Balthasar Hübmaier/Index

The Scene of Hubmaier's Life and Labors

INDEX

A

Anabaptists, why unpopular, 1; chiliastic ideas among, 2, 161, 165 sq.; revolutionary views of some, 3, 162, 164; Luther's treatment of, 6; slanders against, 7, 21; Cornelius on, 7; Beck's book about, 8; Keller's researches on, 9; connection with older sects, 9-13; relation to Reformation, 13; character of, 14; their ideal of the church, 15; repudiate name "Anabaptist," 16, 204; mysticism among, 14, 17; real offence of, 19; their vindication, 20; fate of their leaders, 21; origin in Zürich, 92, 102; Hübmaier joins them, in; charged with schism by Zwingli, 118; why deserving of punishment, 119; Denck unites with them, 142; act of baptism among, 142-145; lords of Lichtenstein join them, 151; great progress of, at Nikolsburg, 152 sq.; Sebastian Franck on, 159; the socialistic wing, 162; doctrine of non-resistance among, 159, 160; schism in Nikolsburg among, 167 sq.; charged with sedition.; how far socialists, 172, 176, 215, 250 sq.; Unitarians among, 184; ritual of 210; use of the ban, 212; singing of hymns, 214; on salvation of infants, 216; banished from Moravia, 257; their protest, 259-264; numbers in Nikolsburg, 267; their martyrs, 269; emigrate to Russia and United States, 270

Aberli, Henry, Anabaptist preacher, 124

Affusion, practised by Hübmaier, 112, 142; by Grebel, 143; by the Mennonites, 145

Albertus Magnus, 47

Albigenses, 10

Anselm, theory of satisfaction, 198

Anthropology, Hübmaier's doctrine of, 190-198

Antinomianism, 189

Apostles' Creed, Hübmaier's paraphrase of, 178

Argula von Stauff, 78, 183

Arkleb, lord of Boskowitz, 152, 275

Articles, Twelve, of the peasants, 96, 241

Atonement, Hübmaier's doctrine of, 198

Augsburg, Latin school at, 26; the Fuggerei, 39; Reichstag of 1518, 41; Hübmaier visits, 142; Anabaptists immerse there, 144; Hans Hut at, 160; Jacob Widemann, 163; death of Hut at, 169

Augustinianism, Luther's, 193, 196

Auspitz, Anabaptist colony, 250

Austerlitz, Anabaptist colony, 249, 251

Austria, difficulty with Waldshut, 74-79; captures Waldshut, 122-123; determined to kill Hübmaier, 238

B

Ban, among Anabaptists, 212; reckless use of, 255

Baptism, act of, among Anabaptists, 142-145; practice of Hübmaier, 112, 142

Baptism of infants, deemed unscriptural, 10, 16, 102; Swiss reformers uncertain about, 99, 104; questioned by Münzer, 107; attacked by Hübmaier, 99, 114-122; defended by Zwingli, 113, 118, 135

Baptism of believers, 10, 102; Hübmaier's doctrine of, 202 sq.; remission of sins in, 205. See Hübmaier, writings of

Basel, Hübmaier's visit to, 54; approves policy of Schaffhausen, 84

Beck, Dr. Josef, and his book, 8

Blaurock, George, Swiss Anabaptist, 143

Bogomils, 10

Brunnstein, John of, 151

Bullinger, Henry, Swiss reformer and historian, on the Anabaptists, 105, 107; opinion of Hübmaier, 245

Burgher class, rise of, 5

Burian, lord of Konitz, 152

C

Calvin, doctrines of grace, 186

Campbell, Alexander, doctrine of remission of sins, 205

Capito, Swiss reformer, letters to Zwingli, 22; Zwingli's letters to, 125; burns Hätzer's book, 184

Chiliasm among Anabaptists, 2; at Nikolsburg, 160, 161, 165; Hübmaier opposes, 164; William Miller's, 165

Christianity, essential nature of, 14

Church (a single congregation), nature of, 10; Petrobrusian idea of, 11; Waldensian, ib.; Anabaptist, 15; ideas of Zürich radicals, 101, 103; Hübmaier's doctrine of, 206-208

Church, separation from State, 15, 21; character of a State, 20

Columban, 47

Community of goods, among Anabaptists, 3; Hübmaier's idea of, 164; See Socialism

Constance, Hübmaier accused to bishop of, 80; his visit to the city, 142

Controversy, Hübmaier's love of, 32; between Hübmaier and Zwingli, 119 sq.; between Hübmaier and Œcolampadius, 120-122

Cornelius, of Bonn, and his book, 7

Cranmer, Archbishop, compared to Hübmaier, 237

Czechs in Moravia, 149

D

Denck, John, Anabaptist preacher, won to Anabaptism by Hübmaier, 142; baptizes Hut, 159, 160; anti-Trinitarian theories, 184

Dietrichstein, Adam von, lord of Nikolsburg, 266; persecutes Anabaptists, 267

Dietrichstein, Cardinal, obtains decree of 1623, 268

Dubcansky, Jan, lord of Zdnym, 152

E

Ecclesiology, Hübmaier's doctrine of, 201-213

Eck (John Mayer), Dr., Hübmaier's junior, 27; oration on Hübmaier, 28; Hübmaier's eulogy of, 29; fame as a teacher, 31; quarrel with University of Freiburg, 33; goes to Ingolstadt, ib.; tomb of, 35; remains Hübmaier's friend 50; challenged by Hübmaier to disputation, 89 - 91

Effectual calling, 199

Election, Hübmaier on, 186 sq.

Englehard, Swiss reformer, 125

Erasmus, eminent reformer, 22; visit of Hübmaier to, 54; compared to Hübmaier, 155, 156

Eschatology, Hübmaier's treatment of, 216

Exegesis, Hübmaier's method of, 175, 182 sq.; puerile, 191

F

Faber (Heigelin) John, Roman Catholic theologian, testifies Hübmaier was no iconoclast, 73; celebrates mass in Waldshut, 123; confirms torture of Hübmaier at Zürich, 137; interview with Hübmaier at Greisenstein, 226-230; witness to Hübmaier's eminence, 246

Feet-washing practised at Waldshut, 112

Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (Emperor, 1556-1564), summons Waldshut, 74; demands expulsion of Hübmaier, 75; becomes his implacable enemy, 76; second charge against Waldshut, 79; demands Hübmaier from Schaffhausen,82; his treachery, 95; answer of Waldshut to, 97; final terms to Waldshut, 122; demands Hübmaier from Zürich, 128; chosen King of Bohemia, 149; elected Margrave of Moravia, 219; edict of 1527, 220; deter:nined on Hübmaier's death, 238; persecutes Moravian Anabaptists, 247; edict of 1535, 257; death of, 264

Feudalism, decay of, 3; significance of, 4

Franck, Sebastian (evangelical reformer, Anabaptist, author, printer), on Anabaptists, 159

Frankenhausen, battle of, 160, 165

Frederick of Silesia, favourable to Anabaptists, 152

Freiburg, University of, 27 sq., 67

Freiburg in Switzerland, 54

Friends, 17

Froschauer. See Sorg

Fuggers, the, of Augsburg, 39

Füsslin, Swiss reformer and historian, and the Anabaptists, 22; account of Hübmaier-Zwingli debate, 127

G

Glaidt, Oswald, reformer at Nikolsburg, 150

Göschel, Martin, becomes an Anabaptist, 150

Grebel, Conrad, radical leader at Zürich, 65; rebukes Münzer, 107; visits Waldshut, 113; sprinkles Blaurock, 143; immerses Uliman, ib.; baptizes at St. Gall, 133

Greisenstein, castle of, 223

Gynoræus, Peter, Swiss reformer, Zwingli's letter to, 125 sq.

H

Hatzer, Ludwig, Anabaptist preacher, slanderous charges against, 21; alleged anti-Trinitarian theories, 184

Hofmeister, Sebastian, Swiss reformer, present at Hübmaier-Zwingli debate, 125; on baptism of infants, 127; debates with Hübmaier,

"Householder" among Moravian Anabaptists, 251

Hübmaier, Balthasar, Life of: birth, 24; parentage, 25; early training, 26; matriculates at Freiburg, 27; first residence at Schaffhausen, 29, 30; takes Master's degree, 27, 32; praised by Eck, 28; eulogizes Eck, ib.; love of controversy, 32; follows Eck to Ingolstadt, 33; Doctor in Theology, 34; university preacher, 35; vice-rector, 36; chief preacher at Regensburg, 37; leads anti-Jewish movement, 38 sq.; defends clergy at Augsburg, 41; discreditable conduct, 43; chalpain of the "beauteous Mary," 44; part in the pilgrimages, 45; troubles with the clergy, 47; leaves Regensburg, 49; repute there, 50; pastor at Waldshut, 51; studies the Scriptures, 53; visits Switzerland, 54; reads Luther's tracts, 55; recalled to Regensburg, ib.; returns to Waldshut, 56; friend of Swiss reformers, 57; takes part in second Zürich Disputation, 57-65; speech on supremacy of Scriptures, 58 sq.; against images, 60 sq.; against the mass, 63 sq.; spelling of his name, 66 sq.; publishes eighteen theses, 60-71; institutes reforms in Waldshut, 72; marries Elizabeth Hügline, 73; opposition of clergy, 74; his expulsion demanded, 75; invited to Regensburg and response, 77, 78; accused of Lutheranism, 79; refuses to appear at Constance, 80; leaves Waldshut, 81; second residence at Schaffhausen, 82-92; appeals to council, 83; writes Heretics and Those Who Burn Them 84-88; challenges Eck to disputation, 89-91; returns to Waldshut, 93; relations to peasants' war, 96; not author of Twelve Articles, ib.; zeal for pure gospel, 97, 98; relations to Swiss reformers, 99; not taught by Münzer, 105; begins to oppose infant baptism, 108; letter to Œcolampadius, ib.; publishes Open Appeal, 109; becomes champion of radicals, 110; converted to Anabaptism, 111; baptizes large numbers in Waldshut, 112; writes his Christian Baptism of Believers, 114-117; Zwingli's reply, 118; Dialogues on infant baptism, 119-122; goes to Zürich, 124; his arrest, 125; debate with Zwingli, 125-128; his public "recantation," 129; cruel imprisonment and torture, 130, 137, 147; writes his Twelve Articles, 130-136; his written recantation, 138-140; goes to Nikolsburg, 142; kindly received, 150; great progress of Anabaptists, 152; literary activity, 154; rank as man of letters, 155-157; his ethical tone, 157, 173; controversies at Nikolsburg, 158; opposes Hut and Widemann, 163, 232; true communism, 164; publishes tract On the Sword, 173, 177; arrested and sent to Vienna. 177, 221; unfair attitude towards Zwingli, 210; preliminary examination, 222; imprisonment at Greisenstein, 223; accusations against him, 224, 225; interview with Faber, 226 sq.; how far he yielded, 228-230, 236; his Rechenschaft, 230-235; conduct like Cranmer's, or Savonarola's, 237; makes a supplementary statement, 239; final process at Vienna, 240; record of condemnation, 240-242; his execution described by an eyewitness, 242-244; character and repute, 23, 217, 245; writings put on the Index, 247; life not a failure, 271.

Hübmaier, Writings of (those marked* have been quoted from freely; those marked ** are given in full, or substantially so):
*Appeal to Schaffhausen Council (op. 2), 82
Brotherly Discipline (op. 21), 190, 205
*Christian Baptism of Believers (op. 5), 114-117, 143
Conversation of Balthazar Hübmaier (op. 10), 180
Dialogue between Balthazar Hübmaier and Master Ulrich Zwingli (op. 10), 110
Earnest Plea (op. 2), 82
**Eighteen Theses (op. 1), 69-71
*Form for Baptizing (op. 19), 152, 202, 204, 311
Form of the Supper (op. 20), 152, 210
*Freedom of the Will (op. 23). 171, 178, 183, 186-188, 189, 193-197, 200
Freedom of the Will-Second Book (op. 24), 152, 196, 197
**Fundamental Articles (op. 4), 89-91
Ground and Reason (op. 16), 189, 203, 205, 206
**Heretics and Those Who Burn Them (op. 3), 84-88
*On Infant Baptism (op. 17), 120-122
**On the Sword (op. 25), 152, 170-176, 273-310
Reason Why Every Man should Receive Baptism (op. 16), 151
**Rechenschaft (op. 26), 230-235
* Short Apology (op. 13), 49, 97, 98, 141, 204, 214
*Table of Christian Doctrine (Catechism, op. 11), 178, 183, 186-188, 189, 193-197, 200
**Twelve Articles of Christian Belief (op. 18), 130-136, 178, 185
**Zürich Recantation, 138-140
**Letter to Regensburg Council, 77-79
**Letter to Œcolampadius, 108

Hübmaier, Teachings of: Anabaptism, 204; anthropology, 190-198; antinomianism, 189; atonement, 198; ban, 212-214; baptism, 16, 202-205, 228; church, 206-208; "close communion," 211; communism, 163; ecclesiology, 202-213; election, 186; effectual calling, 199; eschatology, 216; exegesis, 182 sq., 228, 298; fathers, authority of, 180; freedom of conscience, 217; hymns, 214; images, 60-62; imputation, 198; infants, baptism of, 114 sq.; infants, salvation of, 216; Lord's supper, 208-211; mass, 63-65; Scriptures, 180 sq.; sin, 182, 192, 231; soteriology, 198-201; theology, 184-190; will, 193-195, 231

Hügline, Elizabeth, married to Hübmaier, 73; imprisoned at Zürich, 129; drowned at Vienna, 244

Hus, John, Bohemian reformer, at Constance, 53; influence in Moravia, 148

Hut, Hans, Anabaptist preacher, early history, 159; doctrine of the Sword, 160, 162; appears at Nikolsburg, 160; acquaintance with Widemann, 163; compared to William Miller, 165; specimen of his preaching, 166; imprisoned by Lichtensteins, 168; flight to Augsburg and death, 169

Huter, Jacob, Anabaptist preacher, organizer of Moravian communities, 250; death in Tyrol, 256; his protest to the Moravian nobles, 259 sq.

I

Immersion, by Grebel, 143; at Augsburg, 144; in Poland, ib.; at Rhynsburg, 145

Images, Zwingli's attitude towards, 58; Hübmaier's speech against, 60 sq.; banished from Waldshut, 73

Immelen, Jacob, Swiss reformer, "Dialogue" with Hübmaier, 120-122

Imputation of Adam's sin, 198

Infant baptism. See Baptism of infants, and Hübmaier, Teachings of.

Infants, salvation of, 216

Ingolstadt, University of, 27; history, 33; old building of, 34; certifies to Hübmaier's character, 49

Ingolstadt, Church of the Virgin, 35

J

Jews, expulsion from Regensburg, 38-44

John, Count Palatine, friend of Hübmaier, 37, 41, 49, 51

Justification, Hübmaier's divergence from Luther on, 201

K

Keller, Dr. Ludwig, State Archivist at Münster, on the Anabaptists, 9

Kessler, Swiss reformer and historian, on Hübmaier, 245

Konigsfeld, Convent of, 51

L

Leo Juda, Swiss reformer, at Hübmaier-Zwingli debate, 125; on baptism of infants, 127; debates with Hübmaier, 138

Liberty, Christian, Hübmaier on, 217; case of Hans Hut, 168

Lichtenstein, Leonard, lord, of Nikolsburg, becomes Anabaptist, 151; summons Anabaptists to conference, 167; expels the Schwertler, 249; surrenders Hübmaier, 221, 224, 225; not a persecutor, 265; fortunes of his house, 266

Lichtenstein, John, becomes Anabaptist, 151

Lichtenstein, Prince, Catholic and persecutor, 268

Louis II., King of Bohemia, defeat at Mohacs, 149

Lord's supper, Hübmaier's doctrine of, 208-211. See Mass

Luther, Martin, his early demands for freedom, 6; attitude towards Anabaptists, 7; his Theses, 50; Hübmaier's junior, 27; tracts, 55; his marriage, 73; Hübmaier reckoned his follower, 79; on supremacy of Scripture, 92; his Wider Hans Wurst, 158; his Address to the Christian Nobility, 157; Compared to Hübmaier, 153-157; pamphlets against the peasants 174; his doctrine of the will, 193, 196

Lutherans in Nikolsburg, 148

M

Manichæan element in mediaeval sects, 10

Mantz, Felix, Anabaptist preacher, 106, 143

Mass, Zwingli's ideas on, 62; Hübmaier's speech against, 63 sq.; his final rejection of, 228, 235

Maximilian II (Emperor, 1564-1576), toleration of Anabaptists, 264

Megander, Swiss reformer, 125 Melanchthon, compared to Hübmaier, 155

Mennonites, practice of affusion, 145

Miller, William, and Hans Hut, 165

Mohacs, battle of, 149

Montanists, 17

Moravia, temporary religious freedom in, 146; influence of Hus there, 148; condition of people, 149; persecution begins, 220; Diet banishes Anabaptists, 257; Diet permits bigamy, 270

Moravians (Unitas Fratrum), survival of, 12

Muller, Hans, insurgent leader, 95

Münzer, Thomas, leader of peasants, 97; not Hübmaier's teacher, 105; rebuked by Grebel, 106; not an Anabaptist, 107; relation to Hans Hut, 160, 162

Mühlhausen and Thomas Münzer, 160, 162; and peasants' rebellion, 106

Myconius, Swiss reformer, debates with Hübmaier, 138

N

Nikolsburg, Hübmaier goes to, 142; Anabaptists there before Hübmaier, 146; character of town, 147; the evangelicals, 150; the Lichtensteins, 151; controversies at, 158 sq.; Hut appears in, 161; trouble among Anabaptists of, 167; troubles renewed, 248; the Schwertler expelled, 249; falls to Dietrichstein family, 266

Nobles, decline in power of, 3

Non-resistance, Anabaptist doctrine of, 3, 159, 160,162. See Hübmaier's tract On the Sword, Appendix.

Nürnberg, Hut at, 159

O

Oaths, Anabaptist repudiation of, 3

Œcolampadius, Swiss reformer, holds supremacy of Scriptures, 92; friend of Hübmaier, 99; "Dialogue" with Hübmaier, 120-122; on baptism of infants, 127; letter about Hübmaier, 142

P

Parousia, Anabaptist ideas of, 2

Paulicians, 10

Peasants, oppression of, 5; their uprising, 6; effect at Waldshut, 95; Twelve Articles of, 96, 241; Luther's attitude towards, 173 sq.; Hübmaier's relation to, 222

Peacock Hall, 31

Persecution, of Anabaptists generally, 19, 20; of Jews at Regensburg, 38-44; of Anabaptists at Zürich, 124, 129, 141, 144; of Anabaptists in Moravia, 220, 257

Peter the Venerable, agamst the Petrobrusians, 11

Petrobrusians, ideas of the church, 11; connection with Anabaptists, 13

Poland, immersion among Anabaptists of, 144

R

Radicals. See Zürich Reformation, and social changes, 3; reformers before the, 13; relation of Anabaptists to, ib.; in Switzerland, 54; in Moravia, 148

Regensburg, importance of the city, 36; anti-Jewish agitation in, 38 sq.; pilgrimages to, 45; the Neupfarrkirche, 46; Albertus Magnus and his monastery, 47; council testifies to Hübmaier's character, 49; makes him parting gift, 50; recalls Hübmaier, 55; second parting gift, 56; invites Hübmaier to visit, 77, 78; later visit of Hübmaier to, 142

Rhynsburg, immersion in, 145

Ritual among Anabaptists, 210

Röublin, William, Anabaptist preacher, converts Hübmaier to Anabaptism, 111

S

St. Emeran, monastery at Regensburg, 47

St. Gall, Hübmaier's visit to, 57

Savonarola compared to Hübmaier, 237

Schaffhausen, Hübmaier's first residence at, 67; second residence there, 81 sq.; refuses to surrender Hübmaier, 82; Hübmaier appeals to council of, 82, 83

Scriptures, do not warrant infant baptism, 10, 16, 57; supremacy of, 16, 58, 66, 89 sq., 180; supremacy acknowledged by Swiss reformers, 92; inspiration of, 16; interpretation of, 17, 183 (see also Exegesis)

Schwertler, at Nikolsburg, 248; expelled, 249

Socialism, among Anabaptists, 172, 176, 215, 250 sq. See also Community of Goods

Sorg, Simprecht (Frowschauer), Hübmaier's printer, 153

Soteriology, Hübmaier's doctrine of, 198-201

South Dakota, and colonies of Moravian Anabaptists, 270

Spitalmaier, Hans, reformer at Nikolsburg, 150

Stäbler at Nikolsburg, 249

Sword, Hut's doctrine of, 160, 162; Hübmaier's doctrine summarised, 170-176; his treatise on, 273-310

T

Taxes, Anabaptist opposition to, 3, 162

Theology, or doctrine of God, 184-190

Theses, Luther's, 50; Hübmaier's eighteen, 69-71; his twenty-six, 89-91

Thomas, Augustinian "reader," 120

Thirty Years' War, 268

Trichotomy, taught by Hübmaier, 191

Turks, threatened invasions of, 148, 166, 248

U

Uliman, Wolfgang, Swiss Anabaptist, 143

Unitarians among Anabaptists, 184

Unitas Fratrum, early history, 148

V

Vadianus (Watt), Swiss reformer, friend of Hübmaier, 57; his opinion of Hübmaier, 245

W

Waldshut,town of, described, 51; character of people, 52; Hübmaier' s first pastorate, 51-54; second pastorate, 57; reforms of 1524, 72; opposition of clergy, 74; town summoned by Ferdinand, 74 sq.; second summons, 79; Hübmaier leaves, 81; last negotiations with Ferdinand, 94 sq.; has sympathy of Zürich, 95; hundreds become Anabaptists, 112; visited by Grebel, 113; captured by Austrians, 122, 123; troubles at, charged against Hübmaier, 222, 224

Waldenses, idea of church, 11; extent of, 12; connection with Anabaptists, 13

Water-tower at Zürich, Anabaptist prison, 129

Weissenburger, Wolfgang, Swiss reformer, 120 sq.

Widemann, Jacob, Anabaptist preacher, his communistic ideas, 162; joins forces with Hut, 163; continued activity at Nikolsburg, 150, 176; in the socialistic communities, 251

Will, Luther's doctrine of, 193, 196; Hübmaier's doctrine of, 193-195

Wyeland, William, of Regensburg, kindness to Hübmaier, 49

Z

Zürich, city of, Hübmaier's visit to, 57; second disputation at, 57-65; reform in, 66; conduct of Hübmaier at, 74, 75; first disputation at, 92; people divided, 100; they study the Scriptures, 105

Zürich, council of, decide for Zwingli, 65; adopt severe measures against Anabaptists, 124; refuse to surrender Hübmaier, 128; imprison Anabaptists, 129; banish Hübmaier, 141; penalty for rebaptizing, 144

Zürich, radicals of, 58, 65, 92; demands on Zwingli, 101, 103; Hübmaier becomes their champion, 110; their programme rejected by Zwingli, 103; their able leaders, 111

Zwingli, Huldreich, reformer, 22; friend of Hübmaier, 57; relations to Zürich radicals, 58; attitude towards images, ib.; ideas about the mass, 62, policy as reformer, 66; marriage of, 73; influence on Hübmaier, 74; avows supreme authority of Scripture, 92; his perplexity in 1524, 100; believes radicals impracticable, 103; his exegesis, 104; doubts infant baptism, 127; resents course of Hübmaier, 110; publishes his Baptism, Anabaptism and Infant Baptism, 113; attacked by Hübmaier, 115, 117; his True, Thorough Reply, 118; his statements about Hübmaier, 123; debate with Hübmaier, 125-128; his libererality, 128; sermon at Hübmaier's "recantation," 129; confirms torture of Hübmaier, 137; procures Hübmaier's recantation, 138; intercedes for Hübmaier, 142; his Refutation of the Tricks of Catabaptists, 144; compared as leader and writer to Hübmaier, 153, 157; discredits Anabaptists, 164; his exegesis of "This is my body," 208