map of Samoa

Introduction Samoa
Background: New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997.

Geography Samoa
Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 13 35 S, 172 20 W
Map references: Oceania
Area: total: 2,944 sq km
water: 10 sq km
land: 2,934 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 403 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
Terrain: two main islands (Savaii, Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mauga Silisili (Savaii) 1,857 m
Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 21.2%
permanent crops: 24.38%
other: 54.42% (2001)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons; active volcanism
Environment - current issues: soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: occupies an almost central position within Polynesia

People Samoa
Population: 177,714 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.3% (male 25,548; female 24,668)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 72,820; female 43,563)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 5,096; female 6,019) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 24.2 years
male: 26.8 years
female: 20.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.25% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 15.69 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 6.47 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -11.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.67 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.39 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 28.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 33.83 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.41 years
male: 67.64 years
female: 73.33 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.11 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3
Nationality: noun: Samoan(s)
adjective: Samoan
Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%
Religions: Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages: Samoan (Polynesian), English
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.7% (2003 est.)

Government Samoa
Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa
conventional short form: Samoa
former: Western Samoa
Government type: constitutional monarchy under native chief
Capital: Apia
Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship, 1 June 1962 is the date that independence is celebrated
Constitution: 1 January 1962
Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA (cochief of state from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)
head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1996); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister from 1992 until he assumed the prime ministership in 1996, when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned in poor health; TUILA'EPA was confirmed as prime minister (November 1998) after TOFILAU died; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of state with the prime minister's advice
elections: upon the death of Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats - 47 elected by voters affiliated with traditional village-based electoral districts, 2 elected by independent, mostly Eurasian, voters who cannot, (or choose not to) establish a village affiliation; only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Fono; members serve five-year terms)
elections: election last held 3 March 2001 (next election to be held not later than March 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - HRPP 30, SNDP 13, independents 6
Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Land and Titles Court
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party [leader NA]; Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA, chairman]; Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua MAIMOANA]; Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [LE MAMEA Ropati, chairman] (opposition); Samoa National Party [FETU Tiatia, party secretary]; Samoan Progressive Conservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]; Samoan United Independents Party or SUIP [Dr. Saleimoa VAAI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aliioaiga Feturi ELISAIA
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the Ambassador to New Zealand, Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS, is accredited to Samoa
embassy: Accident Compensation Board (ACB) Building, 5th Floor, Apia
mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Apia
telephone: [685] 21631/22696
FAX: [685] 22030
Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

Economy Samoa
Economy - overview: The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, and agriculture and fishing. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. The decline of fish stocks in the area is a continuing problem. Tourism is an expanding sector, accounting for 25% of GDP; about 88,000 tourists visited the islands in 2001. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline, meantime protecting the environment. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state, the external debt is stable, and inflation is low.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14%
industry: 23%
services: 63% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2001 est.)
Labor force: 90,000 (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: NA
Unemployment rate: NA%; note - substantial underemployment
Budget: revenues: $105 million
expenditures: $119 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001-02)
Agriculture - products: coconuts, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa
Industries: food processing, building materials, auto parts
Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (2000)
Electricity - production: 105.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 97.74 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 1,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Exports: $14 million f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities: fish, coconut oil and cream, copra, taro, automotive parts, garments, beer
Exports - partners: Australia 63.6%, Indonesia 15.2%, US 5.1% (2003)
Imports: $113 million f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: New Zealand 19.8%, Fiji 17.8%, Australia 15.4%, Japan 11.9%, US 4.7%, Singapore 4.3% (2003)
Debt - external: $197 million (2000)
Economic aid - recipient: $42.9 million (1995)
Currency: tala (SAT)
Currency code: SAT (former WST code is still in wide use)
Exchange rates: tala per US dollar - 2.9732 (2003), 3.3763 (2002), 3.478 (2001), 3.2864 (2000), 3.0132 (1999)
Fiscal year: June 1 - May 31

Communications Samoa
Telephones - main lines in use: 11,800 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,700 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate
domestic: NA
international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 174,849 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (2002)
Televisions: 8,634 (1999)
Internet country code: .ws
Internet hosts: 8,225 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 4,000 (2002)

Transportation Samoa
Highways: total: 790 km
paved: 332 km
unpaved: 458 km (1999 est.)
Ports and harbors: Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa
Merchant marine: total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,091 GRT/8,127 DWT
registered in other countries: 2 (2004 est.)
by type: cargo 1
foreign-owned: Germany 1
Airports: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Military Samoa
Military branches: no regular armed services; Samoa Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure: NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA
Military - note: Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship

This page was last updated on 1 January 2003

This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005