early Sc. renk, M.E. reng, now rank; Ir. ranc, W. rheng, Br. renk; O. Fr. renc.

reang, a boat-rib, rangan (Sutherland), reang, a bar, pole (Carm.); from Norse röng, g. rangar, a ship-rib. See rong.

reang, kill, starve (M'F.), E. Ir. ringim, I tear, reangadh, to hang, reng, piercing or tearing. See tarruing.

reannach, spotted, striped: "starred"; see reannag.

reannag, a star, Ir. reannán, O. Ir. rind, constellation, signum, sidus: *rendi-, root red, ṛd, order; Lit. rinda, row, order, Ch. Slav. rędŭ, ordo; Gr. ἐρηρέδεται, fixed; Lat. ordo (Fick, Prellwitz).

reasach, talkative, prattling (H.S.D., Dial.), Ir. réascach, ráscach; see rásan.

reasgach, stubborn, irascible, restive:

reic, sell, Ir. reic, a sale, O. Ir. recc, a sale, reccaim (vb.), also renim, I sell: root per, through, over ("sell over sea"); Gr. περαω, sell, pass through, πιπράσκω, περνημι, I sell; Lit. pirkti, perkù, buy. The Gadelic and Lit. how a secondary root perk, prek, Gadelic *(p)rek-kâ, while O. Ir. renim and Gr. περνημι give a stem pernā-, prenă- (Ir.).

réic, roar, howl (H.S.D.):

réidh, plain, smooth, Ir. réidh, O. Ir. réid, W. rhwydd, O. W. ruid, O. Br. roed, M. Br. roez, Br. rouez: *reidi-; Eng. ready, Ger. bereit, Got. garaids, ordered. Also O. Ir. riadaim, I drive, Gaul. rêda, waggon, allied to Eng. ride, Ger. reiten, etc.

réilig, a burying ground, Manx ruillick, Ir. reilig, roilig, E. Ir. relic(c), relec(c), O. Ir. reilic, cemeterium; from Lat. reliquiæ, relics.

réim, dominion, power, Ir. réim:

réim, course, order, Ir. réim, O. Ir. réimm, inf. to rethim, I run: *reid-s-men-, root reid of réidh, O. Ir. riadaim, I drive. Strachan suggests as alternates root rengh, spring, leap (cf. W. rhamu, soar), Gr. ρίμφα, quickly, Ger. ge-ring, light, Lit. rengtis, hurry; or root ret, run (see ruith), *retmen, or rather, *ret-s-men, which would only give rĕmm.

réir, a réir, according to, Ir. a réir, do réir; dat. of riar, q.v.

réis, a race; from the Eng. (H.S.D.). Cf. réise, span, of E. Ir.

réis, a span, Ir. réise: *prendsiâ, from sprend, Lit. spréstî, to measure a span, root sprend (Strachan).

reisimeid, a regiment; from the Eng.

réit, réite, concord, conciliation, Ir. réidhteach; réidh, with terminal -tio-.

reithe, reath, a ram, Ir. reithe, E. Ir. rethe: *retio-; cf. Lat. aries (*eriét-), Umbrian erietu (from eri-), Gr. ἔριοφος, etc., as in earb.

reodh, reotha, frost, Ir. reó, reodhadh, E. Ir. reo, reod, O. Ir. reúd, W. rhew, Corn. reu, gelu, Br. reo, rev. Stokes gives the stem as *regu-, even suggesting that the Gadelic forms are borrowed from the Cymric; O. Ir. réud he refers to *presatu-. I. E. preus, whence Lat. pruina, Eng. freeze, has been suggested, but the vowels do not immediatley suit (preus would give rua-, ró- or ro-, in G.); yet *prevo-, a longer form (with or without s) of preu-s, can account for the Celtic forms.

reub, riab, tear, wound, Ir. reubaim, réabaim, E. Ir. rébaim, rép-gaeth, rending wind: *reibbo-, root reib, Eng. reap, ripe, and rip(?). Stokes gives the stem as *reip-nó-, root reip of Gr. ἐρείπω, dash down, Lat. rîpa, Eng. rive, rift, Norse rifna, rumpi, rífa, break. G. reubainn, rapine, leans for its form and force on Lat. rapina. W. rheibio, seize, is from Lat. rapio.

reubal, a rebel; from the Eng.

reudan, a timber moth; cf. O. Ir. rétan, recula, small thing, from rét, now rud, q.v.

reul, pl., reultan, star, Ir. reult, g. réilte, E. Ir. retla, g. retland, retglu, g. retgland ("rét glé, bright thing", Corm.); perhaps rét, thing, and *gland, shining, Ger. glanz (see gleus).

reumail, constant (Arms.); from réim, course.

reusan, reason, Ir. reusun, M. Ir. résún, from M. Eng. reisun, now reason.

reusbaid, a beggar's brat (Arran), a rascal:

ri, to, against, Ir. re, O. Ir. ri, fri, in composition frith-, fris-, fre-, W. gwrth, wrth, versus, contra, re-, Cor. orth, Br. ouz; *vṛti, root vert, turn; Lat. versus, against, to, verto, turn; Eng. -wards, etc.

riabhach, brindled, greyish, so Ir., M. Ir. riab, a stripe: *reibâko-, Lit. raíbas, mottled grey, Lett. raibs, motley, O.Pruss. roaban, striped.

riabhag, a lark, Ir. riabhóg, "grey one", from riabhach.

riach, cut the surface, graze. Although there is I. E. reiko-, notch, break (Gr. ἐρείκω, tear, Lit raikýti, draw a furrow, etc., Ger. reihe, row, Eng. row), yet it seems most probable that riach is a variant of strìoch, q.v.

riachaid, a distributing:

riachlaid, tattered garment (Suth.):

riadh, interest; from an older ríad, running, course (see réidh for root). Cf. for force M. Ir. rith, interest: "running".

riadh, a drill (as of potatoes, Badenoch): "course, running", as in the case of riadh above. See riamh.

riadh, a snare: *reigo-, root rig in cuibhreach?

riaghailt, a rule, Ir. riaghail, O. Ir. riagul, riagol; from Lat. rêgula, Eng. rule. Hence also riaghail rule thou.

riaghan, a swing, swinging; cf. Ir. riagh, gallows, riaghadh, hanging, gibbeting, O. Ir. riag, gibbet. Cf. riadh, snare.

riamh, a drill (of potatoes, turnips, etc, M'A. for Skye); see riadh. H.S.D. gives the meaning of "series, number", Ir. ríomh, O. Ir. rím, number, W. rhif, as in àireamh, q.v.

riamh, ever, before, Ir. riamh, O. Ir. riam, antea: *reimo-, preimo-, I. E. pri, prî, belonging as a case to pro, before, and per; Lat. pri- (in pris cus, primus, etc.), Lith. pri, Got. fri-, See roimh.

rian, order, mode, sobriety, Ir. rian, way or path, E. Ir. rian, way, manner: *reino-, root rei; Lat. rîtus, Eng. rite (Strachan).

riar, will, pleasure, Ir. riar, O. Ir. riar, voluntas: *prîjarâ (Stokes), root prî, love, please; Eng. friend, Got. frijon, to love; Ch. Sl. prijati, be favourable; Skr. prī́yate, be gratified, prîṇâti, enjoy.

riasail, tear asunder, riasladh, mangling, tearing asunder: *reik-so-, root reik, notch, break; Gr. ἐρείκω, tear? Cf. riastradh riach; and riaghan, a swing.

riasg, dirk-grass, morass with sedge, land covered with sedge or dirk-grass, Manx reeast, wilderness, Ir. riasg, moor or fen, E. Ir. riasc, morass; *reisko-; cf. Lat. rûscum (*roiscum?), butcher's broom, Eng. rush. Sc. reesk, coarse grass, marshy land, is from G.

riasglach, a mangled carcase (H.S.D., Dial.); from stem of riasail.

riaspach, riasplach, confused, disordered; see next word.

riastradh, turbulance, confusion, wandering, E. Ir. ríastrad, distortion. For root, cf. riasail. W. rhywstro, obstruct (Hend.).

riatach, wanton, illegitimate; cf. Eng. riot.

rib, hair, snare, Ir. ribe, ruibe, hair, whisker. See next words.

ribeag, rag, tassel, fringe, ribean, riband, Ir. ribeóg, rag, tassel, ribleach, a long line, anything tangled, ribín, riband; from M. Eng. riban, O. Fr. riban (Br. ruban).

ribheid, a reed, bagpipe reed, musical note, Ir. ribheid; from M. Eng. rēod, now reed.

rìbhinn, rìoghann, a nymph, young lady, quean, Ir. ríoghan, queen, E. Ir. rígan, a derivative of rìgh, king. Gaelic leans, by proper etymology, on rìgh-bhean.

rideal, a riddle; from the Eng.

ridhe, field, bottom of a valley (H.S.D.); better righe. See ruighe.

ridir, a knight, Ir. ridire, E. Ir. ritire, W. rheidyr; from Ag. S. ridere, horseman, ridda(n), knight, Ger. ritter, knight, Norse riddari, rider, knight; from the verb ride (see réidh).

rìgh, a king, Ir. rígh, O. Ir. , g. ríg, W. rhi, Gaul. -rix, pl. -riges: *rêks, g. rêgos; Lat. rex, rêgis; Got. reiks, ruler, Eng. rich, -ric; Skr. râj, king, our rajah.

righ, stretch (on a death bed), Ir. righim, stretch, reach, E. Ir. rigim, Lat. rego, etc., as under righinn.

righil, a rell, dance; see ruithil.

righinn, tough, pliant, tenacious, Ir. righin: *reg-eni-; root reg, stretch, Gr. ὀρέγω, stretch, Lat. porrigo, rego, etc. See éirich.

rinn, a point, promontory, Ir. rind, O. Ir. rinnd, rind, W. rhyn, pehrhyn, cape. It has been analysed as ro-ind, "fore-end", E. Ir. ind, end, Eng. end. Cf. reannag, however.

rinn, did, Ir. rinn, O. Ir. rigni, fecit; from ro and gni of , will do, q.v. See also gnìomh.

riochd, appearance, form, Ir. riochd, O. Ir. richt, W. rhith: *riktu-, *ṛktu- (?); for root, see that of dorch.

riodag, kind of sea-gull (Lewis); N. rytr, sea-gull.

rioluinn, a cloud (Smith):

riof, the reef of a sail; from the Eng.

riofa, brimstone (Nunro's Gr.):

rìomhach, fine, costly, handsome, Ir. rímheighe, finery, delicateness: *rîmo-, "measured"; root rîm of àireamh?

rionnach, reannach, a mackerel: "streaked, spotted", from reann, star, connstellation. See reannag.

riopail, mangle, tear (H.S.D.); founded on Eng. rip.

riplis, weakness in the back (Suth); Sc. ripples.

rìreadh, a rìreadh, really, in earnest, Ir. ríreadh, da ríreadh or ríribh, revera; from *ro-fhìr, very true?

risteal, a surface plough, used in the Hebrides, drawn by one horse and having a sickle-like coulter, Sc. ristle; from the Norse ristill, ploughshare, from rísta, cut.

rithisd, rithis, rìs, a rithisd, etc., again, Ir. arís, O. Ir. arithissi, afrithissi, rursus. Ascoli suggests *frith-éisse, from éis, vestigium (see déis). Others have derived it from *ar-fithis, O. Ir. fithíssi, absidas, fithis, a circle, orbit. The a at the beginning is for ar-: *ar-frithissi, that is, air, by, on, q.v. The root may well be sta, stand, reduplicated to *sistio-: thus *frith(sh)issi-, "resistere, backness".

ro, very, Ir. , O. Ir. ro-, W. rhy-, Br. re, O. Br. ro-, ru-, Gaul. ro- (Ro-smerta, Ro-danos, etc.): *ro-, *pro-, which is both a verbal and an intensive particle; Lat. pro; Gr. πρό, before; Eng. fore, for; Skr. pra, before.

ròb, coarse hair; founded on Eng. rope.

robair, a robber; from the Eng. The Ir. has robail for "rob".

robhas, notification, information about anything lost; cf. robhadh for root, the old form of rabhadh, q.v.

robhd, a runt; Eng. rout?

roc, a rock; from the Eng. roc, a tempest covered rock (Heb.), so M'K., who derives from N. rok.

roc, a wrinkle, crease, Ir. rocán, rug; from the Norse hrukka, wrinkle, fold, Eng. ruck, fold (Thurneysen). See rug.

ròc, a hoarse voice; founded on the Norse hrókr, rook, croaker, G. ròcas, crow, Norse hrókr, rook. W. has rhoch, grunt, groan, Br. roc'ha, which Stokes refers to *rokka, Gr. ρέγκω, snore.

rocail, tear, corrugate; in the latter sense, it is from roc, wrinkle, and, probably, the first meaning is of the same origin. See, however, racadh.

ròcas, a crow; from Norse hrókr, M. Eng. rook, Ag. S. hróc.

ròchd, a cough, retching (Dial.); see ròc.

ròd, a way, road, Ir. ród, E. Ir. ród; from Ag. S. rád, M. Eng. rode, now road.

ròd, a quantity of sea-weed cast on the shore; cf. Ir. ród, a cast, shot (O'R.), E. Ir. rout.

ròd, a rood (of land or mason-work); from the Eng.

rodach, sea-weed growth on timber under water; cf. ròd, sea weed.

rodaidh, ruddy, darkish, M. Ir. rotaide: *rud-do-, root rud, roud of ruadh, q.v.

ròg, rògair, a rogue; from the Eng.

roghainn, a choice, Ir. rogha, g. roghan, E. Ir. rogain,, O. Ir. rogy: *ro-gu, root gu, gus, of taghadh, q.v. Stokes gives the stem as *rogôn and the root as rog, which (Bez. Beit.18) he correlates with Lat. rogo, ask. Bez. suggests Lit. rogáuti, to cost.

ròib, filth, sqalid beard, filth about the mouth; cf. ròpach for root.

ròic, a sumptuous but unrefined feast; seemingly founded on the Sc. rouch as applied to a feast - "plentiful but rough and ready".

ròic, tear (H.S.D.; Sh. and Arm. have roic); see rocail.

roid, bog myrtle, Ir. rideog (O'R.), M. Ir. raidleog, darnel, raideog, bogmyrtle (St.): *raddi. Cf. ras.

roid, a race before a leap, a bounce or spring: *raddi-, *raz-di-, root ras, as in Eng. race?

roilean, snout of a sow; really the "rolled" up part of the snout, and so possibly from Eng. roll.

roileasg, a confused joy, roille, a fawning or too cordial reception; cf. Ir. róthoil, exceeding pleasure, from toil, will. Also G. roithleas.

roimh, before, Ir. roimh, O. Ir. rem-: *(p)ṛmo- (Stokes), root per, as in ro (= pro); in form, nearest allied to Eng. from, Got. fruma, Lit. pirm, before. In the pronominal compounds, where s begins the pronoun, the m and s develop an intermediate p coincident with the eclipse of the s: rompa = *rom-p-shu, where su = sôs (see sa).

ròin, ròineag (also ròinn, ròinneag), Ir. róine, róinne, a hair, especially a horse hair, W. rhawn, coarse long hair, Cor. ruen, Br. reun, a hair, bristle, Skr. roman, hair, etc: *râni-; cf. Ir. ruain, hair of tail of cow or horse, ruainne, a hair.

roinn, division, share, Ir. roinn, M. Ir. roinded, divided: *ranni-, an i stem from rann, q.v.

ròisead, rosin; from the Sc. roset, Eng. rosin.

roiseag, a small potato (M'D.):

ròiseal, surge of a wave, the impetus of a boat, an assault, boasting; from the Sc. roust, strong tide or current, Norse röst, a stream or current in the sea. In the sense of "boast", it is from Sc. rouse, roose, Norse rausan, boasting.

ròisgeul, a romance, rhodomontade; from ro, very, and sgeul, a tale, q.v.

ròist, roast, Ir. rósdaim, W. rhostio; from the Eng. roast, O. Fr. rostir, from O. H. G. rôst, craticula.

roithlean, a wheel, pulley, Ir. roithleán; from roth, q.v.

rol, rola, a roll, volume, Ir. rolla; from M. Eng. rolle, O. Fr. rolle, Lat. rotula; now Eng. roll.

ròlaist, a romance, exaggeration; cf. Sc., Eng. rigmarole.

ròmach, hairy, rough:

romag, meal and whisky (Sutherland):

ròmhan, wild talk, raving, rigmarole (Dial.); from Eng. row? from Roman? Cf. W. rhamant, romance, Ir. ramàs, romance.

ròn, the seal, Ir. rón, O. Ir. rón (before 900), W. moelron: *râno-; Lettic rohns, seal (W.Meyer, Zeit.28 119). Stokes holds rón as an old borrow from Ag. S. hron or hrón, hrán, whale, while the Lit. rùinis, Lettic rõnis, seal, must be from Teutonic. Zimmer suggests Norse hreinn, reindeer, Ag. S. hrán. Cf. names Rónán, Rónóc, Mac Ronchon.

rong, a joining spar, rung, boat-rib, rongas, rungas (Dial.), Ir. runga; from M. Eng. ronge, rung of a ladder, runge, Ag. S. hrung; now Eng. rung; N. röng, main rafter, pole. The words reang and rang or rangan, "boat-rib", are from the Norse.

rong, the vital spark, life:

rongair, a lounger; cf. next word.

rongair, rong, a lean person; from rong, rung: "like a ladder". The Sc. has rung in this sense: "an ugly, big-boned animal or person".

ronn, a slaver, a spittle, E. Ir. ronna, running of the nose: *runno-; cf. Eng. run. Eng. rope.

ròpach, slovenly, squalid, Ir. rúpach, a young slut: *roub-tho-; cf. Eng. rub.

ròram, dealing extensively with a family in provisions, etc.; liberality (M'A.):

ros, seed, ros lìn, flax seed (Armstrong's only use for it), Ir. ros, flax seed, M. Ir. ros, genealogy, E. Ir. ross lín, flax seed (Corm.), ros, genealogy, to which Strachan compares Got. frasts, for fra-sϑt-s, from pro-sto (Stokes), a child. A usual word for seed is fras, which also means a "shower", but both are ultimately from *verso, flow, whence Gr. ἔρση, ἑρση, dew, and ἀρσην, male. Dr. Cameron compared Gr. πράσον, leek (*pṛso), Eng. furze.

ros, a promontory, Ir. ros, promontory (North Ireland), wood (South Ireland; its usual Ir. meaning), E. Ir. ross, promontory, wood; in the former sense from *pro-sto-s, "standing out before", root sta, stand, Lat. sto, Eng. stand, etc.; especially Skr. prastha, plateau. In the sense of "wood", ros is generally regarded as the same word as ros, promontory, explained as "promontorium nemorosum", with which is compared W. rhos, a moor, waste, coarse highland, Br. ros, a knoll.

ròs, rose, Ir. rósa, M. Ir. rós, W. rhosyn; from the M. Eng. rose, Ag. S. róse, from Lat. rŏsa. The word ròs has also the metaphoric meaning of "erysipelas".

ròs, knowledge (Carm.):

rosad, mischance, evil spell: *pro-stanto-, "standing before, obstruction", root sta. Cf. faosaid.

rosg, an eye, eyelid, Ir. rosg, O. Ir. rosc, oculus: *rog-sko-, root reg, rog, see, Ir. réil, clear (*regli-); Lit. regiù, I see (Bez. apud Stokes). See dorch.

rosg, aincitement (to battle), war ode, Ir. rosg, E. Ir. rosc: *ro-sqo-, root seq, say, as in sgeul, cosg, q.v.

rot, a belch, bursting as of waves (H.S.D., Dial.); from Fr. rot.

rotacal, horse radish; from Sc. rotcoll.

rotach, a rush at starting, a running:

rotach, rough weather, rótach? (Lewis); N. róta, storm.

rotach, a hand rattle to frighten cattle:

rotach, a circle of flith on one's clothes (M'A. for Islay), rotair, a sloven:

rotadh, cutting, dividing; from Sc. rot, lines drawn on the ground to show the work to be done, to furrow, rut; cf. Eng. rut.

rotal, a ship's wake; cf. Eng. rut, route, Lat. ruptâ.

roth, a wheel, Ir., O. Ir. roth, W. rhod (f.), Br. rod: *roto-, root ret, rot; Lat. rota, wheel; Ger. rad; Lat. rátas, Lett. rats; Skr. ráthas, waggon. Same root as ruith, q.v. Hence rotha, a roll (of tobacco), rothaich, roll thou, swathe.

rotha, a screw or vice:

ruadh, red, ruddy, Ir. ruadh, E. Ir. rúad, W. rhudd, Corn. rud, Br. ruz: *roudo-; Lat. rûfus, rûber; Gr. ἐρυθρός; Got. rauþs. Ag. S. réad, Eng. red (Sc. reid, Reid); Lit. raudà, red colour.

ruag, pursue, ruaig, flight, Ir. ruaig (n.), E. Ir. ruaic: *rounko-, rouk, root rou, Lat. ruo, rush, fall.

'ruaim, a flush of anger on the face, Ir. ruaim, ruamnadh, reddening: *roud-s-men, from *roud of ruadh.

ruaimhsheanta, hale and jolly though old (M'A. for Islay):

ruaimill, rumble (M'A.); from the Eng.

ruaimle, a dry pool, muddy water (Sh.), Ir. ruaimle. In G. the word means also the same as ruaim above, whence indeed ruaimle as "muddy pool" may also be. Cf. Sc. drumblie.

ruaimneach, strong, active, M. Ir. ruamach, E. Ir. rúamna (?): *rous-men-; Lat. ruo, rush.

ruais, a rhapsody (M'A.):

ruamhair, dig, delve, Ir. rómhairim, róghmhar, digging, E. Ir. ruamor; root rou, reu, , dig; Lat. ruo, dig, râta, minerals; Lit. ráuti, dig up.

ruapais, rigmarole (M'A.):

ruathar, violent onset, skirmish, spell, so Ir., E. Ir. rúathar, W. rhuthr, impetus, insultus: *routro-, root rou, to rush on; Lat. ruo, rush.

rug, rub; from the Eng.

rùbail, a tumult, rumbling (M'A.); formed on Eng. rumble.

ruc, rucan (H.S.D., M'A.), rùc, rùcan (M'E., etc.), a rick of hay; from Sc. ruck, Eng. rick, ruck, Norse hraukr, heap.

rucas, jostling kind of fondness:

rùchan, rùcan, the throat, wheezing; cf. Sc. roulk (= rouk), hoarse, Fr. rauque, hoarse, from Lat. raucus.

rùchd, a grunt, belch, rumbling noise; from Lat. ructo, belch, erûgere, epit out, Lit. rúgiu, belch. Cf. Sc. ruck, belch.

rud, a thing, Dial. raod (Arg., Arran), rudach (Arran raodach), hospitable, Ir. rud (g. roda), raod, O. Ir. rét, g. réto: *rentu-s; Skr. rátna, property, goods; also root of rath, q.v.

rùdan, a knuckle, a tendon: *runto-:

rudha, a promontory, Ir. rubha, E. Ir. rube: *pro-bio-, "being before"; from root bu of the verb "to be"; see bi.

rudha, a blush, E. Ir. ruidiud; from root rud, a short form of roud in ruadh, q.v.

rudhag, rùdhag (Suth.), a crab, partan:

rudhagail, thrift (M'A.):

rùdhan, a small stack of corn (H.S.D., M'E.); see rùthan, peat heap, with which and with rùcan this form and meaning are made up.

rùdhrach, searching, groping, Ir. rúdhrach, a darkening:

rug, wrinkle, Ir. rug; from Norse hrukka, a wrinkle, fold, Eng. ruck, a crease.

rub, caught, Ir. rug, E. Ir. ruc, rucc, tulit, O. Ir. rouic: *ro+ucc-, where ucc = *ud-gos-a, root ges, carry, Lat. gero, gestum. See thug.

ruga, rough cloth (M'A.); from Eng. rug, M. Eng. ruggi, hairy, Swed. ruggig.

rugadh, a greedy grasping of anything; from Sc. rook, deprive of, rookit, cleared out.

rugaid, a long neck (H.S.D.):

rugair, a drunkard (H.S.D. says Dial., M'A. says N.); from the Eng. For phonetics, cf. ràc, drake.

rugha, a blush; see rather rudha, but rucce (Corm.) shame, reddening (O'Cl.).

ruic, undesirable fondness (M'D.):

ruicean, a pimple: *rud-ki-, from rud, roud, red, as in ruadh.

ruidhil, ruidhle (Arg.), a dance; see ruithil.

ruidhil, a yarn reel; from M. Eng. reel, hréol, Ag. S. hréol.

ruidhleadh, rolling; from ruith, roth.

ruidhtear, a glutton, riotous liver; from Eng. rioter.

ruididh, merry, frisky, Ir. ruidéiseach, from ruidéis, a sporting mood. Cf. ruidhtear.

ruig, half castrated ram; from Eng. rig, ridgeling.

ruig, reach, arrive at, O. Ir. riccim, riccu; from ro and iccim, for which see thig. Hence gu ruig, as far as, O. G. gonice (B. of Deer), E. Ir. corrici.

ruighe, an arm, forearm, Ir. righ, E. Ir. rig, forearm: *regit-, root reg, stretch, Lat. rego, etc. See ruigheachd.

ruighe, the outstretched part or base of a mountain, shealing ground, E. Ir. rige, rigid, a reach, reaches; from the root reg, stretch, as in the case of the foregoing words.

ruigheachd, ruighinn, reaching, arriving, Ir. righim, I reach, inf. riachdain, rochdain, E. Ir. rigim, porrigo: *regô; Lat. rego, erigo, porrigo, I stretch; Gr. ὀρέγω, stretch; further is Eng. right, etc. See éirich.

ruighean, wool-roll ready to spin; from the same rroot as ruighe.

ruinn, a point; see rinn.

ruinnse, a long stick or stake, an animal's tail, rump:

ruinnse, a rinsing, rinser; from Eng. rinse.

ruis, a rash; formed from the Eng. Cf. Lit. russus, root rud.

ruiteach, ruddy, E. Ir. rutech: *rud-tiko-, from rud, roud of ruadh. Stokes (Rev.Celt.8 366) explained it as *rudidech, but this would give G. ruideach.

ruith, run, Ir. riothaim, O. Ir. rethim, perf. ráith, inf. rith (d. riuth, W. rhedu, to run, rhed, race, Br. redek, Gaul. petor-ritum, four wheeler: *retô; Lit., Lett. ritù, I roll; Lat. rota, wheel, rotula, Eng. roll, Lat. rotundus, Eng. round. See roth.

ruithil, a reel, dance, also righil, ruidhil: *retoli-, root ret, run, wheel, as in ruith; Lat. rotula, little wheel, rotulare, revolve, Eng. roll. Hence Eng. reel (Skeat). The borrowing may be, however,, the other way, and Eng. reel, dance, be the same as reel, a spindle or bobbin. *roteli?

rùm, a room, Ir. rúm, M. Ir. rúm, floor (O'Cl.); from the Eng.

rumach, a marsh:

rumpull, the tail, rump; from the Sc. rumple, Eng. rump.

rùn, intention, love, secret, Ir., O. Ir. rún, W. rhin: *rûnes-; Got., O. H. G., Norse rúnar, Eng. runes; Gr. ἐρευνάω, seek out; root revo, search.

rùsal, search, turn over things, scrape, rùsladh, rusleadh, rusling, moving things about (Perth); from Eng. rustle; for ultimate root, see above word.

rùsg, a fleece, skin, husk, bark, Ir. rusg, O. Ir. rúsc, cortex, W. rhisg, cortex, Cor. rusc, cortex, Br. rusgenn, rusk, bark: *rûsko-; whence Fr. ruche, beehive (of bark), O. Fr. rusche, rusque, Pied. rusca, bark. Stokes thinks the Celtic is probably an old borrwo from the Teutonic - M.H.G. rusche, rush, Eng. rush, rushes; but unlikely. The Cor. and Br. vowel u does not tally with Gadelic û; this seems to imply borrowing among the Celts themseles.

rùta, a ram, ridglinng; from Norse hrútr, ram.

rùtachd, rutting: from the Eng.

rutaidh, surly (Carm.): rut, ram (Carm.).

rùtan, the hor of a roebuck:

ruth, desire (Carm.):

rùthan (better rùghan), a peat heap (= dais); from the Norse hrúgi, heap.

rutharach, quarrelsome, fighting (H.S.D. marks it obsolete; Arms.), Ir. rútharach (O'R.); from ruathar.