Biography and family record of Lorenzo Snow/Chapter XLV
Discourse by Elder Lorenzo Snow, delivered in the Tabernacle, S It Lake City, January 14, 1872. Progression. The Fatherhood of God. The perfect man. The gifts of the Spirit. His testimony.
TAKE pleasure, this afternoon, in making a few remarks to the Latter-day Saints, as well as to any strangers who may be present. I never designed to be a preacher; it was only a sense of positive duty that induced me to occupy the position as a preacher of the Gospel. An understanding, given through the revelations of the Lord Jesus Christ, of the principles that we, the Latter-day Saints, have espoused, has induced me to travel through the world, bearing testimony of those things which I do assuredly know pertaining to the Gos- pel of life and salvation revealed in this our day.
The relation that we sustain to the Lord our God, and the blessings and privileges to be acquired through the system of life which we have received, are worthy of our deepest consid- eration; and it is no less necessary that we understand the duties, the performance of which is requisite on our part, for the attainment of those blessings and privileges, and to keep
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ourselves in the path on which we may secure the highest advantages which the system of religion we have received is, in its nature, capable of giving.
The relationship which we sustain to God our Father, as well as to the world at large, if properly understood and appre- ciated, is calculated to waken us up to the performance of the duties required of us as Latter-day Saints. We ought to understand that we have espoused a system of religion that is calculated in its nature to increase within us wisdom and knowledge that we have entered upon a path that is pro- gressive that will increase physical, spiritual and intellectual advantages and everything pertaining to our own happiness and the well-being of the world at large.
We believe that we are the offspring of our Father in heaven, and that we possess in our spiritual organizations the same capabilities, powers and faculties that our Father pos- sesses, although in an infantile state, requiring to pass through a certain course or ordeal by which they will be developed and improved, according to the heed we give to the principles we have received. We believe that God is no respecter of persons, but that He confers blessings upon all His children, in proportion to the light they have, or in pro- portion as they proceed according to the light and knowledge they possess, in. the different circumstances of life that may surround them.
We believe that the spirit which enlightens the human family proceeds from the presence of the Almighty; that it spreads throughout all space, that it is the light and life of all things, and that every honest heart possesses it in proportion to his virtue, integrity and his desire to know the truth and do good to his fellow men.
We see the providences of God in all things ; we see them in raising up different communities and establishments in the world, for the general and universal benefit of mankind ; \\T see the providences -of God in raising up a Luther, a John
Wesley; we see the providences of God in all the Christian organizations and communities; we trace the hand of the Almighty in framing the constitution of our land, and believe that the Lord raised up men purposely for the accomplishment of this object raised them up and inspired them to frame the Constitution of the United States.
We trace the hand of God, His Spirit, His workings upon and among all classes of people, whether Christian or heathen ; that His providences may be carried out, and that His designs, formed before the morning stars sang together, or the foundations of the earth were laid, may be fulfilled. He slackens not His hand, He does not relinquish His designs nor His purposes, but His work is one eternal round. We trace the hand of the Almighty, and we see His Spirit moving in all communities for their good restraining and encouraging, establishing governments and nations, inspiring men to take a course that shall most advance His purposes, until the set time shall come when He shall work more fully and effectu- ally for the accomplishment of His designs ; and when sorrow, wickedness, bitter disappointment, vexation, distress and poverty shall cease and be no more known, and the salvation and happiness of His children be secured; when the earth shall be rolled back in pristine purity, into its primeval orbit, and the inhabitants thereof dwell upon it in perfect peace and righteousness.
[f there is any class of people in the world that has reason to be liberal and generous towards their fellow qreatures, it is the Latter-day Saints; and that our liberality and generosity are not shown more than they are, is in consequence of the pressure of circumstances with which we are surrounded, restraining us from the exercise thereof; but we expect to be hereafter in situations when we will have the privilege and opportunity of doing as we desire in this respect. However, in regard to this, whether circumstances shall so change or not, we know that we are in possession of a system of progres-
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sion. We might speak in reference to the increase of knowl- edge to individuals who receive and obey the doctrines we teach ; but that which is most interesting to us is the progres- sion of the Latter-day Saints themselves in the sj^stem we have received.
Our faith, views and the principles we have obeyed, all coincide perfectly with those of former-day Saints, which we find recorded in the Bible. Were ministers of the present day to stand in their pulpits and announce doctrines in reference to the progression of Saints, as they were preached in former days, the doctrines would be considered at least very startling, and a committee of investigation would undoubtedly be required at once, by their congregations, to ascertain whether or. not they had seceded from their previously avowed prin- ciples. For instance, let a Methodist, Presbyterian or Baptist minister arise in his pulpit and suggest to his congregation, as Paul did on a certain occasion: " Let this same mind be in you which is also in Christ Jesus, who, having the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God," it would be a startling announcement; so also would the doctrine of John, the Revelator, on a certain occasion, when he says : " Now are we the sons of God : it does not appear what we shall be, but we know that when He (Christ) shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is; and every man that has this hope in him purifies himself even as God is*pure." That would be a startling announcement of doctrine. Did any one present, acquainted with the Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian or Episcopalian societies, ever hear suggestions or doctrines like these? I never did, and I was well acquainted formerly with these societies. " Let this same mind be in you which was in Christ Jesus, who, finding Himself in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God;" and, "He that has this hope in him purifies himself even as God is pure;" and again, "When He shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is."
We were born in the image of God our Father; He begat us like unto Himself. There is the nature of Deity in the composition of our spiritual organization. In our spiritual birth, our Father transmitted to us the capabilities, powers and faculties which He possessed, as much so as the child on its mother's bosom possesses, although in an undeveloped state, the faculties, powers and susceptibilities of its parent.
"Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Teachers," we are told, were, in former days in the church, " for the perfect- ing of the Saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edify- ing of the body of Christ, until we all come to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto the perfect man." What is meant by this "the perfect man?" And again, " Unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." A system was known in those days, through which a Saint could become perfect in the Lord Jesus a system by which Saints could advance in the knowledge of the things of God to an understanding of His purposes, of their own natures and characters, of their relationship to the Almighty, and of the ordeals necessary for them to pass through, that they might be perfected as the Son of God was perfected.
This system, taught by Christ and His Apostles, was not at that time first introduced ; it was known ages before it was established before the foundations of the earth were laid. I will noAv quote a passage from the Book of Doctrine
enants, which will be found on page 85, section 4, para- graph 6:
"He that receiveth me (saith the Lord), receiveth my Father, and he that receiveth my Father, receiveth my Father's kingdom; therefore, all that my Father hath shall be given unto him; and this is according to the oath and cove- nant which belongeth to the Priesthood. Therefore, all who receive the Priesthood, receive this oath and covenant of my Father, which He cannot break, neither can it be moved ; but whoso breaketh this covenant, after he hath received it, and
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altogether turneth therefrom, shall not have forgiveness of sins in this world nor in the world to come."
This is a revelation given to the Latter-day Saints, and so far as respects its provisions in reference to those who receive it, it is precisely in keeping with those passages I have quoted from the Xew Testament. They were the burden of the teachings of the Apostles in former days; but were they pre- sented now to the Christian world by their ministers and teachers, they would be considered blasphemy. This system wa.s known to Adam after he' was expelled from the Garden of Eden ; it was well known to Noah, and he preached it to the antediluvians one hundred and twenty years; it was also known in the days of Moses he preached it to the Israelites, on the banks of the Red Sea. " I would not have you igno- rant," says the Apostle, in reference to this point, "how that our fathers all passed through the sea were all under the cloud, all ate of the same spiritual meat, all drank the same spiritual drink, for they drank of that spiritual rqck which followed them, and that rock was Christ."
It is evident from this that the Gospel of life was known and practiced there; but we are told that in consequence of wickedness and unbelief, the Gospel was taken from the people in the time of Moses, because it did not profit them, and instead thereof a system called the "schoolmaster to bring them to Christ" was introduced. On account of their wicked- ness and hardness of heart, they refused to avail themselves of the privileges within their reach ; for when the Lord proposed to come 'down into their midst and talk with them face to face, as He did with Moses, they requested Moses to officiate for them and speak with the Lord; and being filled with unbelief and unwillingness to become acquainted with God, their Father, the Gospel and all its privileges were withdrawn. Thus we see this Gospel has been introduced at various times into the world. It was known to the Prophets; they under- stood plainly and distinctly that Jesus was the Lamb slain
from the foundation of the world, and that in due season He would manifest Himself to the children of men that He would die for their sins, and be crucified, in order to complete the plan of salvation. The Prophets had the Gospel and its advantages; and the Holy Spirit, that is ever connected with it, was poured out upon them in fulness.
There was a certain blessing connected with obedience to the Gospel the gift of the Holy Ghost. When people received the ordinances of the Gospel, they were promised that they should receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. The Savior, who undoubt- edly knew best about the nature and character of this gift, said it should lead all who received it into all truth, and show them things to come. It should do more than that Spirit which proceeds from God, filling the immensity of space and enlightening every man that- comes into the world ; the Holy Ghost should lead into all truth and show them things to come. Furthermore, in speaking of its effects, the Apostle says: "The Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. To one is given faith." Not a common, ordinary faith to which some people pretend at the present day; but a faith which enables its possessors to be sawn asunder to be cast into dens of lions, fiery furnaces, and to undergo tortures of every description. This was the kind of faith the Holy Ghost con- ferred upon those who possessed it, enabling them to stand in the midst of every difficulty, defy every opposition, and even sacrifice life, if necessary, for the cause they had espoused- There was an omnipotent, inspiring power in this faith, given by the Almighty through the Holy Ghost, which no other principle could communicate.
To one was given faith, to another knowledge; not that which is gained by reading books merely, but knowledge from the Eternal Father. A self-inspiring principle was con- ferred on them, which was tangible, giving them a knowledge of the cause they had espoused. They knew by revelation from God that the Gospel they had obeyed was true ; it was
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revealed to them in a manner they could not dispute, and they knew for themselves. They were then established upon the rock of revelation.
There is a great difference between the possession of the Holy Ghost, and the mere possession of the Spirit of God.. All honest-hearted people, "who are living according to the best light they have received, have the Spirit of God. All Chris- tian churches have it, i. e., those who seek truth and righteous- ness. The Baptists, if they are honest, have it; so have the Methodists and Presbyterians; so also have all Christians and also heathen nations. . Go to China, and all honest-hearted people there have the Spirit of God; in fact, we are told that this is " the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world." But to say that all have the Holy Ghost the gift that was promised to those who .obeyed the Gospel is incor- rect.
We can trace the providences of God in raising up certain individuals to establish religious organizations, and we see in these the workings of the Spirit of God for the general interest of the human family. We look upon George Washington, the father of our country, -as an inspired instrument of the Almighty ; we can see the all-inspiring Spirit operating upon him and his co-workers in resisting oppression, and in estab- lishing thirteen colonies as a confederacy ; and then again, the workings of the same Spirit upon those men who established the Constitution of the United States. In a revelation con- tained in the J3ook of Doctrine and Covenants, the Lord says: "And for this purpose have I established thQ constitution of this land, by the hands of wise men, whom I raised up unto this very purpose." We see the hand of the Lord in these things. The Christian churches will not acknowledge these spiritual operations, which we most firmly believe, in regard to the workings of Providence and the operations of the Spirit of the Lord upon the hearts of the human family.
We now most conspicuously see the hand of the
in establishing a kingdom spoken of in ages long past by Daniel, the Prophet a kingdom which shall grow and spread until it fills the whole earth : when light and intelligence will be so generally diffused that it shall no longer be necessary for any man to say to his fellows, " Know ye the Lord," but all shall know Him, from the least unto the greatest. And when the Spirit of the Lord shall be poured out upon all flesh to such a degree that the sons and the daughters shall prophesy, the old men shall dream dreams, the young men shall see visions, and when there shall be nothing to hurt or destroy in all the holy mountain of the Lord.
We have seen what has been promised, and what sug- gestions made and encouragement given in relation to our progression, as contemplated by the Prophets, expressed in their writings in the Old and New Testaments. We see what God in His revelations direct has said to us; and we might bring up passage after passage from the Xew Testament, Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and the Book of Mormon, in regard to the progression and happiness of His people. But there are other considerations connected with this to which I will call your attention. The revelations of the Lord given to us say that all things shall be given to those who receive the Priesthood; but in connection with this promise are certain obligations which have to be fulfilled on our part. That same ( rod and Father who tells us what great blessings await the faithful, says: "Whoso layeth down his life for my cause and for my name's sake shall receive it again, even life eternal; therefore, fear not your enemies, for I, the Lord, have decreed in my heart that I will prove you in all things, whether you will abide in my covenant, even unto death, for he that will not abide in my covenant is not worthy of me."
Here on one hand are promised those extraordinary and wonderful blessings; and on the other, if we renounce the doctrine we have received, or if we are unwilling to stand up to the point, even of death, in fulfilling the will of our Father
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in the accomplishment of His work, we shall be counted unworthy of the promised blessings.
' Now you take a man, no matter from what country, if he be a man of integrity, when he receives a knowledge of the truth, lie will stand to that knowledge; you cannot force il from him by imprisonment, or by taking away his property or destroying every earthly source of his happiness. Do what you will to annoy and oppress him, he will still stand firm in his adherence to .the principles he knows are true.
When the Gospel reached us in the different nations whence we came, the Spirit of the Lord gave us convictions of its truth, and in the honesty of our hearts we received it and its blessings, otherwise we would have remained at our several homes. AVe were promised by the several Elders who pro- claimed the Gospel unto us, that if we would do the will of God, if 'we would obey
the Gospel, we should receive the gift
of the Holy Ghost; they said, as Peter said on the day of Pen- tecost, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, for the remission of your sins, and you shall receive the Holy Ghost. Then when they spoke of the operations of the Holy Ghost, they described them as Jesus, Paul, John and the Saints who received it testified in regard to it from the effects it produced upon them. Therefore, when the Gospel was received under circumstances of this nature, those who were its recipients expected superior and extraordinary blessings blessings they could not reach in any other religious society. They were promised such blessings as all other religious denominations said did not exist and could not be received. They would acknowledge that such blessings had formerly been received through the Gospel, but could not be imparted now.
Hence,.!! tkose who obeyed the Gospel, as taught by the Klders of this Church, did not receive the blessings promised, why do I see them before me here to-day by thousands? Why. when traveling through the length and breadth of this coun- try, do 1 see people who have gathered, comparatively, from
almost every nation under the sun? If they received not the fulfilment of what was promised, why are they here in this Territory? In these valleys of the mountains? They had I icttor stayed at home. It is the most inconsistent thing imaginable to suppose that people after being deceived should leave their country, homes and friends and cross the wide ocean and vast deserts into a land of which they knew nothing.
When Abraham was commanded to leave his home and kindred he obeyed the mandate of the Most High, and the fact that thousands are now here, settled through this long strip of country, over hills, valleys and mountains, proves that they have followed the example of the " father of the faithful," they have shown by their acts that they have received the aU- inspiring power of the Holy Ghost which was promised them, which revealed to them that the Lord had fulfilled the prophecy of His servant Daniel, that without hands He had cut a stone from the mountains, and that it had commenced to move, and roll, and would continue on its course until it had fulfilled the destiny predicted by the' Prophet.
If the people here have not received the knowledge promised in connection with their obedience to the Gospel, they are acting most inconsistently ; for they are perpetuating upon their children, their children's children, and upon future generations, a system that is entirely false binding a yoke of tradition upon them, with consequences beyond the power of language to describe. And more than this, they are guilty of the most gross offence before the Almighty, for they are not only injuring themselves, but they are laying a foundation to destroy the happiness of unborn generations.
But the fact that the work still continues and increases, and that the last words of the dying Saints to their children and friends are, " I know by the revelations of God that this work is true,'" is strong presumptive proof of its absolute truth.
If you Saints here do not know this work is of God, it is your duty to rise up and declare you have been deceived,
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acknowledge that the Spirit of God has not been given i you, and that the declaration of the Elder who promised it is entirely false; and thus try to correct the error which you have been guilty of propagating. At once leave the " Mormon" Church, and you would resume a position that would be more consistent: then get a testimony from on high that some other church possesses the system of salvation get a testimony that the Book of Mormon and Book of Doctrine and Covenants are spurious, and just the moment you get that testimony, where are you? Where are the words of the Apostle Peter? "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, and you shall receive the Holy Ghost." Where are the words of the Lord Jesus? lie says, " It (the Holy Ghost) shall lead you into all truth, and show you things to come." Where are the words of the Apostle Paul? "Let this same mind be in you which was in Christ Jesus, who, finding himself in the the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God." Where are the words of John? "We know that we are the sons of God, and it does not appear what we shall be, but we know that when He (Jesus) shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is : and every man that hath this mind in him, purifies himself, even as (rod is pure." Throw these doctrines aside; let them pass and go to a Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Quaker or Shaker, then where is your Bible, and of what account ?
I testify before this assembly, as I have testified before the people throughout the different States of the Union, and throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Italy, Switzer- land and France, that God Almighty, through my obedience to the Gospel of Jesus, has revealed to me, tangibly, that this is the work of God that this is His Gospel, and that this is His "kingdom which Daniel prophesied should be set up in the last days. I prophesy that any man who will be humble before the Lord any man who will, with child-like, sim- plicity, be baptized for the remission of his sins, shall receive
the Holy Ghost, which shall lead him into all truth, and show him things to come: he shall receive a knowledge from Clod that His kingdom has been established in these latter days ; and that it shall never be thrown down, or be left to another people.
In saying this, I say no more than every man could say, and has said, who had a dispensation of the Gospel. I would not have traveled over the face of the earth, as I have for the last thirty -five years, unless God had revealed this unto me. I have already said, nothing but absolute duty ever prompted me to travel and preach this Gospel ; but I received a dispensa- tion from the Most High, and I could say, and do say now, as the Apostle Paul said : "I received not this Gospel from man, but I received it by revelation from God." I say that any man who will humble himself before God, and be immersed in water (after repentance) for the remission of his sins, shall receive, through the laying on of hands, the Holy Ghost. Can I give him this? No. I, as a messenger of the Lord, to whom authority has been delegated, administer immersion for the remission of sins I simply immerse him in water, having authority so to do. I simply lay my hands upon him for the reception of the Holy Ghost; then God, from His hoi}' presence, acknowledges my authority acknowledges that I am His messenger, and confers the Holy Ghost upon the individual. This is the Gospel; this is what constitutes a man a savior of life unto life, as Jesus told His disciples they were.
Talk about this kingdom being destroyed! Talk about, reason upon, lay plans here and there, by the combined wis- dom of governments, to destroy the kingdom of God! Why, you might as well try to pluck the stars from the firmament, or the moon and the sun from their orbits ! It can never be accomplished, for it is the work of the great I AM. I advise every man who has a disposition to put forth his hand against this work to hold on and consider. Take the advice of
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Gamaliel, the lawyer. Said he: "If this is the work of God, ye can do nothing against it; if it is not, it will come to nought."
Well, now, they say that the "Mormons" are fanatical. If so, it is very good fanaticism. We have philosophy, science, truth, the power of God and the testimony of good men on our side. I can select twelve men, with whom I have been acquainted during the last twenty-five, thirty or thirty- five years: I have known them under varied circumstances, in which their hearts have been proved, their feelings tried, and their honesty and integrity tested. Have I confidence in these men? I have just as much as I have when I read in the New Testament about Twelve Apostles. I know nothing about Peter, James, or the other Apostles, but these men I know something about I have seen their honor and integrity tried under various circumstances in life. Have I not a right to believe their testimony? Most assuredly I have, and I will prophesy of them No, excuse me, I am not in the habit of prophesying: I will say here, that in generations to come, the doings of these men will be read the account of their labors in preaching the Gospel to the nations of the earth what they have suffered for the cause of God; the imprisonment, contumely, drivings from .Ohio, Missouri, Jackson, and the northern counties of Missouri, and from Illinois, and how they have passed through all this and almost everything in the shape of suffering that can be imagined; and have still adhered to, and borne their testimony to the the truth. Their works will be read, and in generations to come, people will have just as much confidence in these men as Christians (so called) now profess to have in the Twelve Apostles whose doings are recorded in the New Testa- ment. They are just as good men, we have every reason to believe.
As to the truth of what the Apostles, whom we read of in the New Testament, said, I know nothing, only what
I experience, through having observed the same system they preached. They received the blessings pertaining to it, so have I received what they promised should be conferred upon those who, in their day, received that system. There- fore, we who have received a like experience are the only wit- nesses to the truth of what those Apostles said; we are the only witnesses of the truth in respect to what Jesus
said. Jesus said,
"He that will do the will of my Father, shall know of the doctrine." We are witnesses that Jesus told the truth.
The Apostles said that those who receive the Gospel by baptism for the remission of sins, shall receive the Holy Ghost. We are witnesses that they told the truth. Can the Methodist or Presbyterian ministers witness to these facts? No: they know nothing about them. They received their diplomas and endowments at college they trust in the wisdom of man- to the knowledge of science; we trust in the power of the Almighty. Perhaps it may be said to us: For ye see your calling, brethren; how that not many wise men, after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called. But (rod hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wi'se; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things that are mighty; and base things of the world, and things that are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are."
Well, I do not feel materially concerned about anything that regards the advancement and prosperity of the. kingdom of God. It is a matter that I have not contrived, nor my brethren : it is the Lord's affair. Thus far He has done this work. We never came to these valleys through our own designs and wishes: the Lord our God brought us here, and when He wants us to leave, we shall be better prepared to go than we were to come. We simply do what our Heavenly Father commands. God loves His offspring, the human family. His design is not simply to create happiness for the few called Latter-day Saints. The aim and scheme He is now
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carrying out is for universal salvation not only for the salva- tion of the Latter-day Saints, but for the salvation of every man and woman on the face of the earth: for those also in the spirit world, and for those who may hereafter come upon the earth. It is for the salvation of every son and daughter of Adam. The}' are the offspring of the Almighty; He loves them all, and His plans are for the salvation of the whole, and He will bring all up into that position in which they will be as comfortable and as happy as they are willing to be.
Our mission is to the world, and not simply to carry the ( lospel to the people, but to establish plans and lay foundations for their temporal salvation. Our object is as much for the temporal as for the spiritual salvation of the people. The time is approaching when the nations will be broken up, on account of their wickedness. The ' Latter-day Saints are not going to war against them they will destroy themselves with their immorality and abominations. They will quarrel and contend one with another, State with State, and nation with nation, until the} 7 are broken up; and thousands, tens and hundreds of thousands, will, undoubtedly, come for protection at the hands of the servants of God, as much so as in the days of Joseph in Egypt, when he was called upon to devise a plan for the salvation of the house of Israel.
We have received revelations, and, accordingly, we are here in these mountain vales, and we are going to stay. We shall cultivate our farms and lay a foundation for a time when the nations shall be broken up. Multitudes will then flee to these valleys of the mountains for safety, and we shall extend protection to them. You may say, "Shall you require them to be baptized and become Latter-day Saints?" Not by any means. I often meet gentlemen from different portions of the Union. I never offer them my religious views, unless they seek them. I am not anxious to push my religious views upon any man. I will do them all the good T can. If a gentleman comes into my neighborhood, a stranger, I will say, will you
have something to eat? Is there anything I can do for you? I am not anxious to make a "Mormon" of him not by any means; we extend the hand of charity just as far as people are willing we should; but When, as I said at the commencement, people are crowding upon us those who are determined to destroy us who have not the principles of humanity in their bosoms, we cannot exercise the charity in their behalf that we desire.
We expect to do good ; it is our duty as the servants and ministers of God upon the earth to do good to His offspring. This is our mission, and it is as much our duty to do good to those who do not receive the Gospel, as it is to do good to our- selves: and God will give us the opportunity, just in accord- ance to our desires, despite the efforts of evil-minded men. Our duty is to save, not to destroy ; and as we improve and advance, and develop the attributes of Deity within us, God will remove from our path the impediments which obstruct our progress, and the bitter branches, as they increase and manifest themselves, will, one after another, be removed, until the people of God have all the opportunities they can desire to do good to the world. God bless you, my brethren and friends. Journal of Discourses.