Open main menu
CIA WFB Seal.png Kenya Flag of Kenya (WFB 2004).gif
Kenya-CIA WFB Map (2004).png
 
Introduction Kenya
Background: Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December of 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition, defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
 
Geography Kenya
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 582,650 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundaries: total: 3,477 km
border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Coastline: 536 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 8.08%
permanent crops: 0.98%
other: 90.94% (2001)
Irrigated land: 670 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Environment - current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
 
People Kenya
Population: 32,021,856
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.6% (male 6,575,409; female 6,430,218)
15-64 years: 56.5% (male 9,126,847; female 8,962,905)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 399,050; female 527,427) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 18.6 years
female: 18.7 years (2004 est.)
male: 18.5 years
Population growth rate: 1.14% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 27.82 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 16.31 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: according to UNHCR, by the end of 2001 Kenya was host to 220,000 refugees from neighboring countries, including: Somalia 145,000 and Sudan 68,000 (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 62.62 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 65.55 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 44.94 years
male: 44.79 years
female: 45.1 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 6.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.2 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 150,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2%
note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
Languages: English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.1%
male: 90.6%
female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
 
Government Kenya
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
Government type: republic
Capital: Nairobi
Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)
Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, and 2001
Legal system: based on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002) and Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenya's seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held NA December 2007); vice president appointed by the president
election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called "nominated" members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)
elections: last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held by early 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NARC 125, KANU 64, FORD-P 14, other 7; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - NARC 7, KANU 4, FORD-P 1
Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Political parties and leaders: Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Mwai KIBAKI] - the governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders: human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Leonard NGAITHE
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador William M. BELLAMY
embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Ave., Gigiti; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi
mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (2) 537-800
FAX: [254] (2) 537-810
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
 
Economy Kenya
Economy - overview: The regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption, notably in the judicial system, and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenya's problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.2% in 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenya's economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% in 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to the elections. In the key 27 December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. In 2003, progress was made in rooting out corruption, and encouraging donor support, with GDP growth edging up to 1.7%.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $33.03 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 19.7%
industry: 18.6%
services: 61.8% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 14.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 44.9 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 11.45 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: 40% (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.761 billion
expenditures: $3.406 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt: 62.9% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products processing; oil refining, cement; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 4.033 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 3.981 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 230 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 57,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Current account balance: $-306 million (2003)
Exports: $2.514 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports - partners: Uganda 12.7%, UK 12.5%, US 9.4%, Netherlands 8.5%, Pakistan 5%, Egypt 4.6%, Tanzania 4.3% (2003)
Imports: $3.705 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports - partners: UAE 13.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.6%, South Africa 8.6%, UK 7.4%, China 6.3%, US 5.1%, India 5.1%, Japan 4.9%, Germany 4.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $1.455 billion (2003)
Debt - external: $5.916 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $453 million (1997)
Currency: Kenyan shilling (KES)
Currency code: KES
Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings per US dollar - 75.9356 (2003), 78.7491 (2002), 78.5632 (2001), 76.1755 (2000), 70.3262 (1999)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
 
Communications Kenya
Telephones - main lines in use: 328,400 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,590,800 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business
domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios: 3.07 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 8 (2002)
Televisions: 730,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ke
Internet hosts: 8,325 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 65 (2001)
Internet users: 400,000 (2002)
 
Transportation Kenya
Railways: total: 2,778 km
narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 63,942 km
paved: 7,737 km
unpaved: 56,205 km (2000)
Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya (2004)
Pipelines: refined products 752 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Kisumu, Lamu, Mombasa
Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,049 GRT/7,082 DWT
registered in other countries: 9 (2004 est.)
by type: petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
Airports: 221 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 15
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 206
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 110
under 914 m: 84 (2004 est.)
 
Military Kenya
Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,313,051 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,150,405 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $231 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (2003)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005