Archaeological Journal/Volume 8/Proceedings at the Meetings of the Archaeological Institute (Part 1)
Proceedings at the Meetings of the Archaeological institute.
January 3, 1851.
Frederic Ouvry, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair.
Mr. T. Hudson Turner communicated a memoir entitled "Unpublished Notices relating to the Times of Edward I." It will be found in this volume, p. 45.
The Rev. E. L. Cutts gave a detailed account of an ancient mansion near Farnborough, in Kent, called Franks; and he submitted to the meeting numerous drawings, plans and elevations, illustrative of that interesting example of the domestic architecture of the sixteenth century.
Dr. Thurnam brought before the society a remarkable object of bronze, (see woodcut,) of a type hitherto known only by one other example; and which, as far as can be ascertained, does not occur in any continental collection. He gave the following particulars relative to its discovery:—
"The bronze object now exhibited was obtained from a labourer in Farndale, Yorkshire, N.R., by whom it had been found in the year 1849, whilst engaged in removing the stones from a cairn on the high moorland to the west of that dale. He stated that it was found near the bottom of the cairn, concealed in the cavity of a hollowed stone, which again was covered by a flat stone. Whether these stones and the object which they concealed had been placed near the centre or the exterior of the cairn did not appear. When found, it was stated to have contained 'nothing but a sort of ashes like decayed paper.' No other object, it was stated, has yet been found in this cairn; which, however, has probably been only in part removed. Like an adjacent remarkable cairn, known by the name of 'Hobthrush, or Hobtrush Rook,' which was examined several years since by some members of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, it had probably been erected over a stone cist, which may, as in that instance, have been surrounded by two concentric circles of stones. Rook, in the local dialect, signifies a heap of any kind.
"The probable conclusion is, that this curious object had been deposited in the place where it was found merely for the purpose of concealment, and that the cairn is of an earlier date.
"In the year 1837, in an ancient stone-quarry at Thorngrafton, near Hexham, in Northumberland, an object of the same kind was discovered. This has been figured by Mr. Akerman. in his 'Roman Coins relating to Britain,' and again by Mr. Bruce in his recent work on 'The Roman Wall.' Mr. Bruce describes it as a skiff-shaped vessel, or receptacle, about six inches long, with a circular handle. Like that from Farndale, it has a lid with a hinge at one end, and fastens with a spring at the other. In the Farndale example the spring or bolt has been lost, but the adjustment connected with it. and the hole into which the fastenings may have closed, are to be seen."In that from Thorngrafton were sixty-five Roman gold and silver coins, chiefly of the emperors, from Claudius to Hadrian. There can, I conceive, be little doubt that we here have examples of a species of Roman purse,—
ANTIQUITIES OF BRONZE.
The dimensions of this very curious object are as follow: greatest diameter, measured across the handle, 414 in.; greatest breadth of the lower part, or receptacle, measured across its cover, 2610 in.; breadth of the cover itself, 2 in.; diameter, from top of the handle to the lowest edge, or keel, of the receptacle, 414 in. All the inside edges of the handle are smoothly rounded off, and apparently worn by use; it seems possible that it might have been worn passed over the arm, and by this means the operculum would be kept securely in place, without risk of the monies falling out. No indication, however, of any such purse having been formerly in use has been discovered. The only objects bearing any resemblance to these bronze marsupia, noticed hitherto, are the little coffers (if they may be regarded as such) with one handle, carried in the left hand, as seen on several Gaulish sepulchral sculptures found in Burgundy or Lorraine. This has been usually explained by French antiquaries to be a little bucket (seau), possibly because the other hand usually holds a kind of cup. They are occasionally rectangular, and appear much more like a casket for precious objects than a seau. One of them, communicated by Calmet to Montfaucon, resembles a small basket; and, with the exception that the bottom is flat, has considerable analogy with the objects under consideration.
Mr. W. H. Clarke communicated a notice, accompanied by a drawing, relative to a small effigy of stone, supposed to represent one of the Vavasour family, which was placed in a niche in one of the buttresses at the east end of York Minster, being that nearest the north-east angle of the fabric. An escutcheon of the arms of Vavasour (a fesse dancetty) was affixed to the side of the niche, as shown in Britton's view of the east end, in his History of York Cathedral, Plate XI., and described at p. 45. Of this escutcheon, a drawing was sent by Mr. Clarke. The figure had been taken down, about November last, the restoration of the east end, now for several years in progress, having reached that part. It is intended to restore it by as exact a copy as can be produced. The effigy measures about 6 feet in height and 20 inches across the body; it had been repaired with cement, and is in a very defaced condition. The right hand rests upon the hilt of the sword. The Presbytery appears to have been erected between 1361 and 1370, and the choir from 1380 to 1400; the great eastern window being glazed in 1405. The frequent benefactions of the family of Vavasour, of Hazelwood Hall, near Tadcaster, appear by various statements in Browne's valuable History of the Minster; and it is stated especially that on several occasions they gave stone for the fabric from the quarries of Thevesdale, situate on the Vavasour estates. About 1225, Robert le Vavasour granted free passage for that purpose, as often as there should be occasion to repair or enlarge the church; and about 1302 and 1311, Sir William le Vavasour gave ample license for the supply of stone for various works. The liberality of the family was entitled to some conspicuous memorial, and, accordingly, over the great western door is found an effigy with the arms of Vavasour, placed with the statues of Archbishop Melton and of Robert de Percy. In the hands of the first is seen a rough block of ashlar, commemorative of the especial benefaction already mentioned. These effigies on the west front had been restored by Michael Taylor, a sculptor of York, during the renovation of that end of the Minster, carried out from about 1802 to 1816. At the east end, were likewise figures commemorative of the liberality of these families, one with the arms of Percy being at the south-east angle.
Mr. Waterhouse, of Dublin, communicated a notice of an unique fibula, discovered near Drogheda. He had most kindly brought the original to the apartments of the Institute, that members of the Society might have the gratification of examining this precious relic; but, being under the necessity of returning forthwith to Ireland, he had left for exhibition at this meeting an elaborate drawing, which he also presented to the Society. Dr. Petrie, in a Report to the Royal Irish Academy, had assigned this brooch to the eleventh, or early part of the twelfth, century. The material he considered to be "white bronze," a compound of copper and tin, resembling silver; and the enrichments are of the most elaborate variety, comprising examples of enamelled work and of niello; interlacements and designs of most intricate character, of which not less than seventy-six varieties occur; and there are small human heads, cut or cast, with marvellous delicacy, the material amber-coloured, and supposed to be glass. This type of fibula, consisting of a ring, highly enriched with ornament, upon which the acus moves freely, is known by examples already published by Col. Vallancey and other antiquaries. It has been admirably illustrated by Mr. Fairholt, in a memoir on Irish fibulæ, in the Transactions of the Archæological Association, at their Gloucester Congress. Dr. Petrie considers this type to be peculiarly Irish, but common to Scotland, as also, it has been stated, to the Moorish tribes of Africa. A peculiarity of the noble specimen in Mr. Waterhouse's possession consists in its having a silver chain attached, of the construction usually known as "Trichinopoly work," which is supposed to have served as a guard to keep the acus in its proper position, and ensure the safety of this rich ornament. This chain is unfortunately broken; it is conjectured that a pipe or socket was attached to its extremity to receive the point of the long acus.
Lord Talbot de Malahide observed that he had been assured that there is a mixture of metals in this remarkable fibula: it is not wholly of white bronze; portions are of lead, upon which the exquisite filagree work was attached. It had been called in Ireland the "Royal Tara Brooch," but there is, in fact, no evidence as to the place of its discovery. It had been brought by a poor woman into Drogheda, and sold for a few shillings to a silversmith: every attempt to ascertain where it had been found proved fruitless.
M. Pulski remarked that he recognised this form of brooch as occasionally
BRONZE IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN IRELAND.
No. 1. Unique bronze celt. No. 2. Bronze chisel. (Both in Mus. R. I. Acad.)
No. 3 Bronze chisel, in collection of Mr. W. F. Wakeman, Dublin.
All of orig. size.
found amongst the rich ornaments of the Etruscans. He believed that some of very similar character are preserved in the collection of the Prince of Canino.
Antiquities and Works of Art Exhibited
By Mr. G. Du Noyer.—Representations of two remarkable bronze celts, of types which he regarded as unique; one of them (see the woodcuts) was found in Yorkshire, the blade is solid (diameter at the edge 218 in.), the other extremity is a hollow socket to receive the haft. The length of this curious specimen is 6 inches. The second, in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, is of very peculiar form; it is ornamented with engraved zigzag lines, and fretted work; it presents, as Mr. Du Noyer observed, the combination of two features which he had never before seen united, namely, the lateral "stop-ridge," and the loops, to aid in fastening the implement to the haft. It is a valuable example, as showing the progressive development of ingenuity in the construction of these interesting objects. He produced, also, sketches of bronze implements, various kinds of chisels, one of them socketed, in the possession of Mr. W. F. Wakeman; the other, with a tang, for insertion into the handle, like a modern chisel. (See woodcuts.) This is in the Museum of the R. I. Academy. Similar bronze chisels were found in the hoard of celts, implements and broken metal, at Carlton Rode, Norfolk, in 1844.
By Mr. Brackstone.—A bronze celt of very unusual type. (See the annexed representation.) A specimen of similar form, found in Norfolk, was exhibited in the Museum of the Institute, during the Norwich meeting, by Mr. Goddard Johnson. Another celt, produced by Mr. Brackstone, was ornamented elaborately with engraved chevrony patterns.
By The Hon. Richard Neville.—A small brass coin, recently found in the parish of Saffron Walden, Essex. The impression is not very distinct, but it is evidently the rare British coin attributed to Cunobeline, figured, from the specimen now preserved in the British Museum, in "Ruding's British Coins," Plate V., fig. 31. Obv. CVNO. Pegasus. Rev. TASCI. A winged figure apparently in the act of stabbing an ox.
By Mr. Philip Delamotte. A gold pectoral cross, found at Witton, in Norfolk. In the centre is a medallion, apparently a cast, or imitative coin of the Emperor Heraclius I., with Heraclius Constantinus, his son. On the obverse appear two busts, full-faced; on the reverse, a cross, Heraclius, after causing Phocas to be beheaded, A.D. 610, was proclaimed Emperor of the East, and died A.D. 641. The limbs of the cross are of equal length, slightly dilated, and are enriched with pieces of bright red-coloured glass, forming a sort of mosaic, in the style of certain precious objects of the Carlovingian age. This is the second ornament, thus decorated, which has been found in Norfolk. A pendant medallion, set with a cast from a coin of the Emperor Mauricius, was discovered on the shore near Mundesley, and was presented by Miss Gurney to the British Museum. It is figured in the Archæologia, vol. xxxii, pl. vii. A representation of the cross will be given in the Transactions of the Norfolk Archæological Society.
By Mr. Franks.—A small enamelled plate of twelfth century champlevé work, representing the Passover. One Israelite holding a basin filled with blood, inscribes a T (or tau) with a pen over a door, under which lies au animal recently slaughtered. Two other Israelites are in the act of eating the passover; they hold clubs, and appear to be already on their march. Above appear the letters—PHASE. Dimensions, 3 in. by 212 in.
By Mr. Henry G. Tomkins.— Drawings, representing some curious sculptures, of the Norman period, at Bishop's Teignton church, Devon. One of them is now inserted in the south wall: it consists of four figures, in a small arcade of as many arches, and between each was originally a slender shaft, as shown by the capitals and bases which remain. A fragment of one of the shafts remains, and it is spirally moulded. The figures represent a female seated, seen in full-face; three persons in long robes, the two first, wearing a kind of mitre, are viewed in profile, as if approaching to pay her homage. This sculpture appears to have been destined to fill the tympanum of a round-headed doorway. The arch-mouldings of a western door, at the same church, are very curious: they consist of grotesque heads twined with foliage, and cones of the pine, from which a bird, with the mandibles much curved, is pecking out the seeds. Under its feet is another cone. It may probably represent the cross-bill; and Mr. Tomkins observed, that this bird was possibly introduced in decorations of a sacred nature, on account of the notion, of which he had hitherto only been able to discover a trace in the translation from the German—"the Legend of the cross-bill," to be found in Longfellow's Poems, It would appear that a popular tradition attributed the curved bill and red-stained plumage of that bird, to its having attempted to relieve the Saviour's agony by wrenching out a nail from the cross, so that the wings were spotted with his blood. If this legend were anciently known in England, it is probable that representations of this bird may be found in the symbolical sculptures and decorations of other churches. The cross-bill, it should be observed, lives in the pine-forests of Germany, and greedily extracts the seeds from the cones.
By M. Pulski.—A collection of beautiful drawings, representing ancient relics and objects of art, chiefly preserved in the Fejervary Cabinet, in Hungary, M. Pulski observed, that the inspection of the interesting exhibition of Ancient and Mediæval Art, formed during the previous season at the Adelphi, and to which the members of the Institute largely contributed, had induced him to lay before the Society a selection of drawings of objects of similar nature existing in foreign countries. They comprised a series of examples of sculpture in ivory, beginning with a diptych, designed with singular grace and feeling, equal to the finest works of the sixteenth century; but, possibly, of as early date as the fourth or fifth century. Amongst the numerous examples of later times, one drawing claimed the special attention of the English antiquary; it was a tablet of ivory, a work of the fifteenth century, on which is sculptured a regal figure, with an escutcheon of the arms of France and England, quarterly, on each side, two attendants or pages near him. Above is inscribed, Henricus dei gra'—continued thus, at the foot,—Ang. et fra. domi' hibern'. This may have been intended to portray Henry VI. It was purchased at Venice. The latest specimen of these interesting works in ivory was a tankard, on which is sculptured in high relief a subject after one of the finest paintings by Rubens, stated to be in the Lichtenstein Gallery. M. Pulski produced, also, some exquisite drawings, representing vessels of fine mixed metal, chased and engraved with figures of men and animals, and enriched with gold and silver, and black enamel. They have excited much interest on the Continent, and various conjectures regarding their age and origin had been advanced: the Prince de Luynes had published a very curious example in the "Revue Archéologique." M. Pulski supposed that some of these ancient vessels, with Cufic inscriptions and human figures, &c., introduced in their decoration, are of Persian fabrication. Several very curious vases of metal, of similar workmanship, had been exhibited by Mr. Rohde Hawkins, at a previous meeting.
By Mr. Yates.—A bronze object of unknown use, apparently a kind of double-edged axe ; it measures 1234 inches in length, the ends are sharpened, and measure 234 inches in breadth, and the central part, which is perforated to receive a handle, is much narrower. M. Pulski stated that similar objects had been found in Hungary, but of smaller size; he conceived that they had served as a kind of weapon.
Mr. Yates presented to the society, on the part of Mr. Wetherell, of Highgate, twelve of the curious "pipes," found at Whetstone, the use of which had been explained at the previous meeting. (See Journal, vol. vii. p. 397.) Mr. Yates stated that he had subsequently obtained four of these relics from another locality; they had been found in Crutched Friars. He was inclined to think that some of these "pipes" might be as ancient as the times of Elizabeth and the days of Shakspere, to whom periwigs were not unknown, and who probably himself wore such disguises to aid the illusion of the stage. The expression, "periwig-pated fellow," used by Shakspere in reference to actors, would not be forgotten.
By Lord Talbot de Malahide.—A little Manual of Prayers, enclosed in a binding of silver filagree work, enamelled with much elegance.
By Mr. N. T. Wetherell.—A hexagonal table-clock, of the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, the works formed of brass.
By Mr. Bernhard Smith.—A singular little hatchet, for "brittling," or cutting up, the deer. On one side is seen the stag at bay, speared by a hunter. On the other side are a gentleman and lady in converse, with a German inscription, and the date 1675. Erasmus, in his Praise of Folly, makes quaint allusion to the barbarous eagerness with which gentlemen devoted to the chase would fall upon the game to break it up, and take singular pride in skilfully dissecting it; for this purpose various implements were carried in the equipment for the chase.—Two handsome rapiers, and two hangers: one of them has the blade beautifully etched and inlaid with gold; the other has the initial G., possibly of the time of George I.
By Mr. Charles Tucker.—Impression from the sepulchral brass of Sir John Arundel, at Stratton, Cornwall. The family had considerable possessions in that parish: the manor of Eflford, or Ebbingford, passed by the heiress of the Durants to the Arundels of Trerice. The knight is represented in armour, his helmet on his head, and placed between his two wives. Their children, three sons (all now remaining) and seven daughters, are seen beneath. The inscription is as follows—"Here lyeth buried Syr Joh'n ArundcU Trerise knyght, who praysed be god Dyed in the lorde the xxv Daye of November, in the year of oure Lorde god a M. CCCCC Ixj. and in the iijxx and vij. yearc of hys age. Whose Soule now Resteth wyth the faythfull Chrystians in our Lorde." There are two escutcheons of arms: on the first are,—1st. Sa. a wolf (?) between 6 swallows, ar. (Arundell). 2d. Sa. 3 chevronels, ar. (Trerice). 3d. Ar. a bend engrailed, on a chief 3 mullets or. 4th. Ar. a chevron between 3 stags. 5th. Ar. a lion rampant, debruised by a fess. 6th. A chevron or(?) between 3 bezants. On the second escutcheon are the same quarterings impaling three rests, or sufflues. (Grenville.)
Sir John Arundell, of Lanherne, t. Edw. III., bore on his seal "a lion passant between g swallows." (Lysons' Cornw., p. cxx.) The Trerice family seem to have been descendants from him.
February 7, 1851.
Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., in the Chair.
Previously to commencing the ordinary proceedings of the meeting, the Chairman observed that he could not refrain from expressing his deep feeling, in which all present would participate, of the severe loss which they had experienced, since the last meeting of the Institute, by the sudden and melancholy decease of their President, the Marquis of Northampton. That sad event must fill the thoughts of many with heartfelt sorrow; and it would long be felt, that by the removal of one so justly beloved for his virtues and his kindness, society at large had sustained no ordinary loss. Sir Charles remarked that he could bear his heartfelt testimony to the value of those services which that lameuted nobleman had rendered to science, literature, and the arts,—to the promotion of every intelligent and benevolent purpose for the furtherance of the public welfare, which had fallen within his influence. Sir Charles had on repeated occasions witnessed the cordial encouragement and interest with which their late President had for several years promoted the successful progress of the Institute. He must especially bear in remembrance the gratifying occasion when the Institute had visited the county of Lincoln, and the kindly consideration towards all around him, with which Lord Northampton had participated in their proceedings, and given to them a fresh life and interest by his unwearied zeal and intelligence in all pursuits of archaeology.
The Central Committee had, as Sir Charles was informed, addressed to the present Marquis the expression of their condolence, and of the feelings of sorrow and deep respect for the memory of their late President, in which he was persuaded that every member of the Institute would unite with the heartiest sympathy. The Committee had had the honour of receiving from Lord Northampton a very gratifying acknowledgment.
Sir Charles Anderson observed, that having been called upon to take the chair on this occasion, he saw with much satisfaction upon the table the volume of their Transactions at the Lincoln meeting, now completed for delivery to the members; and he had the pleasure to announce that the volume devoted to the history and antiquities of his own county would shortly he followed by the delivery of their Transactions at Norwich.
Mr. Hawkins communicated a, memoir on the gold ornaments and various ancient relics of the Roman age recently purchased from Mr. Brumell's cabinet for the British Museum. It is given in this volume (see p. 35).
Mr. G. D. Brandon gave an account of the discovery of Roman remains in Buckinghamshire, at Stone, a village situated three miles from Aylesbury, while excavating for the foundations of the County Lunatic Asylum, now in progress of erection. Urns of various forms, of no uncommon occurrence amongst Romano-British remains, had been found; and a pit containing débris of fictile vessels of the same age, seemingly a fresh example of the singular receptacles, of which many have now been noticed near sites of Roman occupation. The form of this ancient well, or favissa, is shown by the annexed sections. It was sunk through strata of rock and yellow sand alternately, and was cleared out to the depth of about 30 feet, when the work was stopped by the water.
Two of the urns here represented were found in the pit, at a depth of about 30 feet from the surface of the ground. Two others lay at a distance of about 250 feet to the east of the pit, at a depth of 2 feet from the surface; and others wore found in a sand-hill, about a quarter of a mile from the spot last named. The two urns found near the surface of the ground contained bones, which had been subjected to cremation, and some coins, of which two were obtained from the workmen engaged in making the excavations. One of them appears to be of the reign of Domitian, the other of Vespasian.
In clearing out the pit before alluded to, numerous fragments of pottery were found, of various colours,—black, white, red,—and some unbaked pottery; also fragments of bones of large and small animals, promiscuously distributed. Near to the bottom of the pit, besides the various fragments of pottery, a portion of an ancient shoe and a bucket were found. The whole of these remains were discovered between the 18th of July and the 4th of September, 1850. The pit was sunk as deep as could be accomplished without the aid of pumps, the men having been kept at work until it became unsafe for them to continue their work. Two transverse sections of the pit, showing the description of the strata passed through, are here given.
North to South.East to West.
Sections of a cavity containing Roman remains, found at Stone, co. Bucks.
A saucer-shaped Saxon brooch, found in the vicarage orchard about 1840, was also exhibited by the Rev. J. B. Reade, Vicar of Stone, remarkable on account of its size, its diameter being nearly 3 inches; and it bears the symbol of the cross, with chased lines apparently intended to represent a nimbus. This remarkable type of fibula may have been derived, as Mr. Akerman has suggested, from the nummi scyphati, or cup-shaped money, common after the reign of Basilius II. An engraving of it is given in the Archæologia, vol. xxx., p. 546. Mr. Reade sent with this an iron spear-head and knife, and the skull of a skeleton with which they were found, near Stone, about two years since. The umbo of the shield was found, but had been lost. At the feet was a small urn of dark black ware, sent for examination. These relics appeared to be Saxon.
Several specimens of this kind of fibula have been brought before the Institute, especially those now in Mr. Neville's museum, figured in the Journal of the Archæological Association, vol. v., p. 113, and one exhibited by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Journal, vol. vi., p. 71.Mr. Yates, in reference to some conversation at the previous meeting regarding the adjustment of fibulæ, and the use of some kind of tube, called by the Greeks αὐλος, to receive the acus, made the following observations:— "In the description of the splendid garb of Ulysses, the wrapper, called χλαῖνα, læna (Odyss., xix., 225). the fibula (περόνη), is said to have been provided with two small tubes (αὐλοῖσιν διδύμοισιν), probably for admitting the acus, a contrivance which would secure the woollen cloth from being torn. The Scholiast explains this expression as signifying straight rods, into which the pins are locked: ράβδοι εὐθέιαι, εις ἅς κατακλέιονται ἁι περόναι. The Scholiast, published by Mai, explains it thus:—Ἀνατάτεοι δυοὶ, two extensions before the wrapper; ἐπάνωθεν τῆς πόρπης ἐξημένους, that is, sewed above the brooch. The meaning of this is obscure."
Dr. Thurnam offered some observations on a collection of Norwegian relics in his possession, which were laid before the meeting on this occasion. These objects were obtained by Dr. Thurnam in the course of a visit to Norway during the autumn of last year. They were all reported to have been taken from tumuli in the south east division of that country; some of them being presented by peasant proprietors, who bad themselves dug them out of tumuli on their own farms. Others were the gift of a distinguished archaeologist at Christiana. They consist of a remarkably fine sword, an axe, spear-head, knives, umbo of a shield, and a spur of iron; a large and fine tortoise-shaped fibula, in two portions, with fragments of other ornaments, of bronze; a few glass beads, fragments of peculiarly ornamented pottery, and the tooth of a bear.
Dr. Thurnam gave also the following account of several interesting objects (of which drawings were exhibited) from a large Anglo-Saxon tumular cemetery near Driffield, E. R. Yorkshire. "This tumulus, previously in part examined, was more fully explored by the Yorkshire Antiquarian Club, in the summer of 1849. The objects found consist of spear-heads, knives of various sizes, scissors, umbones, handles, and other parts of the tire of shields, with other articles of unknown use;—iron fibulæ, of cruciform and circular shape, and other ornaments of bronze; pendants of crystal and beads of amber, glass, and vitrified paste,—some of the latter of curious and beautiful manufacture. Remains of fictile vases were also found. This entire collection of Anglo-Saxon remains, hitherto so rarely found within the limits of the Northumbrian kingdom, is deposited in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, at York."
Mr. T. Hudson Turner read the first portion of his researches relative to the Order of Knights Templars, comprising some new facts and observations on their history and establishment in England.
The Rev. William Gunner gave a selection of curious extracts from the Bursarial Rolls of Winchester College. (See p. 79 in this volume.)
The Rev. William Dyke communicated a parchment roll of Prayers to the Virgin, preserved in the library of Jesus College, Oxford. It appears to have belonged to Margaret of Anjou, whose portrait and armorial bearings are introduced amongst the illuminated enrichments of this interesting specimen of calligraphy. The entire roll measures 5 ft. 7 in. by 9 in. wide, a considerable portion being left blank. It does not appear by what means it was deposited amongst the MSS. of Jesus College; it bears the numbers 93 and 2114—93, with this endorsement, in the writing of Antony à Wood, "The picture within drawne was made for Margaret of Anjou, wife of Hen. 6th of England, as it appeares by the armes joyning to it. 1681.—A. Bosco." At the upper end is the sacred monogram, I. H. S. elaborately illuminated and flourished; beneath this is a sort of wheel, in the centre of which is portrayed the Virgin and child; thence proceed seven radiations, each formed by a line of writing in gold, a salutation or ejaculation to the Virgin, so arranged, that the initial of each forms also the initial of one of seven sentences composing the circumference of the wheel. Immediately below this, the queen is portrayed kneeling at a prayer-stool, covered with cloth of gold, and supporting an open book and her sceptre. (See woodcut.)
Her gown is blue, her mantle purple with white fur. Her hair auburn, and dishevelled: she kneels on a pavement of green Flanders' tiles. Before her appear two kneeling angels in red garments, their blue and scarlet wings upraised: they are the supporters of an escutcheon of the royal achievement—France and England, quarterly, impaling these six quarterings—1, Hungary; 2, Naples; 3, Jerusalem; 4, Anjou; 5, Bar; 6, Lorrain. There is no crown above the shield. It may deserve notice that the queen wears two rings on each finger except the least, placed on the middle as well as the third joint of the fingers; a fashion possibly introduced by her, and shown in the curious portrait of this queen on the tapestry at Coventry, given by Mr. Shaw, in his beautiful "Dresses and Decorations," from an excellent drawing executed by the late Mr. Bradley.
The arms of Margaret appear in the windows at Ockwells House, supported by an antelope and a golden eagle, the latter being taken from the achievement of her father, René, Duke of Anjou, who used as supporters two golden eagles; and the arms upon her great seal, described in Harl. MS., 1178, f. 29, as cited in Willement's Regal Heraldry, had the antelope and eagle as supporters. In the great hall at Croydon Palace there was a royal achievement attributed to the times of Henry VI., having two angels as supporters; and they occur likewise on the lower part of the gateway at Eton College.
Menestrier, in his Treatise entitled "Usage des Armoiries," (Paris, 1673, p. 216,) remarks, that it had been erroneously supposed that it was the privilege of the kings of France and personages of the blood royal only, unless by their special concession to certain favoured persons, to introduce angels as the supporters of their arms. He observes, that a great number of examples may be cited of the general use of such supporters—"particulièrement dans les eglises, où la pieté des fideles, laissant des monumens de ses bienfaits accompagnez de ses armoiries, pour en conserver le souvenir, a fait scrupule assez long-temps d'y mettre des animaux, des sauvages, ct des figures fabuleuses ou monstrueuses. Ainsi on verra souveut qu'une mesme maison qui a des lions, des aigles, des dragons ou des sauvages pour supports, a des anges dans les eglises." These remarks may serve to illustrate the substitution of angels for the usual supporters which appear with the arms of Margaret; it may be attributed to their being here found in connexion with an object of a sacred character.
Mr. Ashurst Majendie laid before the Society the project of restoration of the Round Church at Little Maplestead, Essex, observing that the late Marquis of Northampton had taken great interest in the undertaking, and that to his valuable suggestions the Committee of Management had been much indebted in preparing a modified plan of restoration on a more moderate scale than had been originally contemplated. He hoped that the proposed efforts for the preservation of this interesting fabric would be regarded with approbation by all those who take interest in Architectural monuments.
Antiquities and Works of Art Exhibited.
By Mr. Brackstone.—Three bronze celts in perfect preservation, found in June, 1849, between Towton and Ulleskelf, in Yorkshire, at a depth of about 5 ft. One of them is a good example of the type with a stop-ridge and lateral loop. (Compare fig. H. in Mr. Du Noyer's Classification, Archaeol. Journ., vol. iv., p. 5.) Another is a socketed celt with the loop. (Ibid, page 6.)
By M. Pulski.—A selection of exquisite drawings representing antiquities of various classes, especially rings and antique various ornaments of gold, and oriental bronzes. Amongst the objects designated as fibulte he produced a remarkable type, formed of a long bronze wire closely coiled up in a flat spiral form, and resembling, seemingly, a bronze spiral object exhibited in the Museum of the Institute at the Oxford Meeting. This is now amongst the collections at the Tower Armory. M. Pulski remarked that relics of this fashion are of frequent occurrence in Hungary. He observed that Indian antiquities had not yet received the notice which they deserve, in an artistic point of view, and he was desirous to call the attention of English antiquaries to the subject. The best and most interesting assemblage of examples was probably that in the possession of the Prince Louis, at Munich; and a very remarkable collection exists at Leyden. Sir Stamford Raffles had published some remarkable objects connected with the idolatrous worship of Java. The impression seemed to prevail, however, that Indian antiquities possess no artistic merit, a notion which may have arisen from the circumstance that the more fantastic specimens of Indian workmanship seem chiefly to have been brought to Europe; but M. Pulski affirmed that there exist examples of a character scarcely inferior to that of Greek art. The numerous subjects, now submitted to the Society, were chiefly selected from the collection of ancient art, formed in Hungary, from which he had on previous occasions produced examples of mediaeval antiquities, and they would be found to comprise works of the artists of India in former times, evincing much knowledge of design and grace of execution. He pointed out several remarkable bronzes, discovered in excavations made in Java; also Burmese antiquities; sculptures representing animals, executed in China, with some sculptured vases from the same country.
By the Rev. W. Gunner.—Three ancient bronze candlesticks, found in digging a grave at Winchester. They are formed with the spike, or priket, to receive the candle, instead of a socket: one of them, which had been partly formed of iron, now much decayed, appeared of early date, possibly of the twelfth century.
By Mr. Hawkins.—Two gold rings, found with a hoard of 259 silver coins, consisting of 78 of Edward the Confessor (Hawkins, Type 223), 159 of Harold (Hawkins, Type 231), and 22 of William the Conqueror (first coinage, Hawkins, Type 233). They were found in a field near Wickham Lodge, Soberton, Hants, in a vessel of dingy red ware, which was immediately broken, or crumbled to pieces. One of the gold ornaments is a torc ring, resembling that in Mr. Whincopp's Museum, stated to have been found in Suffolk [Journal, vol. vi., p. 58, No. 14). Its weight is 238 grains. The other is a penannular ring, of which a representation is here given; it is punched with small circles, and weighs 258 grains. This discovery is very interesting as an evidence of the period to which ornaments of this kind may be assigned.
By the Rev. C. Bingham.—Drawings of several fragments of painted glass—date, the earlier half of the fifteenth century—existing in the church of Bingham's Melcombe, Dorset. They consist of the head of a regal personage, nimbed, and holding a sceptre: the crown richly foliated. A scutcheon held by a demi-angel, in the east window of the chancel, as noticed in Hutchins's "History of Dorset." The arms are those of Turges, azure, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitchy, in a bordure engrailed, or. This family was possessed of a moiety of the manor of Melcombe, by marriage with Dionysia, heiress of one of the De Cernes, the ancient lords, as stated by Leland (Itin. vol. iii., p. 47). The last of the race, Richard Turges, died 20 Henry VII. The bordure of their coat does not here appear at first sight to be engrailed, the edge being concealed by the leading of the glass: in the windows of Mapowder Church, it was formerly to be seen with the engrailed bordure, as given by Hutchins. The other fragments consist of a broken figure of the Saviour, with the cruciform nimb, his right hand upraised in benediction, a mound with a cross on his left. Also a small fish, the body traversed by a hook (?), probably a device or rebus. The name of Herring occurs in connection with the property held by the De Cernes.
By Mr. Westwood.—A rubbing from a cross fleury, recently found under the flooring, at Newborough Church, in Anglesea. The head of the cross is very elegantly designed, forming a wheel, and the sides are enriched with flowing foliage. An inscription runs down the centre of the shaft, which has been read thus,—✠ HIC IACET EDD' BARKER CV AI'E P'PICIET' D'.
Also a rubbing of the singular inscription around the top of a font at Brecknock, of which no explanation has hitherto been suggested.
By Mr. Forrest.—An ivory hunting-horn, curiously carved with subjects, in which a singular mixture of European and Oriental character is seen, so that it is difficult to determine the country or period to which objects of this peculiar workmanship may be assigned. This horn measures 2213 inches in length, the mouth-piece issues from the jaws of a monstrous bead, bearing on the brow a cross, with limbs of equal length; at the other, or widest end, is twice introduced a blundered achievement of the arms of Portugal. Two figures, of very Indian aspect, with a castle between them, hold aloft an escutcheon in an inverted position, resembling the coat of Portugal, but the castles on the bordure are carved as little square ornaments enclosing quatrefoils. An intention to imitate the heraldic design is evident, but in a manner which seems to prove that the sculptor was ignorant of European usages. The other carvings represent subjects of the chace, and bowmen aiming very long shafts at various animals. Amongst the ornaments is found a winged scaly monster, with two legs, a kind of wyvern, resembling the supporters and crest of the arms of Portugal, explained to be the fiery serpents which assailed the Israelites. Bands of interlaced work appear, presenting a style of design which may have led some antiquaries to ascribe a Scandinavian origin to these sculptures.
M. Pulski laid before the meeting a beautiful drawing of a horn of this class, preserved in the collection before-mentioned. The ornaments and style were almost identical with those by which Mr. Forrest's horn is characterised. He observed, that ivory horns of this description are preserved in Hungary, and have been regarded as objects sculptured in the North of Europe. One specimen, which he had examined, had been attributed to an Hungarian chief of the tenth century.
An exceedingly curious covered cup, of the same class of carvings, was formerly in the Allan Collection, and is now preserved in the Museum of the Antiquaries of Newcastle: a representation is given in Mr. Fox's Synopsis of the Allan Museum, p. 183. It presents the same strange mixture of Oriental design, with subjects evidently Christian—the Virgin and child, and the cross, with monstrous animals, and a blundered imitation of the arms of Portugal, inverted. A Latin inscription, on parchment, is attached to it, no longer legible.
Two other horns, of precisely similar workmanship, deserve to be mentioned in connection with these singular objects. One is given by Olaus Wormius, lib. v., p. 435, "Danicorum Monumentorum" Hafniæ, 1643. It was at Florence, in the possession of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and exhibited the hunting of stags and lions, the Portuguese arms, and a cross patée: around the mouth, was inscribed,—DOM LVIS: IMFAMTE. The learned Dane supposed this to be the second son of Emanuel, King of Portugal (1495—1521), and brother of John III. Don Luis never succeeded to the throne, but was always styled "Infant," and Prince Antonio, his natural son, was one of the claimants of the throne in 1578.
The other ivory horn referred to, was in the Museum at the Jesuits' College, at Rome, and is given by Bonanni in the "Museum Kircherianum" (Roma, 1709, pl. 299, p. 281). It bears much resemblance to Mr. Forrest's horn, and is sculptured with hunting subjects, the arms of Portugal, very incorrectly given, and the cross patée appears near the mouth.
It has been conjectured that these objects were produced in some of the Portuguese settlements in Africa or the East, during the fifteenth or sixteenth century; a supposition which would account for the marked Asiatic character of some details of the design. The occurrence of a horn bearing the name of the Infant of Portugal, Don Luis, may serve to corroborate this supposition. It was in the reign of Emanuel, his father, that the spirit of enterprise had received a fresh impulse, and establishments for the extension of commerce were made both in Africa and the Indies. A viceroy was sent out to India in 1506; and in 1508, Goa was taken by the Portuguese, and became their chief settlement and seat of government. On the Malabar coast, where it is situated, elephants abounded, as also in Ceylon, then in the possession of the Portuguese; and it seems highly probable that these horns were carved in the East, in imitation of Portuguese models, and are not more ancient than the early part of the sixteenth century.
Mr. Forrest exhibited also a large processional cross, chiefly ornamented with repoussé work, and having enamelled plates of the Evangelistic symbols. Date, about 1400.—Two chalices, one of them with a paten; the centre of the latter ornamented with transparent enamel, the subject being the Saviour seated on the rainbow, and surrounded by the emblems of the passion.—A monstrance, of silver parcel-gilt; height, 18 inches. On one side is an image of the Virgin and Child; on the other, St. Denis. Above is inscribed, 1541. ROGNOS. The goldsmith's marks are—I. L. and AQVIS, under a fleur-de-lys.—A cup, formed of a carbuncle of great size, the foot and mounting elaborately enriched with filigree and enamelled ornaments of many colours. It has a single handle, projecting from one bide of the rim. This costly cup is of oval form, the greater diameter being about 3 inches, the lesser 2 inches.—A faldistory, or folding seat of state, formed of steel, wrought in open work of most elegant design, and inlaid with gold. At the back is a trophy of flags, weapons, drums, cannon, &c., arranged around an oval compartment, with this impresa,—a bird flying, three flowers, or ears of wheat beneath it. Over this device is an arched crown. The history of this remarkable throne has not been ascertained.—An Oriental dish of fine mixed yellow metal, diameter, 714 inches, entirely covered with inscriptions, arranged so as to form ornamental designs; on the underside are the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and inscriptions introduced in like manner over the whole surface.
By the Rev. E. Wilton.—Drawings of some relics lately found in Wiltshire, accompanied by the following notice:—"On Charlton Down, of which Sir Richard Colt Hoare says, that traces of a British village may there be perceived, continuing to the declivity of the hill, facing Wedhampton Wells, some labourers were employed in digging a pond during the last summer. At a depth of 18 inches, they found several objects of iron (represented in the drawings), five Roman coins, the skeleton of an infant, and a large quantity of rude pottery." The iron relics comprise knives and implements, with no character sufficing to fix their age; one of the former resembling one found in a tumulus in Kent, by Douglas. (Nenia, pl. vi.) At a short distance from the spot above-named was found a globular "Bellarmine," or grey-beard, of glazed ware, with the usual bearded head at the neck, and medallions surrounded by foliage.
By Miss Julia R. Bockett.—A Thaler of Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, born in 1427; died, 1496. This is generally regarded as the most ancient of the series of the Austrian silver coinage, and it was struck in the Tyrol, at the time of the discovery of the silver mines in that country. On one side is seen a standing figure of Sigismund, with heraldic ornaments; on the other, he is galloping on a charger: beneath is the date, 1486. This fine coin had been gilt, and a metal ring attached to it for suspension to a collar. See representations in "Der Cooplieden Handbouxkin," Ghend, 1544; Catal. of the "Cabinet Imperial," p. 187.
By the Rev. Joseph Hunter.— A small enamelled triptych, of the kind used by members of the Greek Church, as portable altar-pieces, and always carried on a journey as an object indispensable for their devotions. It was recently purchased in Germany. A specimen of this kind of folding altar, of unusual size, and with five leaves, may be seen in the Museum of Practical Geology. It was formerly at Strawberry Hill. Another very curious example is in the possession of Mr. Hooper, of Manning-tree, Essex. It was found, about 1790, under the cliffs at Harwich.
By Mr. Hardwick.—Three curious specimens of mediæval glazed ware, found during recent excavations at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The glaze of mottled green colour; one of the vessels was very curiously scaled like the surface of a pine apple. (See woodcut.) Date about the fourteenth century.
- ↑ See Mongez, Recucil d'Antiquités, pl. 303; Montfaucon, t. iii., pl. 48 ; t. v., pl. 36; and Supp., t. iii., liv. i., c. 9.
- ↑ Mon. Angl., vol. iii., p. 162, orig. edit. The grant of Robert de Percy, conceding free passage for the transport of the stone from Tadcaster, may be found, ibid., p. 163.
- ↑ A singular tradition, it is stated, exists in Yorkshire, that of certain privileges belonging to the chief of the Vavasour family, of Hazelwood: one is this,—that he may ride on horseback into York Minster.—See Notes and Queries, vol. ii., p. 326.
- ↑ Some specimens of analogous type, but less richly ornamented than those found in Ireland, have occurred in England. See one figured in this Journal, vol. vi., p. 70.
- ↑ See a chisel of this kind figured in"Bateman's Vestiges," Introd., p. 8.
- ↑ See Journal, vol. vi., p. 296.
- ↑ Hamlet, Act iii.. Sc. 2. Periwigs are mentionod also in Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act iv., Sc. 4; Comedy of Errors, Act ii., Sc. 2.
- ↑ Exhibited at the Meeting of the Institute, March 1, 1850.—Journal, vol. vii., p. 87.
- ↑ Compare the fine fibula of this type, communicated by Mr. W. Hylton Longstaffe, Arch. Journal, vol. v., p. 220.
- ↑ An interesting example of the arms of Margaret is seen in the Book of Romances, presented to her by Talbot. (Roy. M.S., 15 E. VI.) They are thereon a banner, held by an antelope.
- ↑ See Ducarel's Croydon, pl. v., p. 66: Willement's Regall Heraldry, p. 35.
- ↑ The arms are different: one coat has a crowned eagle in the centre of the shied, another has a saltire. Both, however, have the bordure imitating that of the arms of Portugal.