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Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/Kneeland, Samuel (naturalist)

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KNEELAND, Samuel, naturalist, b. in Boston, Mass., 1 Aug., 1821. He was graduated at Harvard in 1840, and at the medical department in 1843, taking the Boylston prize for his thesis on “Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever,” and again, in 1844, for his essay on “Hydrotherapy.” Subsequently he spent two years in professional studies in Paris, and then began the practice of his profession in Boston, meanwhile serving as demonstrator of anatomy in Harvard medical school during 1845-7, and as physician to the Boston dispensary. He then passed some time in Brazil, and also visited the Lake Superior copper region. During the civil war he entered the army as acting assistant surgeon from Massachusetts, was assigned to duty with Gen. Burnside, and accompanied the expedition to New Berne in March, 1862, after the capture of that place being assigned to duty at the Craven street hospital in New Berne, and at the hospital in Beaufort, N. C. In October, 1862, he was commissioned surgeon of the 45th Massachusetts regiment, and served in that capacity in New Berne till the regiment was discharged in July, 1863. He then entered the corps of surgeons of volunteers, and was placed in charge, successively, of the University hospital in New Orleans, and of the Marine hospital in Mobile. In 1866 he was mustered out of the service with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He then returned to Boston, and became associated in the work of the Massachusetts institute of technology, holding the office of instructor in 1867-'9 and professor of zoölogy and physiology in 1869-'78, also acting as secretary of the corporation in 1866-'78, and of secretary of the faculty in 1871-'8. Dr. Kneeland then returned to literary work and lecturing, which he has since followed in Boston and to the Philippine islands. He has travelled extensively in search of information concerning earthquakes and volcanic phenomena, having made visits to the Hawaiian islands and to Iceland in 1874, at the time of its millennial celebration, for this purpose. He is a member of numerous scientific societies, and has held the office of secretary to the American academy of arts and sciences, and to the Boston society of natural history. Dr. Kneeland has contributed largely to current medical literature, and was the author of many articles, mostly on zoölogical and medical subjects, in the “American Cyclopædia.” He edited the “Annual of Scientific Discovery” (1866-'9); a translation of Andry's “Diseases of the Heart” (Boston, 1847); and Smith's “History of the Human Species” (1852). His own works include “Science and Mechanism” (New York, 1854); “The Wonders of the Yosemite Valley and of California” (Boston, 1871); and “An American in Iceland” (1876).