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Introduction Latvia
Background: After a brief period of independence between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
 
Geography Latvia
Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
Geographic coordinates: 57 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 64,589 sq km
water: 1,000 sq km
land: 63,589 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries: total: 1,150 km
border countries: Belarus 141 km, Estonia 339 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters
Terrain: low plain
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Gaizinkalns 312 m
Natural resources: peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land
Land use: arable land: 29.67%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 69.86% (2001)
Irrigated land: 200 sq km
note: land in Latvia is often too wet, and in need of drainage, not irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq km or 85% of agricultural land has been improved by drainage (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: Latvia's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household and hazardous waste management, and reduction of air pollution; in 2001, Latvia closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note: most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the east
 
People Latvia
Population: 2,306,306 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15% (male 177,223; female 169,241)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 772,496; female 823,410)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 118,035; female 245,901) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 38.8 years
male: 35.6 years
female: 41.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.71% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 8.87 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 13.73 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 11.45 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.86 years
male: 65.91 years
female: 76.09 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 5,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 500 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Latvian(s)
adjective: Latvian
Ethnic groups: Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002)
Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox
Languages: Latvian (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
 
Government Latvia
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Latvia
conventional short form: Latvia
local short form: Latvija
former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Latvijas Republika
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Riga
Administrative divisions: 26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons
Independence: 21 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November (1918); note - 18 November 1918 is the date Latvia declared itself independent from Soviet Russia; 4 May 1990 is when it declared the renewal of independence; 21 August 1991 is the date of de facto independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: 15 February 1922; an October 1998 amendment on Fundamental Human Rights replaced the 1991 Constitutional Law, which had supplemented the constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens
Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Aigars KALVITIS (since 2 December 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the Parliament
elections: president reelected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 20 June 2003 (next to be held by June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA reelected president; parliamentary vote - Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA 88 of 94 votes cast
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - New Era 23.9%, PCTVL 18.9%, People's Party 16.7%, ZZS 9.5%, First Party 7.6%, LNNK 5.4%; seats by party - New Era 26, PCTVL 24, People's Party 21, ZZS 12, First Party 10, LNNK 7
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of the Greens and Farmers Union or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS (Farmer's Union); Indulis EMSIS (Green Party)]; First Party of Latvia [Ainars SLESERS]; For Human Rights in a United Latvia or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS]; For Our Latvia or ML [Rihards Jablokovs]; Latvian National Democratic Party or LNDP [Jevgenijs Osiopovs]; Latvian National Front [Aivars GARDA]; Latvian Social-Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Alfred RUBIKS]; Latvia's Way Union or LC; Light of Latgale or LG; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE]; New Politics Party or JP [Sergejs DOLGOPOLOVS]; People's Harmony Party or TSP [Janis JURKANS]; People's Party or TP [Atis SLAKTERIS]; Social Democratic Union or SDS [Egils BALDZENS]; Union for the Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK or TB/LNNK [Janis STRAUME]; United Social Democratic Welfare Party or SLP [Juris ZURAVLOVS]; United Republican Party of Latvia or LARP
Political pressure groups and leaders: Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maris RIEKSTINS
FAX: [1] (202) 726-6785
telephone: [1] (202) 726-8213, 8214
chancery: 4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Catherine Todd-Bailey
embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV-1510
mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723
telephone: [371] 703-6200
FAX: [371] 782-0047
Flag description: three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon
 
Economy Latvia
Economy - overview: Latvia's transitional economy recovered from the 1998 Russian financial crisis, largely due to the SKELE government's budget stringency and a gradual reorientation of exports toward EU countries, lessening Latvia's trade dependency on Russia. The majority of companies, banks, and real estate have been privatized, although the state still holds sizable stakes in a few large enterprises. Latvia officially joined the World Trade Organization in February 1999. Preparing for EU membership continues as a top foreign policy goal. The current account and internal government deficits remain major concerns, but the government's efforts to increase efficiency in revenue collection may lessen the budget deficit.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.9 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4.5%
industry: 24.5%
services: 70.9% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed): 27.1% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 25.9% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 1.18 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 25%, services 60% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.6% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $3.691 billion
expenditures: $3.871 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt: 14.4% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Industries: buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note - dependent on imports for energy and raw materials
Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 4.365 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 6.046 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 703 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 2.69 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 44,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance: $-955.9 million (2003)
Exports: $3 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners: UK 15.6%, Germany 14.8%, Sweden 10.5%, Lithuania 8.2%, Estonia 6.6%, Denmark 6%, Russia 5.4% (2003)
Imports: $4.921 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles
Imports - partners: Germany 16.1%, Lithuania 9.7%, Russia 8.7%, Finland 7.4%, Estonia 6.4%, Sweden 6.3%, Poland 5.1%, Italy 4.4% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $1.535 billion (2003)
Debt - external: $6.793 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $96.2 million (1995)
Currency: Latvian lat (LVL)
Currency code: LVL
Exchange rates: lati per US dollar - 0.5715 (2003), 0.6182 (2002), 0.6279 (2001), 0.6065 (2000), 0.5852 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Latvia
Telephones - main lines in use: 653,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,219,600 (2003)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an international capability independent of the Moscow international switch; more facilities are being installed for individual use
domestic: expansion underway in intercity trunk line connections, rural exchanges, and mobile systems; still many unsatisfied subscriber applications
international: country code - 371; international connections are now available via cable and a satellite earth station at Riga, enabling direct connections for most calls (1998)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios: 1.76 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus 31 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)
Internet country code: .lv
Internet hosts: 51,758 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 41 (2001)
Internet users: 936,000 (2003)
 
Transportation Latvia
Railways: total: 2,303 km
broad gauge: 2,270 km 1.520-m gauge (257 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 73,202 km
paved: 28,256 km
unpaved: 44,946 km (2000)
Waterways: 300 km (2004)
Pipelines: gas 1,097 km; oil 409 km; refined products 415 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Liepaja, Riga, Ventspils
Merchant marine: total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 53,153 GRT/37,414 DWT
foreign-owned: Germany 1, Greece 1, Ukraine 1
registered in other countries: 96 (2004 est.)
by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea/passenger 1
Airports: 51 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2003 est.)
 
Military Latvia
Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 19 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for volunteers; Latvia plans to phase out conscription, tentatively moving to an all-professional force by 2007 (August 2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 594,596 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 466,659 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 19,209 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $87 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY01)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005

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