An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/T

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain


ta, tha, is, Ir. , E. Ir. , is, táim, I am, O. Ir. táu, , sum, , táa, est, especially attáa (at the beginning of a sentence), est (= ad-tât, Lat. adsto) and itá, itáa, "in which is": *tâjô, *tâjet, root stâ, stand; Lat. stô, stat, stand, Fr. été, having been; Ch. Sl. stoją, I stand; further Eng. stand, Gr. ἵστημι (for σί-στᾱμι), set, Lat. sisto. See seas further.

tabaid, fight, brawl; Br. has tabut of like force; see sabaid. Cf. Sc. debate.

tàbar, a tabor, Ir. tabár; from the Eng.

tabh, teh sea, ocean; from Norse haf, Swed. haf, Dan. hav, the open sea, Ag. S. haef. From Norse also comes the Sc. (Shet.) haaf, open sea.

tàbh, a spoon-net; from Norse háfr, a pock-net.

tabhach, a sudden eruption, a forcing, a pull, Ir. tabhach, sudden eruption, compulsion, tobhachaim, I compel, E. Ir. tobach, levying, distraint, from dobongaim: for root see buain.

tàbhachd, substantiality, effectiveness, Ir. tábhachd, tabhuchta (Meyer):

tabhair, give, so Ir., E. Ir. tabraim, O. Ir. tabur, do, post-particle form of dobiur, now G. bheir, q.v.: inf. tabhairt, so Ir. See thoir.

tabhal, a sling, Ir. tabhall, E. Ir. taball, W. rafl, a cast, taflu, jacere, Cor. toula, Br. taol, a cast, blow: *taballo-, root tab, to fire, sling; cf. Eng. stab.

tàbhairn, an inn, tavern, Ir. tabhairne; from Lat. taberna, Eng. tavern.

tàbharnach, noisy (Suth.):

tabhann, barking, Ir. tathfan: *to-sven-, root sven, sound (see seinn).

tàbhastal, tedious nonsense:

tac, a lease, tack; from Sc. tack.

tacaid, a tack, tacket, Ir. taca; from the Eng.

tacan, a while, short time; from tac.

tacar, (tàcar, H.S.D.), provision, plenty, support, Ir. tacar, a collection, gleaning, contrivance. Cf. N. taka, income.

tachair, meet, happen, Manx taghyrt, to happen, an accident, Ir. tachair, he arrived at; from to- and car, turn.

tàcharan, a ghost, yelling of a ghost, an orphan, Ir. tacharán:

tachas, itching, scratching, Ir. tochas:

tachd, choke, Ir. tachdaim, O. Ir. tachtad, angens. Stokes gives the root as tak and refers to it also W. tagu (and ystagu), choke, Cor., Br. taga. Brugmann and Ascoli analyse tachd into to-acht, root angh, Lat. ango, choke, Gr. ἀγχω, Eng. anger. Root tak as in Lat. tacere (Prellwitz).

tachras, winding yarn, Ir. tocharais, tochardadh, M. Ir. tochartagh: *to-cert-, root qert, wind, as in ceirtle.

tacsa, tacas (Dial.), support, substance; cf. taic.

tàdh, a ledge, layer; cf. spadh.

tadhal, frequenting, visiting, Ir. tadhall, O. Ir. tadal, dat. tadíll, inf. of taidlim, doaidlibem, visitabimus, adall, diverticulum: *to-ad-ell, form *elnô (Stokes), go, M.W. elwyfi, iero, Corn. yllyf, eam, root ela, Lat. ambulare, walk, Gr. ἐλαúνω, drive, proceed; likely also Fr. aller, go.

tadhal, goal, hail; from Eng. hail.

tagair, plead, Ir. tagair (imper.), tagraim, E. Ir. tacraim, O. Ir. tacre, argumentum: *to-ad-gar-, root gar, as in goir, agair.

tagh, choose, Ir. toghaim, O. Ir. togu, eligo, electio: *to-gusô, root gus, choose, taste; Lat. gusto, taste; Gr. γεúω, taste; Eng. choose.

taghairm, noise, echo, a mode of divination by listening to the noise of water cascades, Ir. toghairm, summons, petition, O. Ir. togairm, invocatio; from to- and gairm.

taghan, the marten:

tagradh, ghost (Suth. R.D.):

taibhs, taibhse, an apparition, ghost, Ir. taibhse, vision, ghost, M. Ir. tadhbais, phantasma, O. Ir. taidbse, demonstratio, tadbat, demonstrat, *tad-bat or *to-ad-bat, root bat, show, see, speak, I. E. bhâ, bhan as in bàn, q.v. Gr. φάντασμα, Eng. phantasm, and phantom are closely allied to the G.

taibid, a taunt; see teabaid.

taibse, propriety of speech: "precision", E. Ir. tepe, cutting; see teabaid.

taic, support, proximity, Ir. taca, prop, surety, fastening, toice, prop, wealth, tacamhuil, firm, aice, support, food, near, M. Ir. aicc, a bond, E. Ir. aicce, relationship: *akki-, *pakki-, root pak, bind; Lat. paciscor, agree, pax, peace; Eng. fang, Got. fahan, seize: Zend paç, bind. The root is a triplet -- pak, pag, pagh (Gr. πήγνυμι, make fast, Lat. pango, Eng. page, etc.). Zimmer refers E. Ir. aicce to the root of agus, aig.

taidhe, attention, heed, Ir. uidh, O. Ir. oid, óid, con-ói, servat: *audi-, root av, watch, Lat. aveo, desire, audeo, dare, Skr. av, favour (see àill further). The t of G. is due to the phrase "Thoir taidhe" (= thoir do aidhe) - Take thy heed: a phrase to which the word is practically restricted, and which accounts for the short vowel of the G. and Ir., the sentence accent being on the verb.

taidheam, meaning, import; see oidheam.

taifeid, a bow-string:

taig, attachment, custom; cf. aig, at.

taigeis, haggis; from Sc. haggis, O. Fr. hachis, Eng. hash, from hack.

taighlich, chattels (Heb.); a side form of teaghlach.

tail, substance, wages, taileas, wages, Ir. táille, wages, M. Ir. taile, salarium, W. tâl, payment, Cor., O. Br. tal, solvit, root tal, tel, take, hold; Gr. τάλαντον, a talent, Eng. talent, τελος, toll; Lat. tollo, lift, Eng. thole, etc.

tailce, strength, Ir. talcánta, strong, E. Ir. talce, tailce: *t-alkiâ, root alk, strong, Gr. ἀλκή, strength, ἀλέξω, defend.

tailceas, contempt; cf. tarcuis.

tàileasg, backgammon, chess, Ir. táibhleis, backgammon table, back-gammon, M. Ir. taiflis, draught-board, tables, W. tawl-fwrdd, draught-board; from M. Eng. tables, backgammon, from table, Norse tafl, game, chess.

tailebart, halberd; from the Eng. The Ir., M. Ir. is halabard, which Stokes regards as derived from the Fr. hallebard.

taileas, wages; see tail.

tailgneachd, prophecy; for tairgneachd, q.v.

tàille, apprentice fee, premium (M'A., who has tàilleabh); see tail.

tàille, tàilleabh (M'A.), consequence, air tàille, on account of; cf. M. Ir. a haithle, after, as a haithle sin, thereafter, O. G. as á áthle, thereafter (B. of Deer), aithle, remnant.

tàillear, a tailor, Ir. tailiur, W. teiliwr; from the Eng., M. Eng. tailor, taylor, from Fr. tailleur.

tailm, a tool, sling, noose, Ir. tailmh, a sling, E. Ir. tailm (do.), W. telm, laqueus, Br. talm, sling: *talksmi (Stokes); Ch. Sl. tlŭką, strike.

tailmrich, bustle, noise; for *tairmrith, E. Ir. tairmrith, transcursus, from tairm-, cross, trans (see thar), and ruith, run.

tailp, a bundle, bunch (Sh., O'R.):

tàimh, death, mortality, Ir. táimh, E. Ir. tám, plague: *tâmo-, death; cf. Skr. támyati, choke, Ch. Sl. tomiti, vexare. Cf., however, tàmh, rest.

taimhlisg, traduce (Carm.):

tàin, cattle, drove, Ir. táin, cattle, spoil, E. Ir. táin: *to-ag-ni, root ag, drive, Lat. ago, etc.

taing, thanks; from the Eng. thank.

tainneamh, thaw (Arran), Manx tennue, Ir. tionadh, O. Ir. tinaid, evanescit, root ten as in tana. See aiteamh.

taip, a mass, Ir. taip; see tap.

tàir, contempt, Ir. táir, E. Ir. tár; for *to-shár; see sár.

tàir, get, obtain, come, Ir. tair, come thou, E. Ir. tair (do.), tair, venies; from tairicim, I arrive at, come, catch, for *to-air-ic, root ic of thig, q.v.

tairbeart, an isthmus, peninsula: *tar-bertâ, from tar (see thar, cross) and ber of beir: "cross-bringing, portage".

tairbhe, profit, so Ir., O. Ir. torbe: *to-for-be, where -be comes from *bv-iâ, root bu, be (see bu).

tairbheartach, profitable, so Ir., E. Ir. tairbert, yielding, giving up: *to-air-ber-, from the berb beir, bring.

tairbhein, surfeit, bloody flux (Carm.):

tairg, offer, tairgse, an offer, Ir. tairgim, tairgsin, E. Ir. tairgim, tharscin (dat.): *to-air-ges-, root ges, carry (Lat. gero, as in agus? Ascoli compares O. Ir. taircim, affero, tairciud, oblatio, tribuere, from to-ad-ro-ic, root ic of thig.

tairgneachd, tailgneachd, tairgire, prophecy, Ir. tairrgire, tairgire, prophecy, promise, O. Ir. tairngire, promissio: *to-air-ind-gar-iâ, root gar as in goir.

tairiosg, a saw; see tuireasg.

tairis, the dairymaid's cry to calm a cow: cf. O. Ir. tairissim, sto, *to-air-sess, from sess as in seas, q.v.

tairis, kind, loving, Ir. tairis, loyal, E. Ir. tairisse, true, loyal: "stable", from to-air-sess, from sess, stop, stand, as in seas, q.v.

tairisgein, peat-spade; see toirsgian.

tairleas, turlas, cupboard or aumrie (Perth): Sc. tirless, lattice, wicket, Fr. trellis.

tairm, necromancy (Sh., O.R.); see taghairm.

tàirneanach, thunder, Ir. tóirneach, tóirn; see torrunn for root, etc.

tàirng, tarrang, a nail, Ir., E. Ir. tairnge; from tarruing?

tais, soft, Ir. tais, E. Ir. taise, tasse, weakness: *taxi-, soft (Gaul. Taxi-magulus?), root tak, weak, melting, Gr. τακερός (do.), τήκω, melt; further Lat. tabes, Eng. thaw. Bezzenberger suggests Gr. τάγηνον, a melting pot, saucepan.

taisbean, reveal, Ir. taisbeanaim, E. Ir. taispenim, taissfenim, O. Ir. asfenimm, testificor, doairfenus, exploravi; the old Gaelic root is fen, ben, which may be cognate to Gr. φαίνω (see taibhse). Zeuss regarded the s as put before the b by metathesis, the word being of the same origin as taibhse.

taisdeal, a journey, taisdil (Cars.), journey (v.imp.) Ir. taisdiol: *to-asdel, *ad-sod-, root sod-, as in astar.

tàisealan, taisealan (M'E.), saints' relics, E. Ir. taisse:

taisg, deposit, store away, tasgaidh, depository, Ir. taisgim, E. Ir. taiscim, doroisecht-sa, id deposui: *to-ad-sec-, root seq, follow, beside, as in seach, past; the idea of the verb being "put past". (Ernault Zeit. Celt.2 384. segh).

taisgeal, finding of anything, taisgealach, a spy, Ir. taiscealladh, spying, betraying, M. Ir. taiscelad, O. Ir. taiscelaid, explorator, pl. taisceltai, do-scéulaim, experior; from to-scél-, from sgeul, story (Windisch). Hence taisgealadh, news.

taitheasg, a repartee, Ir. taitheasg, aitheasg (O'Br., etc.), O. Ir. taithesc, answer, aithesc, admonitio, W. ateb, a reply: *ati-seq, root seq, say, as in sgeul.

taitinn, pleasing, Ir. taithneamhach, M. Ir. taitnemach, bright, shining, E. Ir. taitnim, I shine, taitnemach, shining, O. Ir. taitnem, lucina, light: *taith-tennim, to-aith-tenn, root ten of teine, fire (Windisch). Stokes (Bez.Beit.18, 112), divides taitnem into tait- and nem, Pictish namet, albus.

tàl, adze, Ir., O. Ir. tál: *to-aglo- (rather t-aglo-?), Got. aqisi, axe, Eng. axe (Strachan). Stokes gives a pre-Gaelic *tâkslo, root tek, Ch. Sl. tesla, axe, Lat. gelum (= tex-lum), weapon, Gr. τέκτων, carpenter; but tek does not appear to have a side form tâk, and tâkslo- would produce táll (tôkslo, Foy). But cf. Lat. pâla, spade, for root, and for phonetics G. torc and Lat. porcus.

talach, complaining, Ir. talach, dispraise, reproach:

tàladh, enticing, hushing, caressing; from Norse tál, allurement, bait, trap, Ag. S. tál, calumny, root dâl, del, Lat. dolus, guile, δηλέομαι, hurt (Dor. dāléomai).

talainte, a partition or dividing wall; from Sc. halland, hallon. Dial. G. has also tallaid.

talamh, earth, so Ir., O. Ir. talam, g. talman: *talmon-, for tḷ-mon, root tel; Lat. tellus, earth (for tēlṓs), *têl, flat; Gr. τηλία, a board; Ag. S. thelu, board (root tēl); Skr. talas, level ground; Ch. Sl. tǐlo, pavement (root tḷ). Stokes joins here Celtic talo-s, brow, Gaul. Dubno-talos, Argio-talos (Pictish Talorgan), W. tâl, brow, Cor. tâl, Br. tal.

tàlan, feats of arms, chivalry, Ir. talan (O'B., Sh., etc.); see tàlann for origin.

tàlann, a talent, Ir. tallann, O. Ir. talland; from Lat. talentum, Eng. talent.

tàlfuinn, a hoe; from tàl and fonn.

talla, a hall, Ir. alla, M. Ir. all; from Norse hall, höll, Eng. hall: allied to G. ceall, q.v.

talmaich, honour (Carm.):

tàmailt, an insult, offence, Ir. támailt, Br. tamall, reproach, root stemb, abuse, I. E. stenꬶo, stamp, Gr. στέμβω, shake, misuse, abuse, στόβεω, scold, Eng. stamp (Stokes, Jubainville Rev.Celt. 16, 365).

tàmh, rest, Ir. támh, E. Ir. tám: *tâmo-, root stâm, sta, stand, Eng. stand, station, stamina; see seas. Usually tàmh, rest, and tàimh, death, are referred to the same root.

tamhasg, blockhead, brownie; see amhas. For termination, cf. ùruisg, tannasg.

tamhladh, a gulping movement (M'D.):

tamull, a while, space of time, Ir. tamall: *to-ad-melno-, from melno-, linger, Gr. μέλλω, linger (Stokes). See mall.

tan, time, an tan, when, Ir. tan, an tan, O. Ir. tan, intain, intan, quum, quando: *tanâ, time; Skr. tan, duration, tanâ, continually. root tan, ten, extend, as in tana, q.v.

tana, thin, Ir., O. Ir. tana, Cor. tanow, Br. tanaw, but W. teneu: *tanavo-, thin; Lat. tenuis, thin, tendo, stretch; Gr. ταναός τανυ-, long, stretched, τείνω, stretch; Eng. thin, Ger. dünn; Ch. Sl. tǐnŭkŭ; Skr. tanú.

tànaiste, next heir, tanist, anything second, Ir. tánaiste, lieutenant, second in command, heir apparent, O. Ir. tánaise, secundus, imthanu, alternation, innimthána, talionem: *to-atn-, root at of ath, "re", Skr. at, also *at-s-men, of àm, time, q.v. (Strachan). Rhys (Celt.Br.2, 308) suggests connection with W. tan, till, Lat. tenus, root ten (no root tân?).

tancard, a tankard, Ir. tancárd; from Eng.

tannas, tannasg, an apparition, ghost; from the root of tana?

taobh, a side, Ir. taobh, E. Ir. tóeb, táib, O. Ir. tóib, W., Cor., Br. tu: *toibos, root steibh, sti, stiff, standing; Lat. tîbia, shin-bone (pl.); Lit. staibis, post, shin-bone (pl.), staibus, strong; Gr. στιφός, strong; further Eng. stiff, Lat. stipes, log.

taod, a halter, cable, hair-rope, Ir. téad, a rope; see teud.

taodhair, an apostate, Ir. taodhaire (Lh., O'B.):

taodhal, frequenting; see tadhal.

taoghas, the grave:

taoig, a fit of passion (Sh., O'R.):

taois, dough, Ir. taos, E. Ir. toes, O. Ir. táis, massam, W. toes, Br. taos: *taisto-, *stejesto-, root staj, concrescere; Gr. σταίς (g. σταιτός), dough, στέαρ (g. stéātos for *stājatos, *stājṇtos); Lat. stîria, a drop.

taoitear, oversman, tutor (Sutherland, etc.); from Lat. tutor, Eng. tutor. See saoitear.

taom, pour out, empty (vb.), a jet, torrent (n.), taoim, bilge-water, Ir. taomaim (taodhmaim), taodhm (n.), E. Ir. tóem, a jet, taeim, sentina, O. Ir. tuismiud, delivery, *to-fo-ess-sem: *to-ad-sm-men, root sem, let go, from , Lit. semiù, draw (as water), Lat. simpulum, ladle (Stokes). Cf. O. Ir. teissmim, I pour out (= to-ess-sem-im). Borrowing from Norse tómr, empty, Eng. toom, is not to be thought of.

taom, a fit of rage, Ir. taom (O'B., etc.), M. Ir. taem:

taosg, a pour, rush, exact full of a liquid measure, Ir. taosgaim, I drain, pour out, E. Ir. tóesca, spilling, taescaire, a baler, pumper: *to-ad-sem-sko-, root sem as in taom?

taosnadh, horseplay (R.D.):

tap, tow or wool on the distaff, forelock, "busk a hook", (Arg.), Ir. tap, tapán; from M. Eng. top, tuft of hair or flax, top, Sc. tap.

tapaidh, clever, active, so Ir., E. Ir. tapad, suddenness, alertness, top, sudden; from the same root as obann (Stokes).

tap-dubh, tattooo (R.D.).

taplach, a wallet, repository, Ir. taplaigh; for tap-lach, from tap, tow, etc.

tarachair, augur, so Ir.; for tarathar. See tora.

taraid, truncheon or staff of authority (Hend.):

taran, the ghost of an unbaptised infant (Sh., O'R.); for tacharan?

tarbh, a bull, Ir. tarbh, E. Ir. tarbh, W. tarw, Corn. tarow, Br. taro, tarv, Gaul. tarvos: *tarvos; Lat. taurus; Gr. γαῦρος (= τάρφος); Pruss. tauris, buffalo, Ch. Sl. turŭ, auroch. Prellwitz thinks the Celtic not allied to Gr. ταῦρος, etc., which he refers to the root tau, tu (stû gives Eng. steer).

tarcuis, also talcuis, contempt. Ir., M. Ir. tarcuisne, E. Ir. tarcusul:

targadh, ruling, governing, assembly (Lh., etc.), Ir. targadh:

targaid, a target, Ir. targáid; from Eng.

targair, foretell, Ir. tairrghirim; see tairgneachd.

tàrladh, it happened; see thàrladh.

tàrlaid, a slave, thrall; from Eng. varlet?

tàrmachadh, producing, originating, source, dwelling, Ir. tórmach, an increasing, a growing ripe for bearing, magnifying, O. Ir. tórmach, an increase: *to-for-mach, root mag, power (Eng. may, might, etc.).

tàrmachan, a ptarmigan, Ir. tarmochan; Eng. ptarmigan is hence (Skeat). Also tarman, from tarm, murmur (Carm.):

tarmachan-dé, white butterfly (Carm.):

tàrmus, dislike of food: *to-air-meas; see meas.

tàrnach, thunder-clap; see táirneanach.

tàrnadair, inn-keeper; from L. Lat. tabernator, tavern-keeper, Lat. taberna, Eng. tabern.

tarp, a clod, lump (Sh., O'B., etc.), Ir. tarp, tarpán; from Norse torf, a turf, sod, Eng. turf.

tàrr, lower part of the belly, tail, breast, Ir. tárr, belly, lower part of the belly, E. Ir. tarr, W. tor, Br. tor, O. Br. tar: *tarsâ, tarmsâ; Sc. thairm, belly, gut, Eng. tharm, Ger. darm, bowels; Gr. τράμις, tail, entrail, hip joint. Stokes gives the Celtic *targsâ, allied to Lat. terbus, back.

tarrag, a nail; see tàirng.

tarruing, pull, draw, so Ir., E. Ir. tairrngim: *to-air-rengim, from E. Ir. ringim, hang, tear, from reng, a nasalised form of reg, stretch (see ruighe).

tarraid, also tèarraid, sheriff officer, tipstaff (Dial.); see earraid.

tarsuinn, transverse, across, Ir. tarsna, tarsa, trasna, M. Ir., E. Ir. tarsnu, across; from tar, across (see thar), and sainn of ursainn, q.v.

tart, thirst, Ir., O. Ir. tart: *tar(s)to-; Eng. thurst, Ger. durst, Gr. τέρσομαι, become dry; Lat. torreo, burn, tostum (*torstum), Eng. toast; Skr. tarsh, thirst, Zd. taresh; I. E. ters, dry.

tartan, tartan; from Eng., Sc. tartan, from Fr. tiretain, linsie-wolsie.

tartar, noise; reduplication of root tar, tor in tòirneanach.

tàsan, tedious discourse or scolding, Ir. tasanach, tedious, slow (Lh. marks it obsolete and queries meaning):

tasdan, a shilling; from Sc. testan, testoon, a silver coin of the 16th century with Mary's head (teste) on it, the "inglis testane" being worth 8 shillings Scots, Eng. tester, worth 6d; originally so called from the coins of Louse XII. (1500) with his head (teste, Fr. tête, head) on them.

tasgaidh, depository, a treasure: "A thasgaidh" - Thou treasure; see taisg.

tataidh, attract, attach one to oneself, tadadh (inf.), taiteadh (Perth), tame: *tad-dam, root dam of aidich.

tàth, cement, join (M'F., Lh.), Ir. táthaim, táth, solder or glue, W. todi, construc, join: *táto-, *stâto-, constitute, root sta, stand?

tathaich, visit, frequent, tendency to vomit (Hend.), Ir. tathuighim, M. Ir. aithigim; formed form the prep. aith, back, rather than a compound of tiagaim as in imthich, our imich (that is, *ati-tig-, go back again). Stokes prefers root at, go, formerly discussed under tànaiste.

tathunn, barking; see tabhunn.

, a woman, femal, she, Ir. an tí, she who, an té, he who (O'Donovan says either means "he or she who" or "person who"), O. Ir. intí is(qui), indí ea(quae), aní id(quod): the article and the enclitic particle , for which see , and cf. , he who.

, tèa, insipid, slightly fermented; from root of teas; cf. tepid.

teabaid, a taunt, repartee (Dial.), teab, a flippant person's mout (M'A.), teibidh, smart: "cutting", E. Ir. tepe (to-aith-be, Stokes), a cutting, O. Ir. taipe, concisio, brevitas: *tad-be (= to-ad-be), reduced root be, cut, imdibe, circumcisio, etc., root bi, bin, as in bean, touch, q.v.

teach, a house, Ir. teach, O. Ir. tech, teg, g. tige, W. ty, Cor. ti, O. Br. teg, tig, ti, now ti: *tegos, g. teges-os; Gr. τέγος, roof, στέγω, cover; Lat. tego, cover, tectum, house; Eng. thatch, Ger. dach; Lit. stḗgiu, cover; Skr. sthagati, cover. See tigh for usual nom. case.

teachd, coming, arrival, Ir. teachd, O. Ir. techt, aditus, itio, W. taith, iter, Br. tiz, diligence, haste: *tiktâ, root stig, teig, as in tighinn, q.v. Some derive it from thig or tig, q.v. Hence teachdaire, messenger.

teachd, legal, lawful, M. Ir. teachta, téchta, O. Ir. téchte, fitting, legalis, lex: *tenctio-, root, tenq, become, chance, produce, Eng. thing, Lit. tenkù, chance, befaull, Lat. tempus. Dial. form deic, cha deic, q.v.

tèachd, teuchd, silly boasting (Arg.).

teadalach, slow, dilatory:

teadhair, a tether; from Sc., Eng. tether, tedder, Norse tjóðr, tjor, Swed. tjuder.

teagair, collect, provide, shelter, Ir. teagar, provision, shelter, teagarach, warm, snug, teagairim, store, provide; cf. eagar.

teagamh, doubt, suspense; see theagamh.

teagasg, teaching, so Ir., E. Ir. tecosc: *to-aith-cosc-, for which see caisg.

teaghlach, family, household, so Ir., O. Ir. teglach, W. teulu, O. W. telu, Corn. teilu, familia: *tego-slougo-, from the stems of tigh and sluagh. The terminations -lach from *slougo-s makes abstract collective nouns, which are used for single objects or persons; as òglach, young man, really "youth", or "young-people", just as "youth" is also used in Eng. as a concrete noun - "a youth".

teallach, hearth, forge, Ir. teallach, E. Ir. tenlach, tellach: *tene-lach, from teine, fire, and terminal -lach (see teaghlach).

teallaid, a lust or bunchu woman (M'F.):

teamhaidh, pleasant, Ir. teamhair, pleasant, Tara, E. Ir. temair, delightful, omnis locus conspicuus: *stem-ri-?

teamhair, time (Suth.): Lat.?

teamhall, slight swoon or stun, Ir. teimheal, darkness, O. Ir. temel (do.), Skr. támas, Lit. tamsa, Lat. tenebrae, temere, rashly.

teampull, temple, church, Ir. teampoll, O. Ir. tempul, W. teml, Corn. tempel; from Lat. templum.

teanacadh, deliverance, succour, teanacas, healing: *tind-ioc, from ìoc, heal.

teanchair, pincers, smith's thongs, Ir. teanchoir, tongs, pincers, O. Ir. tenchor, forceps: *ten-cor, "fire-putter", from the stem of teine, fire, and cor, seen in cuir, put.

teanga, teangadh, a tongue, Ir. teanga, O. Ir. tenge, gen. tengad: *tengot-, from stenꬶh, sting (Eng. sting, Ger. stengal, stalk), which is from zdṇꬶh, from dṇꬶh, whence Lat. dingua, Eng. tongue? Stokes (Academy, Oct 1891) has compared Lat. tango (so Windisch, Scot.Celt.Rev., 34). Rhys has considered the probabilities of alliance with W. tafod, Corn. tavot, Br. toed, older teaut (*tebâto-) in Manx Pray.2, 136-7.

teann, tight, tense, near to, Ir. teann, O. Ir. tend, W. tyn, tight, stretched: *tendo-; Lat. tendo, I stretch, tentus, stretched (Stokes, Rev.Celt.13, 12f); in any case from root ten of tana. Foy gives sten; N. stinnr, rough, hard. Cf. Gr. στενός.

tearb, separate, Ir. tearbadh (O'Cl.), severance, M. Ir. terpúd, E. Ir. terbaim, terbud: *ter-be-, Gadelic reduced root be, cut, for which see teabaid?

tearc, scarce, rare, Ir. tearc, E. Ir. terc: *ter(s)qo-s, rare, root ters, dry (as in tart); Lat. tesqua (= tersquo-s), deserts.

tearmann, a sanctuary, protection, so Ir., M. Ir. termain, termonn, W. terfyn; from Lat. termo(n), terminus, end, "end of race for life by reaching church lands" or Termon landes (Ducange).

tearr, tar, Ir. tearr; from M. Eng. terve, Norse tjara.

tèaruinn, save, escape, tèarnadh (inf.), Ir. tearnaim, E. Ir. térnaim, ternam, an escape, érnaim, I escape: *es-rn-, root ṛn, Eng. run?

teas, heat, Ir. teas, O. Ir. tess, g. tesa, W., Corn. tes, Br. tez: *testu-, for *tepstu-, root tep, burn, heat; Lat. tepeo, be warm, Eng. tepid; Ch. Sl. teplo, hotly; Skr. tap, be hot, Zd. tap, burn. See, also from tep, teine, teth. Hence teasach, fever.

teasairg, save, deliver, Ir. teasargaim, O. Ir. tessurc, servo, dumesurcsa, defendo me: *to-ess-arc, root ark, defend: Lat. arceo, ward off; Gr. ἀρκέω (do.). See adharc.

teasd, die, Ir. teasdaighim, die, fail, M. Ir., O. Ir. testa, deest, fails; *to-ess-tá, from , I am. Cf., for force, Lat. desum.

teasdam, I preserve, help (Carm.):

teasg, cut, cut off, Ir. teasgaim, E. Ir. tescaim: *to-ess-sc, root sec, cut, Lat. seco, Eng. saw.

teibideach, irresolute: "halting, failing"; cf. Ir. tebim, disappoint, fail, for which see theab.

teich, flee, Ir. teithim, E. Ir. techim, O. Ir. teichthech, vitabundus, W. techu, skulk, M. Br. techet, flee: *tekô, *tekkô, flee, I. E. root teq-, flow, run; Ch. Sl. teku, a run, Lit. tekù, flow; Skr. taki, runs, Zd. taka-, course.

teididh, wild, fierce (H.S.D.), wild fire (M'A.):

teilg, a fishing line: "a cast", from tilg, cast, Ir. teilgean, casting?

teilinn, msical instrument, teilig, a chord (Carm.), W. telu or telyn, harp. Cf. seillean.

teilleach, a blub-cheeked fellow (Dial.); cf. meilleach.

teine, fire, Ir. teine, O. Ir. tene, g. tened, pl. tenti, W. tân, Cor., Br. tan (in proper names also tanet): *tenet-, *tenos, Celtic root te, from tep, hot, as in teas, q.v. Not for *te(p)ne-, as usually said, which would give téine now, nor *tepsne-, which would produce tenne now; teine-sionnachain, phosphorescence, teine-fionn, will o' the wisp (Suth.).

teinn, calamity, strait; an abstract nounn from teann.

teirig, fail, be spent, die, teireachduinn (inf.), Ir. teiricim (O'B.), E. Ir. tarnic, it ended, from *tar-ic, transire (tar, across, and ic or nic of thig, thanig). Atkinson joins it with tairicim, arrive (= to-air-ic-), as in tàir, but the meanings scarcely suit.

teiric, hake, herring hake (Carm.):

teirinn, tèarn, descend, Ir. tearnaim, túrnaim, E. Ir. tairnim, O. Ir. tairnnud, dejectio (= to-air-innud), from *endô, go, root end, ed, I. E. ped, go (Eng. foot, Lat. pes, etc., G. uidhe, q.v.).

teirisi! the dairymaid's cry to calm a cow; see tairis.

teirm, a term, Ir. tearma, earlier, térma (F.M.); from M. Eng. terme, from Lat. terminus through Fr.

tearmasg, tiormasg, a mistake, mischance; cf. eirmis. Here te may be for de, on the analogy of to, do.

téis, a musical air; see séist for derivation.

teismeid, last will and testament; from Lat. testamentum.

teis-meadhon, the exact or very middle; teis = to-ess, as in teasairg.

teist, testimony, Ir. teisd, teist, O. Ir. teist, W. tyst, Br. test; from Lat. testis, Eng. test, etc.

teó, teódh, make warm; from teò-, q.v. The Ir. verb is teighim, inf. téaghadh.

teò-, warm, teò-chridheach, warm-hearted; *tepu-, Skr. tapus, hot, root tep as in teth. Cf. Keating's (Three Shafts, 282), teó-ghrádhuigheas, qui ardentius amat, where Atkinson considers teó a comparative.

teòm, a doel (Carm.):

teòma, skilful, expert, teòm, cunning (Carm.):

teth, hot, Ir. teith, comp. teotha (G. and Ir.), M. Ir. te, comp. teou: *teps (?), root tep, hot, as in teas. The O. Ir. is tee, , fervidus, pl. téit, from *tepents, g. *tepentos, Lat. tepens.

teuchd, congeal, be parched, Ir. teuchdaim, curdle, coagulate, M. Ir. téchtaige, frozen, O. Ir. coiteichtea, concretionis: *tenkto-, from I. E. tenq, firm, fast; Eng. tight, Ger. dicht, close.

teud, a string, Ir. teud, téad, O. Ir. tét, fidis, W. tant: tṇtâ, chord; Skr. tântu, tánti, cord: root ten, stretch, thin, as in tana.

teugmhail, battle, contest, disease, Ir. teagmháil, a meeting, retribution: *to-ex-com-dháil, see comhdhail. In the sense of "disease", see eugail.

teum, a bite, sudden snatch, wound, E. Ir. temm, W. tam, a bite Corn. tam, pl. tymmyn, Br. tamm: *tendmen, root tend, cut; Lat. tondeo, shear, tineo, a worm; Gr. τένδω, gnaw; Ch. Sl. tęti, caedere.

thà, is; see . The aspiration is due to the use of in relative sentences, where the t is intervocalic.

thàinig, came, Ir. thánaic, tháinig, vēnit, O. Ir. tánic, ránic, vēnit, tânac, vēni: *ananka, I have come - a reduplicated perfect; Skr. ânamca, has reached; Gr. ἤνεγκε, brought: root enk, nak (nank), attain, bring, for which see thig. The aspiration is due to the analogy of other perfects which follow do.

thairis, over, across, Ir. tairis, E. Ir. tairis, over it, him; from tar (thar) and or é, he, it. The aspiration is, due to a suppressed, or supposed suppressed, do or a.

thall, over, beyond, Ir. thall, O. Ir. thall, tall: *t-all, O. Ir. ol, quam, indoll, altarach, ultra, al, ultra; root ol, el, ol, Lat. ille (= olle), alius. Also eile, other, which see. The form thallad stands for thall-ud.

thalla, come, come along, "age", thallaibh (pl.), E. Ir. tallaim, take away, *talnô, root tel, bear (see tlàth, tail, etc.). Also interjection: thalla! thalla! well! well!

thar, across, Ir. tar, O. Ir. tar, dar, W. tra-, over, trach, beyond, root ter, through, past, Lat. trans, terminus; Skr. tar-, pass; I. E. ter, pass through, bore. See tora, troimh.

thàrladh, accidit, Ir. tarla, E. Ir. dorala, dorla, O. Ir. tarla: *to-ro-la, the la being the remains of root plu, as in dol (Ascoli).

theab, nearly did (with inf.), Ir. do theib sé, he failed (O'B.): "grazed" it, from *tebb, graze, cut, as in teabaid?

theagamh, mayhap, perhaps, O. Ir. tecmaing, accidit, tecmang, eventus, do-é-cm-aingim, accido, for *to-ex-com-ang, root ang, near, as in cumhang, q.v. Meyer takes O. Ir. ecmaing from ad-com-bangim, bang root of buain. It has also been referred to root mang, mag, Eng. may, etc.

théid, will go, Ir. téid, goes, O. Ir. téit, venit, it: *to-éit, *entô, *pentô, go, reach, root pet, pent, go, fly, fall; Lat. pet, seek, "fall on"; Gr. πίπτω, fall; Got. finþan, Eng. find.

their, will say; see deir.

thig, will come, Ir. tigim, come, E. Ir. tic, ticc, venit, O. Ir. ticfa, veniet: *tó-icc, from icc, *enkô, come, reach, root enk, nak, nank, attain, bring; Gr. ἤνεγκα, brought (= G. thàinig), a reduplicated perf. from εγκ; Skr. ānamça, attained; further nank of adhlac and Lat. nanciscor.

thoir, give, G., Ir. tabhair, give thou, q.v. The G. is for toir, a crushed form of tabhair, and this is aspirated on the analogy of bheir, gheibh, and especially of thug, its past tense.

thud, an interjection of dislike or impatience: Sc. hoot, hoot-hoot, Swed. hut, whence Eng. hoot. The G. is borrowed.

thug, bave, brought, Ir. thug, thugas (1st pers.), E. Ir. tuc, tucas, do-fuc, from uc, ucc, *ud-ge, from s- aorist *e-ges-s-t, *e-ges-s-m, root ges, carry, Lat. gero, gessi (Zimmer, Zeit.30 156-7); whence also W. dug, he bore, Cor. duk, Br. dougas.

thugad, thugaibh, thuige, etc., to thee, to you, to him; for chugad, etc., q.v. Similarly thun is for chun, gun, gu, q.v thun with gen. is for chum.

, any one, person, Ir. , person, an tí, an té; see , .

, intention, Ir., E. Ir. ; ar ti = intends (Glenmassan MS.):

tiachair, perverse, ill-disposed, sick, a dwarf, Ir. tiachair, perverse (O'Cl., Lh., O'B.), M. Ir. tiachair, troublesome, E. Ir. tiachaire, affliction, peevishness:

tiadhan, a little hill, small stone, Ir. tíadhan, a stone, testicle:

tiamhaidh, gloomy, lonesome, Ir. tiamdha, dark (O'Cl.), E. Ir. tiamda, dark, afraid:

tiarmail, prudent; cf. tìorail.

tibirt, fountains (Uist; Hend.); see tiobart.

tìde, time; from Icel. tíð, Sc., Eng. tide, Ag. S. tíd, Ger. zeit.

tigh (for taigh), a house, Ir. tigh, O. Ir. teg, tech; see teach.

tighearn, tighearna, lord, master, Ir. tighearna, O. Ir. tigerne, W. teyrn, O. W. -tigern, Cor. teern, O.British tigernus: *tegerno-s, tegernio-s, root teg of tigh, q.v.

tighil, call when passing (M'A.); the t being as in tigh, the word seems a variant of tadhal.

tighinn, coming, Ir. tighim, I come, E. Ir. tiagaim, O. Ir. tiagu, tíchtu (tíchtin), adventus: *tigô, *teigô, from root steiꬶh, stiꬶh, go; Gr. στείχω, walk; Got. steigan, ascend, Ger. steigen, Eng. stair: Skr. stighnute, stride.

tilg, cast, cast out, vomit, Ir. teilgim, O. Ir. teilcim: to-es-leic, "let out", from the original of G. leig, let, q.v.

till, pill, return, Ir. tillim (Keating), fillim, pillim (O'B.) (Ulster has till): *svelni-, turn round, W. chwylo, turn, revolve, chwyl, a turn, course, while (for which see G. seal). Cf. fill.

tìm, time; from the Eng.

timchioll, around, a circuit, so Ir., O. Ir. timchell: *to-imm-cell, from I. E. qel, move, go; Lat. colo, tend, celer, swift; Gr. πελομαι, go, be, ἀμφίπολος, attendant; Skr. cárâmi, move, go. See buachaill.

tinn, sick, Ir. tinn, E. Ir. tind: *tenni-, root ten of tana, teann, teinn. Cf. O. Ir. tinaim, evanesco, Lat. attenuo, Eng. attenuate.

tinne, a chain, link, piece of a column, M. Ir. tinne, flitch, E. Ir. tinde, ring, link, bar, O. Ir. tinne, chalybs; from the root ten of tana. Cf. Norse þind, diaphragm.

tioba, a heap (Arg.); from Eng. heap or G. iob?

tiobart, a well, O. G. tiprat (gen., B. of Deer), Ir. tiobar, tiobrad, E. Ir. tipra, d. tiprait, *to-aith-brevant-, Celtic verb *bervô, seethe, boil; Gr. φρέαρ, φρέατος, a well; Ger. brunnen, Eng. burn. See tobar.

tiodhlac, a gift, Ir. tiodhlacadh, E. Ir. tidnacul, O. Ir. tindnacul, traditio, do-ind-naich, distribuit: to-ind-nank-, root nank, bring, get, Lat. nanciscor, obtain; also root enk as in thig, q.v. Hence also tiodhlaic, bury, and adhlac, q.v.

tiolam, a short space, a snatch:

tiolp, snatch, grasp eagerly, Ir. tiolpaim:

tìom, soft, timid, G. tioma, tenderness, Ir. time, fear, E. Ir. tim, soft, timid, timme, fear: *temmi-, root tem, faint, Lat. timeo, fear, Eng. timid; Skr. tam, to faint, Zd. tam, perish.

tiomnadh, a will or testament, Ir. tiomna, O. Ir. timne: *to-imm-ne, the n of ne being the remains of -ân-, mandare, mittere (Ascoli); cf. O. Ir. adroni, deposuit, immeráni, delegavit, G. àithne, command, q.v.

tiompan, a musical instrument - a cymbal, Ir. tiompán, tabor, cymbal, drum, E. Ir. tiompan, a small stringed instrument; from Lat. tympanum, a timbrel, drum (Windisch). The difference of meaning between E. Ir. and Lat. has caused some to doubt the connection; and Stokes gives the Celtic root as temppu-, a chord or string, Lit. tempiù, stretch, Ch. Sl. tętiva, chorda.

tiomsach, collecting, bringing together, Ir. tiomsughadh, E. Ir. timmsugud: *to-imm-sag-, root sag as in tionnsuidh, q.v.

tionail, gather, Ir. tionólaim, O. Ir. tinólaim, tinolaim, do-in-ola, applicat: *to-in-ōla-im, where ōla is referred by Stokes to *oklo-, *polko-, joining, uniting, Ger fügen, to fit, füge, joint; Lat. paciscor, bargain, bind; Skr. pā́ças, a knot, Zd. paç, bind. Ascoli regards it as *to-in-od-lu, root lu, plu of dol, but *od-lu- would rather mean "go out", "go off". W. cynull, gathering, Corn. cuntell, O. Br. contullet, are, according to Ernault, borrowed from Lat. contuli.

tionnail, likeness of any person or thing: *t-ionnail, from ionnan, like.

tionndadh, turning, Ir. tiontodh, O. Ir. tintuith, g. tintuda tintathigh, interpretes: *to-ind-sout-, root su of iompaidh, q.v.

tionnscainn, a beginning, devising, tionnsgal, ingenuity, Ir. tionnscnadh, a beginning, device, plotting, tionsgiodal, managing, industry, O. Ir. tinscnaim (= to-ind-scannaim), I begin, tindscetal, a beginning, root sqend, start, spring, Lat. scando, ascend, Skr. skandati, hurry, spring. The W. has cy-chwyn, ortus (*sqenô). The form -scetal is for sqen-t- (?).

tiop, pilfer (M'A.); cf. tiolp.

tìor, dry (as corn), kiln-dry, Ir. tiortha, kiln-dried (Con.), M. Ir. tírad, kiln-drying, E. Ir. tír, to dry; from the root of tioram (O. Ir. tírim).

tìorail, warm, cosy, sheltered, Ir. tíoramhuil, cosy; W. tirion, pleasant, a familiar abject; cf. Ir. tíoramhuil, tíorthamhuil, homely, national, from tír. Dr Cameron regarded it as taken from the root of tioram, which is ultimatley the same as that of tìr. Borrowing from Eng. cheerful is unlikely.

tioram, dry, Ir. tirim, M. Ir. tirimm, O. Ir. tírim, tír (vb.): *tersmi-, root ters, dry, as in tart, q.v. See also tìr for phonetics.

tiorc, save, deliver from peril: *t-erc-, *to-arki-, root ark of teasairg, q.v.

tiort, an accident:

tiosan, water-gruel; from Eng. ptisan, Lat. ptisana, barley water, from Gr. πτισάνη.

tiot, tiota, tiotan, a moment, while; cf. Ir. giota, something small, jot, appendage, from Lat. iota, whence Eng. jot. Gaelic is t-iot.

tìr, land, earth, Ir., O. Ir. tír, W., Corn., Br. tir, tellus, la terre: *têros (*têres-); Lat. terra (*tersâ), Oscan teerum, territorium. The further root is ters, be dry, as in tart; the idea of tír, terrâ, is "dry land" opposed to sea.

tit, an interjection expressive of wet being perceived suddenly (H.S.D.): Eng. chut?

tiugainn, come, let us go; from deaspirated thugainn, "to us", for chugainn, q.v.

tiugh, thick, Ir. tiugh, E. Ir. tiug, W. tew, O. W. teu, obtuso, Corn. tew, Br. teu: *tegu-, thick; Eng. thick, Norse þykkr, Ger. dick; Gr. στεγνός, fast, tight.

tiurr, a beach out of reach of the sea; for an t-iurr, from Norse eyrr, a gravelly bank by a river or a promontory, Swed ör, Dan. örr. tiur, mark of sea on shor, tear, stamp (Carm.).

tlachd, pleasure, so Ir., M. Ir. tlacht: tḷ-ko-, "willing", from toil, will, q.v. O. Ir. todlugud, petitio, tothlaigim, I desire, is from *tloq-, of altach.

tlàm, teaze (wool), handful of wool. Strachan and Stokes give the stem as *tlagm (read tlâg-s-m-) allied to Ger. flocke, flock of wool, Eng. flock.

tlàth, mild, smooth, Ir. tlaith (tláith, O'B.), tlath, E. Ir. tlaith, W. tlawd: *tlâti-, "long-suffering", from tel, bear, endure; Gr. τλητός, tláw, endure; Lat. tollo, raise, tuli, lâtus (for *tlâtus), borne; Eng., Sc. thole.

tlìgheachd, liquid, spume: t-lighe?

tlus, pity, tenderness, M. Ir. tlusach, wealthy, W. tlws, jewel (Stokes), E. Ir. tlus (S.n.R.); from root tḷ, tel of tlàth, q.v.

tnùth, envy, Ir., E. Ir. tnúth; from the root ten, stretch: "grasping"?

to-, do-, verbal prefix = to, ad, Ir., O. Ir. to-, do-. Stokes compares Gothic du- to, from þu (?). W. has du-, dy-, y, Cor. dhi, Br. do, da.

tòbairt, flux, diarrhœa spasms: to-fo-od-ber-t, root ber of beir.

toban, wreath of wool or flax on a distaff; from Sc. tappin.

tobar, a well, Ir. tobar, O. Ir. topur, fons: *to-od-bur, root bhur, bhru, to well, boil; Gr. φúρω, mix; Lat. ferveo, well, Eng. fervid; Skr. bhur, move quickly: further see root bhru in bruith, and bhrev in tiobar. Some have referred tobar to the root ber of inbhir, abar (obair).

tobha, a rope, from Sc. tow, rope, Eng. tow, pull, Norse tog, rope, Lat. duco.

tobhta, tota, turf, roofless walls, knoll; from Norse toft, topt, a clearing, a space enclosed by roofless walls, Eng. toft, tuft, and top.

tobhta, tota, a rower's bend; from Norse þopta.

toch, hough or thigh of an animal: *t-hoch, from the Sc. hough.

tochail, dig, Ir. tochuilim, tochlaim: *to-cladh; see cladh.

tochar, tochradh, dowry, ir. tochar, M. Ir. tocra, (acc.); cf. O. Ir. tochur, placing, from cuir, put. The idea is "something assigned to one". Hence Sc. tocher.

tòchd, tòch, an unpleasant smell, tòchar or tàchar, dense volume of smoke (Arg.); root stou, as in toth.

tòchd, a disease of the eye in cattle; cf. Sc. hock (H.S.D.).

tochmharc, a wooing, so Ir., O. Ir. tochmarc: *to-com-arc; see for root iomchorc.

tocsaid, a hogshead; from the Eng.

todan, small tuft of wool (Lewis); N. toddi, a tod of wool. So Badenoch.

todhar, manure, a bleaching, seaweed for manure, Ir. tuar, a bleach-green, tuarachan, a bleacher:

todhlair, mastiff, better tobhlair:

tog, raise, togail, liftin, Ir. tógaim, tógbhail, E. Ir. tócbaim: *to-od-gab-im-, from gab, gabh, take, q.v.

togair, desire, Ir. togairim, please, choose, G. inf. togradh, Ir. togra: *to-od-gar, root gar of goir.

toghaidh, attention, care (H.S.D.); a variant of taidhe.

toghlainn, exhalation (M'A.); cf. tòch.

toithbheum, reproach, blasphemy, Ir. toibhéim, blemish, reproach, E. Ir. toibeim: *to-béim, from béim, that is, beum, q.v.

toic, wealth, riches, Ir. toice; cf. taic.

tòic, a swelling, a puffed up state of the face:

tòiceil, purse-proud; from tòic.

toichiosdal, arrogance (Sh., O'B.); see tostal.

toigh, agreeable, cordi (mihi est), docha, preferable, is docha leam, I prefer, O. Ir. toich, acceptus, tochu, acceptior: *to-gus-, root gus, choose, as inn tagh. It has also been analysed as *do- sech, or *do-fech, roots seq, veq? Stokes derives this from *togi-s, root tag, take, Lat. tango, etc.

toil, will, Ir. toil, O. Ir. tol: *tolâ, root tel, take, lift, endure; Lat. tollo, tolero; Eng. thole, tolerate, etc. See tlachd, tlàth.

toill, deserve, Ir. tuillim, O. Ir. tuillim, atroilli, asroille, meruit, later do-sli, meruit, from sli (Thur., Strachan).

toimhseachan, a riddle, Ir. toimseachán, a riddle, measure; from tomhas, q.v.

toimhsean, good sense, toimhseil, sensible (Suth.); from tomhas.

toinisg, understanding:

toinn, twist; from Norse tvinna, twinne, twist thread, Eng. twine.

toinneamh, the miller's share of meal for grinding (S. Argyle):

tòir, tòrachd, pursuit, Ir., E. Ir. tóir, Ir. tóruigheachd, tóireacht: *to-fo-racht, root reg of éirich. Rhys agrees. Cf. O. Ir. toracht, successus, processus (= to-racht), tíarmóracht, pursuit (*to-iarm-fo-racht). From Ir. tóruighe, pursuer, comes Eng. Tory.

toirbheart, efficiency, bounty, Ir. toirbheart, gift, munificence; see tairbheartach for the roots.

tòirleum, a mighty leap; cf. E. Ir. tairlingim, jump out of, jump off, alight, turlaim (inf.): *to-air-ling-, for which see leum. Hence tòirlinn, alight (M'A.).

toirm, a noise, Ir. toirm, tormán, E. Ir. toirm, tairm: *tor-s-men, root tor of torrunn. Cf. W. twrf, tyrfan, tumult, Lit. tarmė, declaration. Cf. seirm, foirm.

toirmisg, forbid, so Ir., M. Ir. tairmiscim, prohibit, hinder: *tarmi-sc, from tarmi, the composition form of tar, across, and sc or sec, say, as in caisg.

toirn, toirne, a great noise, sound, Ir. tóirn; root tor of torrunn.

toirnichte, foetid, "high" (Wh.):

toirp, a sod (M'A.); from Norse torf, Eng. turf.

toirrcheas, conception (Bible):

toirsgian, a peat-cutting spade, toirpsgian (M'A.); a hybrid from Norse torf, turf, peat, and G. sgian. Cf. Norse torf-skeri, peat-cutter.

toirt, respect, value, taste, Ir. toirt, quantity, value:

toirt, giving; for tabhairt. See tabhair, thoir.

toiseach, the beginning, front, Ir. tosach, O. Ir. tossach, initium. See the next word.

tòiseach, a beginning, a chief, Ir. toiseach, a captain, O. Ir. tóisech, praestans, leader, W. tywysog, dux, princeps, Welsh Ogmic tofisac and tovisaci (Lat.): *to-vessiko-s, root ved, lead, bring; Lit. wedù, lead, Ch. Sl. vedą, duco; Zd. vádhayeiti, bring, lead. O. Ir. has also do-fedim, I lead.

toisg, an occasion, opportunity, Ir. toisg, circumstances, state, journey, business, M. Ir. toisc, business, O. Ir. toisc, necessity: *to-sech, root seq, follow, as in seach.

toisgeal, the left, unlucky:

toisgeal, reward for finding a lost thing; see taisgeal.

toit, smoke, fume, Ir. tóit, M. Ir. tutt, smoke: *tutto-, root tu, stu, Eng. steam? See toth.

toitean, a little heap; from Eng. tuft. In the sense of "piece of flesh", Ir. tóiteán, this is from tóit, roast, smoke (see toit), scarcely to be derived from Fr. tôt, hastily roasted, from Lat. tostus.

tolg, tulg, a hollow in metal, dent, Ir. tolc, hole, crevice, E. Ir. tolc, W. tolc. Rhys says W. is borrowed.

toll, a hole, Ir., E. Ir. toll, W. twll, Br. toull: *tukslo-, root tuk, pierce, punch; Gr. τúκος, hammer; Ch.Slav. root tuk, pierce, is-tŭknati, effodere, tŭkalo, cuspis.

toll-dhubh, tollbooth, a gaol; from the Eng.

tolm, a hillock of round form; from Norse hólmr, a holm, islet, "inch", Sc. holm, Eng. holm, Ag. S. holm, mound, billow, Ger. holm, hill.

tom, a hillock, Ir. tom, M. Ir. tomm, W. tom, Br. das-tum, to heap: *tumbo-, hillock; Gr. τúμβος, cairn, mound, Eng. tomb; Skr. tunga, high, hight; further Lat. tumulus. W. tom has been regarded as from the Eng. tomb. But stom, Skr. stamba, "busch".

tomad, tomult, bulk; see somalta.

tomh, offer, threaten, M. Ir. tomaithim, O. Ir. tomad, g. tomtho, minationes: *to-mat-, root mat, throw, Lit. metù, throw.

tomhas, measure, so Ir., O. Ir. tomus: *to-mus, where mus (*messu-) comes from root met, , measure; Lat. mêtior, mensus, Eng. measure; Gr. μέτρον, a measure. Allied is G. meas, q.v.

tomult, bulk; also tomad. Cf. somalta, large, bulky:

tòn, anus, Ir., E. Ir. tón, W. tin: *tuknâ, tûkno- (Welsh), root teuk, Ag. S. þeóh, Eng. thigh, Teut. *theuha- (Strachan, ATokes); from root tu, swell.

tonn, a wave, Ir., E. Ir. tond, O. Ir. tonn, W., Corn. ton, Br. tonn: *tunnâ, root tu, swell; Lit. tvanas, a flood, tvinti, swell; further Lat. tumeo, swell, Eng. thumb. Stokes gives the Celtic as *tundâ, Ag. S. þeótan, howl, Norse þjóta, whistle (as the wind, etc.). Some have correlated it with Lat. tundo, beat, root tund, tud, Skr. tud-, push.

tonn, †toinnte, skin, Ir. tonn, hide, skin, E. Ir. tonn, skin, surface, W. tonn, cutis, Br. tonnenn, rind, surface, hair of the head: tunnâ, skin, hide, whence possibly Low Lat. (9th cent.) tunna, a cask, "wine-skin", now Eng. ton.

tonnag, a wonam's shawl or plaid; from Lat. tunica. Cf. M. Ir. tonach, tunic.

tora, augur, Ir. tarachair, E. Ir. tarathar, O.Cor. tarater, W. taradr, Br. tarazr, tarar: *taratro-; Gr. τέρετρον; Lat. terebra: root ter, through, as in thar.

toradh, produce, fruit, so Ir., O. Ir. torad: *to-rad, from *rato-, root rat, ra, give, as in rath, q.v.

toranach, grub-worm, Ir. torain, corn maggots (O'B.), torán (Con., etc.); from tor, bore, as in tora?

torc, a boar, Ir., O. Ir. torc, W. twrch, cor. torch, Br. tourc'h, O. Br. turch: *t-orko-s, from *orko-, in uircean, q.v.: I. E. porko-s, swine, Lat. porcus, Lit. parsza-s, Eng. farrow. Stokes gives Celtic as *torko-s, Jubainvill as *turco-s.

torc, a cleft, notch (Carm.):

torcan, species of bere, biforked corrot, Ir. turcan? (Carm.):

torchar, a fall, killing, torchuir (vb.), Ir. torchair, fell, O. Ir. torchar, I fell, doro-chair, cecidit, ara-chrinim, difficiscor, root ker, Skr. çar, break to pieces, çṛnā́mi, break; see crìon.

torghan, a purling sound; from tor of torrunn.

tòrr, a hill of conic form, heap, castle, Ir. tor, tower, castle, crest, E. Ir. tor, tuir, d. turid, a tower, W. twr, Cor. tur, Br. tour: *turi-, *turet-, I. E. root tver, hold, enclose, Lat. turris, Gr. τúρσις, tower. Some hold that the Celtic is borrowed from Lat. G. tòrr, with rr, is possibly for torth (cf. *turet-). It also means "crowd" in G. and E. Ir., and "heap" also in W.

torrach, pregnant, Ir. torrach, pregnant, fruitful, E. Ir. torrach: *torth-aco-, from *torato-, toradh, fruit, q.v. W. torwy big-bellied, has been compared, from tor, belly, G. tàrr.

tòrradh (torradh, H.S.D.), burial, funeral solemnities, Ir. tórradh, watching or waking of the dead, E. Ir. torroma, attending, watching:

torrunn, thunder, Ir. toran, a great noise, E. Ir. torand, thunder, W. tarann, Cor. taran, tonitruum: *toranno-s; Gr. τόρος, sound; Lit. tàrti, say. Gaul. Taranis, the Gaulish Jove or Thor, and G. tàirneanach show an a grade of the root.

tosd, silence, so Ir., O. Ir. tost: *tusto-, root tus, teus, whence E. Ir. , tua, silent; O.Pruss. tussîse, silet, Ch.Slav. tichu, silent; Skr. tush, silere, tushnîm, silently. tòs, calm = clos (Hend.).

tosg, a tusk; from the Eng.

tosg, a hack, gash, dent (Wh.):

tosg, a peat-cutter (Dial.); from Sc. tusk in tusk-spawd (Banff), tuskar (Ork. and Sh.), tusk, cut peats. Cf. Shet. tushker, from N. torfskeri, turf-cutter.

tosgair, an ambassador or post, Ir. toisg, a journey, business. See toisg.

tostal, arrogance, Ir. tósdal, toichiosdal (O'B.), O. Ir. tochossol, violation: *to-con-sal, from sal, leap (see tuisleadh)? Also toichiosdal.

tota, rower's bench, turf; see tobhta.

toth, a foul blast of vapour, also stoth, q.v.; see toit for root.

trabhach (tràbhach, M'F.), rubbish cast ashore, the grass fiorin; from tràigh? Cf., however, drabhas. tràibheanach, bedraggled fellow (R.D.). Cf. Sc. drab.

trabhailt, mill-hopper (M'A.); possibly from Lat. trabula.

trachdadh, negotiation, proposal, so Ir.; from Lat. tracto, treat.

trachladh, fatique; from Sc. trachle, draggle, fatiguing exertion.

tradh, a lance, fishing spear, Ir. tradh, lance, treagh, spear; from the root tar, tra (see thar), through, Lat. trâgula, a dart.

tràigh, the shore, Ir. tráigh, E. Ir. tráig: *trâgi-; see traogh.

tràill, a slave, Ir. traill (O'B.), M. Ir. tráill (not well known to glossographers); from Norse þraell, Eng. thrall.

traille, the fish tusk:

trait, tròidht, a poultice, cataplasm, rag, Ir. treata (tréata, Con.), plaster:

tramailt, a whim (M'A.):

trang, busy; from Sc. thrang, Eng. throng.

traod, one wasting away with sickness (Hend.); cf. Ir. (Keat. traothaim, wear out, am weary.

traogh, ebb, Ir. tráighim, traoghaim, E. Ir. trágim, W. treio, ebb, trai, ebb-tide, traeth, shore: *trâgô, from trâg, I. E. tragh, draw, Lat. traho, etc.; see troidh for root.

traona, the corncrake, Ir. traona; see trèan-ri-trèan.

trapan, a cluster, Ir. trapán:

trasd, across, trasdan, cross beam, crozier, O. Ir. trost, trabs, from tar, tra of thar. Cf. W. trawst, rafter, which Stokes and Loth think to be borrowed from Lat. transtrum, as also O. Ir. trost mentioned above. Sc. has trast or trest, beam, from early Fr. traste, Lat. transtrum.

trasg, a fast, Ir. trosgadh, O. Ir. troscud: *truskô, *trud-skô, root trud, distress, burden, Lat. trûdo, push, Eng. threaten. See trod, trom.

tràth, time, season, Ir., E. Ir. tráth: *trâtu-, root tra, tar, through (see thar). Cf. W. tro, turn, time, Br. tro, occasion, round; Eng. turn.

tre, through, Ir. tré, tre, E. Ir. tré, tria, tri, O. Ir. tri, trí, tre, O. W. troi, now trwy, Cor., Br. dre, O. Br. tre, dre: *trei, *tri, root ter, pass over, through; Lat. trans, across; Skr. tirás, through, over, Zd. tarô (do.). See the root in thar, tora, troimh; also in Eng. through.

treabh, plough, till, Ir. treabhaim, E. Ir. trebaim, inhabit, cultivate, treb, a dwelling, W. tref, homestead, O. W., O. Br. treb: *trebo-, a house; Lat. tribus, trebus, a tribe, Eng. tribe; Eng. thorp; Lit. trobà, dwelling, building. Hence treabhair, houses, treibhireach, prudent.

treabha, a thrave; from Norse þrefi, Eng. thrave.

treachail, dig, treachladh (1) digging (2) fatiguing: *tre-clad; for (1) see cladh and cf. tochail; from (2) cf. Sc. trachle.

treaghaid, a darting pain, stitch, Ir. treagh(d)aim, I pierce through, M. Ir. treghat, pangs, smart, treaglad, transpiercing; Ir. treagh, a spear: "piercing". See tradh.

trealaich, lumber, trash, Ir. trealamh, lumber, apparel, instruments, E. Ir. trelam, weapons, furniture, apparel: *tre-lam; for lam, see ullamh.

trealais, the spleen (M'F.):

trèalamh, indisposition (M'F.):

trealbhaidh, adult, grown-up (M'A. for Islay):

treall, treallan, a short space or time, Ir. treall, M. Ir. trell, root ter, through, Eng. thrill, pierce.

trèan-ri-trèan, corn-crake, Ir. traona:

treann, cut (Carm.):

treas, third, Ir. treas, O. Ir. tress: *tristo-, from tris, thrice, Gr. τρίς, Skr. tris, root tri of tri, three. W. trydydd, third, is for *tritijo-s.

treas, battle, skirmish, Ir. treas, E. Ir. tress. For root, cf. the next word. W. has trîn, battle, bustle, treis, violence.

treasa, stronger, Ir. treas, strong, treise, stronger, O. Ir. tressa, W. trech, fortior, Br. trec'h: *treksjôs, fortior, root treg, streg, sterg, strong, Eng. stark, Lit. strėgti, stiffen, Pers. suturg (*stṛg), strong. Stokes refers it to the root treg, trag, draw, leap, as in troigh, traogh. See treun further; treasa is its comparative really.

treasdach, thorough-paced (of a horse); cf. Ir. trosdán, a pace, jump; root treg, draw, walk, as in troigh.

treasg, refuse of brewed malt, groats, Ir. treasúmha, dross, copper dross, treascach, draffy, M. Ir. tresc, refuse, offal: *tre-sco?

treibhireach (treibhdhireach, Dictionaries), prudent, upright, O. Ir. trebar, prudent, M. Ir. trebaire, prudence; from treb of treabh, q.v.

tréig, forsake, Ir. tréigim, E. Ir. trécim, W. trancu, perish: *trankjô, abandon, root trak, push, press, as in dùrachd (Stokes).

treis, a while, space, also greis, Ir. treibhse, dreibhse (O'B.), treimhse (Con.); see greis.

treisg, treisginn, weaver's paste, trash (M'A., Arg.), Ir. treisgin (con., etc.), dreislinn (Monaghan); cf. Sc. dressing.

treodhair, a smith's nail mould, Ir. treóir, treoir; from tre, trem, through?

treòir, strength, Ir. treóir, conduct, strength, M. Ir. treorach, strong, E. Ir. treóir, vigour: *treg-ri-, root treg of treasa.

treòraich, guide, Ir. treóruighim, M. Ir. treoraigim: *trag-ri-, root trag of troigh?

treubh, a tribe; from Lat. trǐbus, a tribe. See treabh.

treubhach, valorous, strenuous, treubhantas, bravery; for *treuntas, from which treubhach is deduced. M'Kinnon (Gael.Soc.Tr.13, 341) refers it to treubh, tribe.

treud, flock, herd, Ir. tréad, treud, E. Ir. trét: *trento-, root trem, Lat. turma, troop, Ag. S. þruma, heap, company (Strachan, Stokes). Windisch has compared Gr. στρατός (*strṇtos) to treud.

treun, brave, Ir. treun, O. Ir. trén, fortis, W. tren, strenuous, force: *tregno-, root treg of treasa, q.v. Stokes gives the Celtic as *treksno-, which would produce *tresno-, modern treann.

tri, three, Ir., O. Ir. treí, W. tri, Cor. try, Br. tri: *treis; Lat. três (*trei-es); Gr. τρεῖς; Got. þreis, Eng. three; Lit. trýs; Skr. tráyas.

triall, going, journey, Ir. tríall, E. Ir. triall: *tri-all, "go-through", root ell of tadhal?

trian, third part, a third, Ir., E. Ir. trían, W. traian: *treisano-; see treas, tri.

triath, lord, chief, E. Ir. tríath: *treito-s. Stokes compares Lat. trîtavus, strîtavus, ancestor in the 6th degree.

tric, frequent, often, Ir. tric, E. Ir. trice: *trekki-, root treg of troigh (Stokes, Strachan).

trid, trìd, through, by, Ir. tríd, E. Ir. trít, per eum, id: *trei-t, from root trei of tre, through; the final -t is the demonstrative pron. to (Eng. that, Gr. το); a pron. *em-ti, *en-ti (Stokes).

trìd, rag, clout, stitch; "Cha'n 'eil trìd air":

trileanta, thrilling, quavering; cf. E. Ir. trílech, song, O. Ir. trírech, song of birds. Cf. Eng. trill, Ital. trillare, Sp. trinar: an initiative word, Eng. thrill is from the root tre, ter (see tora), "piercing", which may also be the ultimate origin of the G. words.

trilis, locks of hair, Ir. trilis (obs.), E. Ir. triliss; cf. Eng. tress, from Lat. tricia, trica, plait, Gr. τρίχα, in three parts, root tri, three.

trill, sand plover (Heb., Miss Freer):

trìlleachan, trìleachan (drilleachan, M'A.), the pied oyster-catcher, sea-piet:

trillsean (drillsean, M'A.), lantern, rush-light, a glimmer, Ir. triliseán, torch, lantern, earlier trilsen, facula, trillsech, sparkling: "piercing", from tre, ter, as in trileanta?

trinnseir, a plate, trencher, Ir. trinsiur; from Eng. trencher.

trioblaid, trouble, tribulation, Ir. trioblóid, E. Ir. tréblait; from Lat. tribulatio, Eng. tribulation.

triobuail, vibrate, quiver; from Eng. tremble?

trionaid, a trinity, Ir. tríonóid, tríonoid, E. Ir. trínóit, O. Ir. trindóit; from Lat. trinitât-, trinitas, a trinity, from tres, three. The Gadelic is developed from *trin(i)tâti-.

treubhas, trews, trousers, Ir. triús, M. Ir. tribus, O. Ir. trebus, breeches, L. Lat. tubrucus (Isidor), tribuces (Du Cange), "thigh breeches" (D' Arbois); from Sc. trews, Eng. trooze, trouses, now trousers, trunkhose.

triùcair, a rascal; from Sc. truker, trukier, a deceitful person, from O. Fr. tricher, to trick, allied to Eng. trick.

triuchan, a stripe of distinguishing colours in tartan:

triuthach, triuth (M'F.), hooping cough, triogh (M'A.), a fit of laughing or coughing, Ir. triuch, trioch: root pster of sreothart?

trobhad, come thou hither to me; opposite of thugad: *to-ro'-ad, *to-romh-t, "to before you"?

tròcair, mercy, Ir., O. Ir. trócaire, W. trugaredd, Cor. tregereth, M. Br. trugarez, O. W. trucarauc, merciful: *trougo-karja, "loving of the wretched", from the roots of truagh and car, love.

trod, a quarrel, scolding, Ir. troid, M. Ir. trot, quarrel, combat, trottach, quarrelsome: *truddo-, root trud, distress, bother; Eng. threat, Norse þrjóta, fail, lack; Lat. trûdo, push, Eng. obtrude; Ch. Sl. trudŭ, difficulty.

trog, raise, trogail, raising, Manx troggal, earlier trogell: to-ro-od-gab, that is to say, tog with the prep. ro inserted. See tog. Rhys (Manx Pray.2, 138) compares E. Ir. turcbál, a rising (as of the sun): *to-for-gab-.

trog, trash (Dial.), busy dealing, tròg, busy dealing, from Sc. troke, to bargain, barter, trog, old clothes, troggin, pedlar's wares, Eng. truck, from Fr. troquer, barter, truck.

trogbhoil, grumbling (M'A.), trògbhail, quarrel (Nich., trogbhail, Arm., Sh., O'R.):

troich, a dwarf; see droich.

tròidht, cataplasm, rags, shapeless worn shoe (Skye); see trait.

troigh, misspelt troidh, a foot, Ir. troigh, O. Ir. traig, g. traiged, W. traed, O.Cor. truit, pes, M. Br. troat: *traget- (*troget-?), foot, root trag, leap, draw, Gaul. vertragos, greyhound; I. E. tragh; Got. þραγjαν, run, Ag. S. þrah, course; Lat. traho, draw.

troileis, any trifling thing; founded on Eng. trifles?

troimh, through, O. Ir. tremi-, trans-, super-: *trimo-, from tri of tre. For the mi or mh, cf. roimh, comh-.

trom, heavy, Ir. trom, O. Ir. tromm, W. trwm, Cor. trom, Br. troum: trud-s-mo-s, "oppressive", from trud, oppress, distress; Got. us-þriutan, oppress, Eng. threat; Lat. trûdo, push. See trod further. For other views, see Rhys' Lect.2, 114, Zimmer Zeit.24, 208.

troman, dwarf, elder, Ir. tromán, tromm, g. truimm; also G. droman (M'A.):

tromb, the Jew's harp; from Sc. trump (do.), Eng. trump, from Fr. trompe.

trombaid, a trumpet, Ir. trompa, L.M. Ir. trompadh; from the Eng.

troraid, a spire, steeple (M'F.); founded on Eng. turret.

trosdail, dull, seriously inclined, Ir. trosdamhuil, serious, confident.

trosdan, a crutch, support, Ir. trostán, crutch, pilgrim's staff, W. trostan, long slender pole. See trasd for root.

trosg, a codfish, Ir. trosg; from Norse þroskr, Dan. torsk, Ger. dorsch.

trot, trot, trotan, trotting; from the Eng.

truacantas, compassion, Ir. truacánta (O'B.): *troug-can-, "expressing pity", from truagh and can, say.

truagh, wretched, pitiful, so Ir., E. Ir. trúag, O. Ir. tróg, W. tru, Corn. troc, miser, Br. tru, Gaul. Trôgos: *trougo-, miser, root streug, rub, wear; Gr. στρεúγομαι, am worn out, distressed; Ch. Sl. strugati, scratch, distress, Lit. strugas, carving instrument; Norse strjúka, to stroke, Ger. straucheln, stumble (Windisch, Prellwitz). Stokes refers it to the root of Norse þrúga, press, þrúgan, compulsion, O. H. G. drûh, compes. From Celtic comes Eng. truant.

truaill, a sheath, so Ir., E. Ir. trúaill: *troud-s-li-, root treud, trud, push; Eng. thrust, Lat. trûdo. See further trod, trom.

truaill, pollute, violate, Ir. trúaillim, E. Ir. trúalnim, O. Ir. druáilnithe, corruptus, œllned, inquinatio, illuvies, élnithid, violator, from éln-, O. Ir. as-lenaimm, pollue, G. root len (lēn, Ascoli), fœdare (Lat. lino, smear, as in lean?). Ascoli analyses truaill into der-uad-lēn (der- intensive), while Thurneysen refers the tru-, dru- to the root of Lat. trux, trucis. dru-es-lén (Stokes). E. Ir. trú, wretched, Eng. throe (Stokes).

trudair, a stammerer, a dirty or obscene person, Ir. trudaire, a stammerer (Lh., O'B., Con.). In the first sense, the word is Ir.; in the second sense, it is G. only, and likely of the same origin as trusdar. Norse þrjótr, knave, bad debtor, has been adduced as its origin.

truilleach, a dirty or base person, filthy food: *trus-lic-, root trus as in trusdar? Or from Sc. trolie, a person of slovenly habits, trollop?

truis, tear, snatch, truss; from Sc. truss, to eat in a slovenly, scattering fashion (Ork.), Icel. tros, Eng. trash. In the sense of "truss", the G. is from Eng. truss. Hence the cry to dogs to get out - truis!

trùp, a troop; from the Eng.

trus, truss or bundle, collect, Ir. trusdalaim, truss up, girdle, W. trwsa, a truss; from Eng. truss, O. Fr. trusser, from L. Lat. tortiare, tortus, twisted. See also triubhas.

trusdar, a filthy fellow, filth; cf. Ir., E. Ir. trist, curse, profligacy, L. Lat. tristus, improbus.

trusgan, clothes, apparel, Ir. truscán, trosgán, clothes, furniture; founded on trus. Cf. Eng. trousseau from the same origin.

truthair, a traitor, villain; from Sc. trucker, deceiver, trickster? Or from Eng. traitor? Cf. trudair.

tu, thu, thou, Ir., O. Ir. , W. ti, Corn. ty, te, Br. te: *tû; Lat. ; Gr. ; Eng. thou; Pruss. tou; Zd. .

tuagh, axe, so Ir., M. Ir. tuag, túagach, hitting: *tougâ root teügh, tuq, hit, strie; Gr. τεúχω, fashion, τúκος, hammer, τυκάνη, flail; Ch. Sl. tŭalo, cuspis. Stokes prefers comparison with Skr. tuj, hit (*tug).

tuaicheal, dizziness, tuachioll (Sh.), winding, eddying, moving against the sun, left-about: *to-fo-cell (for cell, see timchioll, Ir. tuachail, going, confused with *tuath-cell, "left (north) going"? Cf. tuaineal.

tuaileas, reproach, scandal, so Ir. (Lh., O'B., etc.): *to-fo-less; from *lisso-, blame, discussed under leas-?

tuailt, tubhailt, a towel; Ir. tudhoille; from the Eng.

tuainig, unloose (Dial.); see tualaig.

tuaineal, dizziness, stupor, Ir. toinéall, swoon, trance (Dineen): *to-fo-in-el, root ell of tadhal? Or *to-fo-neul?

tuaiream, a guess, aim, vicinity, Ir. tuairim; also tuairmse: *to-for-med-, root med fo meas.

tuaireap, turbulence:

tuairgneadh, confusion, sedition, Ir. tuargán, noise, discontent:

tuairisgeul, description, report, Ir. tuarasgbháil, M. Ir. túarascbal, description, O. Ir. tuárascbaim, for to-for-as-gab-, root gab of gabh.

tuairmeis, hit on, discover: *do-fo-air-mess; see eirmis.

tuairneag, anything round, a boss, tidy female, tuairnean, a mallet, beetle, Ir. tuairnín, mallet; cf. next word.

tuairnear, a turner, Ir. túrnóir; from the Eng.

tuaisd, a dolt, sloven, tuaisdeach, unseemly:

tuaitheal, wrong, left-wise, Ir. tuaithbhil, E. Ir. tuathbil; from tuath and seal: see deiseil for latter root and form. Ir. has tuathal, the left hand, awkward.

tualaig, loose (Arm.), have flux, tuanlaig (n elided, Perth), tuanaig, tuanag, loosening (Dial.): from leig, *to-fo-leig.

tuam, tuama, a tomb, Ir. tuama; from Lat. tumba, Eng. tomb.

tuar, food, O. Ir. tuare: *taurio-, root staur, place, store, Eng. store, Skr. sthávara, fixed: root sta.

tuar, hue, appearance; cf. Ir., M. Ir. tuar, an omen, presage: *to-vor-, root ver, vor, of fhuair?

tuarasdal, wages, so Ir., M. Ir. tuarustul, tuarastal: *to-fo-ar-as-tal, root tal, tel, take, lift, M. Ir. taile, salarium, W. tâl, payment, Cor., Br. tal, solvit; I. E. tel; Gr. τέλος, tax, τάλαντον, talent; Lat. tollo; Eng. thole. See tail, tlàth.

tuasaid, a quarrel, fight, Ir. fuasaoid, animosity, spite, E. Ir. fúasait, "entwickelung", development: to-fo-ad-sedd-, G. root sedd from sizd, si-sed, set, "set-to" being the idea? Root sed of suidhe. But cf. faosaid.

tuasgail, loose, untie, Ir. tuaslagadh, releasing, E. Ir. tuaslaicim: *to-fo-as-léc-im, from lēc of leig, let, q.v.

tuath, people, tenantry, so Ir., O. Ir. túath, populus, W. tud, country, nation, Cor. tus, Br. tud, Gaul. Tout-, Teuto-: *toutâ, people; Lat. Umbr. toto, state, Oscan túvtú, populus, Lat. tôtus, all; Got. þiuda, people, Teutonic, Deutsch, German, Dutch; Lettic táuta, people, O. Pruss. tauto, land.

tuath, north, Ir. tuath, tuaith, O. Ir. túath, left, north: *toutâ, *touto-s (adj.), left hand, left, "good", Got. þiuþ, good; cf. Gr. εὐώνυμος, left hand, "good-omened". Rhys (Manx Pray. 2, 62) suggests that the root is su, turn (see iompaidh): *do-hūth (*to-su-), "turning to"; W. aswy or aseu, left hand, being also hence - *ad-sou-i-.

tuba, a tub; from the Eng.

tubaist, mischance, M. G. tubbiste (D. of L.), Arran G. tiompaiste, Ir. tubaiste:

tuban, tuft of wool on the distaff; see toban.

tùch, smother, become hoarse, tùchan, hoarseness: *t-úch; cf. W. ig, sob, hiccup.

tudan, a small heap or stack (dud, M'A.):

tug, brought; see thug.

tugaidean, witticisms (Dial., H.S.D.):

tugha, thatch, covering, tugh (vb.), Ir. tuighe (n.), tuighim (vb.), E. Ir. tuga, tugim, W. to, a cover, thatch, toi, tegere, cor. to, tectum, Br. to, tenn: *togio-, *togo-, root toꬶ, steꬶ, as in tigh, teach.

tughag, a patch:

tuig, understand, Ir. tuigim, O. Ir. tuiccim, tuiccim, tuccim: *to-od-ges- root ges of tug. some have given the stem as *to-od-cesi, root qes of chì; but this would give G. tuic. O. Ir. tuicse, electus: *to-od-gus-, root gus, taste, Eng. gusto.

tuil, a flood, Ir., O. Ir. tuile: *tuliâ, root tu, swell; Gr. τúλος, knob, weal; Skr. tûla, tuft, Eng. thumb, tumid, etc. (See tulach). So Stokes Zeit.31, 235. The O. Ir. root ōl, to flood, abound, gives tólam, a flood, imról, foróil, abundance, etc. The root pol, pel has also been suggested, as in iol-.

tuilis, overloading stomach (Carm.):

tuille, tuilleadh, more (n.), Ir. tuille, tuilleadh, addition, tuilleamh, wages, addition, E. Ir. tuilled, tuillem, addition, inf. to tuillim, enhance, deserve, as in G. toill. Two words are mixed: to-eln-, deserve, and to-oln, much, more, E. Ir. oll, great, huilliu, plus, *olniôs, root pol, pel, many, Gr. πολúς, Lat. plus etc. (see iol). Stokes equates the O. Ir. uilliu, oll, with Lat. pollere, which is from *pol-no-, root pol as above (Wharton). The G. syntax of tuille shows its comparative force in tuille na (more than) as well as tuille agus, Ir. tuilleadh agus (addition and).

tuimhseadh, beating, thumping, tuinnse, a blow (Gael. Soc. Tr.15, 260), M. Ir. tuinsim, calco, tuinsem, bruising, *to-ud-nessim (Str.); founded on Lat. tundo, beat. Stokes queries if cognate.

tuineadh, an abode, possession, Ir. tuinidhe, possession (O'Cl.), E. Ir. tunide; also tuineadh (Ir. and G.): *to-nes-, root nes as in comhnuidh, q.v.

tuinneasach, deathful, Ir. tuinneamh, tuineamh, death:

tuinnidh, firm hard, Ir. tuinnidhe (O'B., Sh.), immovable, clocha tuinnidhe; from tuineadh, the idea being "settled, fixed".

tuir, relate, tuireadh, relating, Ir. tuirtheachda, relation, rehearsal, E. Ir. turthiud, pl. tuirtheta, tale, from ret, run (as in ruith). Cf. aithris, E.I. tuirem, reciting, is from *to-rím, root rīm, number (as in àireamh).

tuireadh, a dirge, lamentation, Ir. tuireamh, dirge, elegy; for root see tuirse.

tuireann, a spark of fire from an anvil, Ir. tuireann (O'B., etc.), E. Ir. turend (?): *to-rind? For rind, see reannag.

tuireasg, a saw, Ir. tuiriosg, E. Ir. turesc: *tar-thesc, from teasg, cut, q.v.

tuirl, tuirling, descend, Ir. tuirlingim, E. Ir. tairlingim, O. Ir. doarblaing, desilit *to-air-ling-; for ling, jump, see leum.

tuirse, sadness, Ir. tuirse, M. Ir. tor, sad, E. Ir. toirsi, torsi, O. Ir. toris, toirsech, tristis; root tor, ter, tre, Lat. tristis, sad.

tùis, incense, Ir., M. Ir., E. Ir. túis; from Lat. tūs, Gr. θúος.

tuisleadh, a stumbling, fall, so Ir., O. Ir. tuisled, prolapsio, tuisel, casus, dofuislim, labo: *to-fo-ess-sal-im, root sal, spring; Lat. salio, leap, dance, Eng. insult; Gr. ἅλλομαι, leap; cf. Lit. selḗti, glide, creep. Ascoli analyses it into *to-fo-isl-, where isl is what remains of ísel or ìosal, low.

tuit, fall, Ir. tuitim, O. Ir. tuitim, inf. tutimm, totman, also tothimm, *tod-tim, Gadelic root -tim-, W. codwm, a fall (cf. Ir. cudaim), codymu, cadere, Cor. codha; cf. Eng. tumble, Gr. tomber, fall. Usually explained as *to-fo-thét-, from théid, which would naturally be tuid in G., even granting that the crasis of -ofothé- simply landed in -ui-, not to mention the inf. in preserved m (tuiteam). Root tud (Thur.); to-ud = think.

tul, entirely, Ir. tul (i.e. tuile, O'Cl.), increase, flood: an adverbial use of the root form of tuil, flood? Cf. Ir. tola, superfluity.

tul, fire, hearth, heap (Carm.):

tulach, a hillock, Ir., E. Ir. tulach; root tu, swell; Gr. τúλος, knob, τùλη (u long), swelling, weal; Lat. tumor, tūber, a swelling; Eng. thumb.

tulag, the fish whiting, Ir. tullóg, the pollock; cf. pollag.

tulchann, tulchainn, a gable, posterior, Ir. tulchán, hillock; from tulach?

tulchuiseach, plucky (Hend.):

tum, dip, tumadh, dipping, so Ir., E. Ir. tummim: *tumbô; Lat. tinguo, tingo, wet, Eng. tinge, tincture; O. H. G. duncôn, dip, ger. tunken, dip, steep.

tunna, a tun, ton, Ir., E. Ir. tunna; Ag. S. tunne, M. Eng. tonne, Norse tunna, Ger. tonne; all from Lat. tunna, a cask. Stokes (Bez.Beit.18), suggests borrowing from the Norse; Kluge regards the words as of Celtic origin. On this see †tonn.

tunnachadh, beating, dashing; see tuimhseadh.

tunnag, a duck, Ir. tonnóg?

tunnsgadh, upheaval (R.D.):

tur, gu tur, entirely, Ir. tura, plenty (tura namhad, plenty of enemies), E. Ir. tor, a crowd (dat. tur); see tòrr.

tùr, a tower, Ir. túr; from M. Eng. tour, tūr, from O. Fr. tur, Lat. turris.

tùr, understanding; cf. M. Ir. túr, research, examination, O. Ir. túirim, rotuirset, scrutati sunt, for to-fo-shirim, from sir, search.

turadh, dry weather, tur, dry (without condiment), so Ir., E. Ir. turud, terad, adj. tur, dry, tair: root tor, ter of tioram?

turag, a trifling illness (as of a child) - Arg.:

turaman, rocking, nodding; see turraban.

turcais, tweezers (M'A.), pincers; see durcaisd.

turguin, destruction (H.S.D. from MSS.), M. Ir. tuarcain, smiting, E. Ir. tuarcaim (dat.), hitting: *to-fo-argim, root org, O. Ir. orgun, orcun, occisio, O. Br. orgiat, Cæsar's Gaul. Orgeto-rix: *urg-, root vṛg, verg, press, Lat. urgeo. Stokes suggests connection with Gr. ἐρέχθω, tear; Bezzenberger gives Zend areza, battle, fight; Brugmann compares Skr. ṛghāyati, raves, rages, O. H. G. arg, what is vile or bad.

turlach, a large fire: *t-ur-lach, from Ir. ur, úr, fire, Gr. πῦρ, Eng. fire.

turlach, a bulky, squat person; see tòrr, turadh. Cf. W. twrllach, a rounnd lump.

turlas, small cupboard (Perth); see tairleas.

turloch, a lake that dries in summer, Ir. turloch; from tur and loch.

tùrn,a turn, job; from the Eng.

turraban, turraman, rocking of the body, nodding, grief (turadan, Sh.). Hence turra-chadal, a slumbering drowsiness, "nodding sleep":

turrag, an accident:

turradh, a surprise, taking unnawares (Skye):

turraig, air do thurraig, at stool (M'A.):

turram, a soft sound, murmur; onnomatopoetic. But cf. toirm, torrunn.

turtur, a turtle, so Ir., W. turtur; from Lat. turtur.

turus, a journey, Ir., E. Ir. turus, O. Ir. tururas, incursus, aururas, properatio: *to-reth-s-tu, root ret, run (see ruith).

tùs, the beginning, Ir. tús, O. Ir. túus, tús, W. tywys, leading; see tòiseach.

tut, interjection of cold or impatience; from Eng. tut. See thud.

tùt, a quiet breaking of wind, stench, Ir. tút, M. Ir. tútt, stench: allied to toit, q.v. Cf. Keating's tútmhar, smoky.

tuthan, a slut (Arm., M'L.), Ir. túthan; from the root of the above word.