Some of the most important problems of the calculus are those where time is the independent variable, and we have to think about the values of some other quantity that varies when the time varies. Some things grow larger as time goes on; some other things grow smaller. The distance that a train has got from its starting place goes on ever increasing as time goes on. Trees grow taller as the years go by. Which is growing at the greater rate; a plant inches high which in one month becomes inches high, or a tree feet high which in a year becomes feet high?

In this chapter we are going to make much use of the word rate. Nothing to do with poor-rate, or water-rate (except that even here the word suggests a proportion–a ratio–so many pence in the pound). Nothing to do even with birth-rate or death-rate, though these words suggest so many births or deaths per thousand of the population. When a motor-car whizzes by us, we say: What a terrific rate! When a spendthrift is flinging about his money, we remark that that young man is living at a prodigious rate. What do we mean by *rate*? In both these cases we are making a mental comparison of something that is happening, and the length of time that it takes to happen. If the motor-car flies past us going yards per second, a simple bit of mental arithmetic will show us that this is equivalent–while it lasts–to a rate of yards per minute, or over miles per hour.

Now in what sense is it true that a speed of yards per second is the same as yards per minute? Ten yards is not the same as yards, nor is one second the same thing as one minute. What we mean by saying that the *rate* is the same, is this: that the proportion borne between distance passed over and time taken to pass over it, is the same in both cases.

Take another example. A man may have only a few pounds in his possession, and yet be able to spend money at the rate of millions a year–provided he goes on spending money at that rate for a few minutes only. Suppose you hand a shilling over the counter to pay for some goods; and suppose the operation lasts exactly one second. Then, during that brief operation, you are parting with your money at the rate of shilling per second, which is the same rate as £ per minute, or £ per hour, or £ per day, or £ per year! If you have £ in your pocket, you can go on spending money at the rate of a million a year for just minutes.

It is said that Sandy had not been in London above five minutes when “bang went saxpence.” If he were to spend money at that rate all day long, say for hours, he would be spending shillings an hour, or £. . per day, or £. . a week, not counting the Sawbbath.

Now try to put some of these ideas into differential notation.

Let in this case stand for money, and let stand for time.

If you are spending money, and the amount you spend in a short time be called , the *rate* of spending it will be , or rather, should be written with a minus sign, as , because is a *decrement*, not an increment. But money is not a good example for the calculus, because it generally comes and goes by jumps, not by a continuous flow–you may earn £ a year, but it does not keep running in all day long in a thin stream; it comes in only weekly, or monthly, or quarterly, in lumps: and your expenditure also goes out in sudden payments.

A more apt illustration of the idea of a rate is furnished by the speed of a moving body. From London (Euston station) to Liverpool is miles. If a train leaves London at o’clock, and reaches Liverpool at o’clock, you know that, since it has travelled miles in hours, its average rate must have been miles per hour; because . Here you are really making a mental comparison between the distance passed over and the time taken to pass over it. You are dividing one by the other. If is the whole distance, and the whole time, clearly the average rate is . Now the speed was not actually constant all the way: at starting, and during the slowing up at the end of the journey, the speed was less. Probably at some part, when running downhill, the speed was over miles an hour. If, during any particular element of time , the corresponding element of distance passed over was , then at that part of the journey the speed was . The *rate* at which one quantity (in the present instance, *distance*) is changing in relation to the other quantity (in this case, *time*) is properly expressed, then, by stating the differential coefficient of one with respect to the other. A *velocity*, scientifically expressed, is the rate at which a very small distance in any given direction is being passed over; and may therefore be written

.

But if the velocity is not uniform, then it must be either increasing or else decreasing. The rate at which a velocity is increasing is called the *acceleration*. If a moving body is, at any particular instant, gaining an additional velocity in an element of time , then the acceleration at that instant may be written

;

but is itself . Hence we may put ; and this is usually written ;

or the acceleration is the second differential coefficient of the distance, with respect to time. Acceleration is expressed as a change of velocity in unit time, for instance, as being so many feet per second per second; the notation used being .

When a railway train has just begun to move, its velocity v is small; but it is rapidly gaining speed–it is being hurried up, or accelerated, by the effort of the engine. So its is large. When it has got up its top speed it is no longer being accelerated, so that then has fallen to zero. But when it nears its stopping place its speed begins to slow down; may, indeed, slow down very quickly if the brakes are put on, and during this period of *deceleration* or slackening of pace, the value of , that is, of will be negative.

To accelerate a mass requires the continuous application of force. The force necessary to accelerate a mass is proportional to the mass, and it is also proportional to the acceleration which is being imparted. Hence we may write for the force , the expression

;

;

or

.

The product of a mass by the speed at which it is going is called its *momentum*, and is in symbols . If we differentiate momentum with respect to time we shall get for the rate of change of momentum. But, since is a constant quantity, this may be written which we see above is the same as . That is to say, force may be expressed either as mass times acceleration, or as rate of change of momentum.

Again, if a force is employed to move something (against an equal and opposite counter-force), it does *work*; and the amount of work done is measured by the product of the force into the distance (in its own direction) through which its point of application moves forward. So if a force moves forward through a length , the work done (which we may call ) will be

;

where we take as a constant force. If the force varies at different parts of the range , then we must find an expression for its value from point to point. If be the force along the small element of length , the amount of work done will be . But as is only an element of length, only an element of work will be done. If we write for work, then an element of work will be ; and we have

;

which may be written

;

or

;

or

.

Further, we may transpose the expression and write

.

This gives us yet a third definition of *force*; that if it is being used to produce a displacement in any direction, the force (in that direction) is equal to the rate at which work is being done per unit of length in that direction. In this last sentence the word *rate* is clearly not used in its time-sense, but in its meaning as ratio or proportion.

Sir Isaac Newton, who was (along with Leibniz) an inventor of the methods of the calculus, regarded all quantities that were varying as *flowing*; and the ratio which we nowadays call the differential coefficient he regarded as the rate of flowing, or the *fluxion* of the quantity in question. He did not use the notation of the and , and (this was due to Leibnitz), but had instead a notation of his own. If was a quantity that varied, or “flowed,” then his symbol for its rate of variation (or “fluxion”) was . If was the variable, then its fluxion was called . The dot over the letter indicated that it had been differentiated. But this notation does not tell us what is the independent variable with respect to which the differentiation has been effected. When we see we know that y is to be differentiated with respect to t. If we see we know that y is to be differentiated with respect to . But if we see merely y˙, we cannot tell without looking at the context whether this is to mean or or , or what is the other variable. So, therefore, this fluxional notation is less informing than the differential notation, and has in consequence largely dropped out of use. But its simplicity gives it an advantage if only we will agree to use it for those cases exclusively where *time* is the independent variable. In that case will mean and will mean ; and will mean .

Adopting this fluxional notation we may write the mechanical equations considered in the paragraphs above, as follows:

distance | |

velocity | , |

acceleration | , |

force | , |

work | . |

*Examples*.

(1) A body moves so that the distance (in feet), which it travels from a certain point , is given by the relation , where is the time in seconds elapsed since a certain instant. Find the velocity and acceleration seconds after the body began to move, and also find the corresponding values when the distance covered is feet. Find also the average velocity during the first seconds of its motion. (Suppose distances and motion to the right to be positive.) Now

,

; and constant.

When , and . The body started from a point feet to the right of the point ; and the time was reckoned from the instant the body started.

When ; .

When or ,

and ;

When

distance travelled

Average velocity =

(It is the same velocity as the velocity at the middle of the interval, ; for, the acceleration being constant, the velocity has varied uniformly from zero when to . when .)

(2) In the above problem let us suppose

.

.

When , and ft./sec, the time is reckoned from the instant at which the body passed a point ft. from the point , its velocity being then already ft./sec. To find the time elapsed since it began moving, let ; then , sec. The body began moving sec. before time was begun to be observed; seconds after this gives and ft./sec.

When ft.,

; or ;

hence sec., ft./sec.

To find the distance travelled during the first seconds of the motion one must know how far the body was from the point when it started.

When ,

,

that is ft. to the left of the point .

Now, when ,

.

So, in seconds, the distance travelled was ft., and the average velocity .

(3) Consider a similar problem when the distance is given by . Then , constant. When , as before, and ; so that the body was moving in the direction opposite to its motion in the previous cases. As the acceleration is positive, however, we see that this velocity will decrease as time goes on, until it becomes zero, when or ; or sec. After this, the velocity becomes positive; and seconds after the body started, , and

.

When ,

,

and

.

When is zero, , informing us that the body moves back to ft. beyond the point before it stops. Ten seconds later

and .

The distance travelled and the average velocity is again ft./sec.

(4) Consider yet another problem of the same sort with ; ; The acceleration is no more constant.

When , , , . The body is at rest, but just ready to move with a negative acceleration, that is to gain a velocity towards the point .

(5) If we have , then , and .

When , ; ; .

The body is moving towards the point with a velocity of ft./sec., and just at that instant the velocity is uniform.

We see that the conditions of the motion can always be at once ascertained from the time-distance equation and its first and second derived functions. In the last two cases the mean velocity during the first seconds and the velocity seconds after the start will no more be the same, because the velocity is not increasing uniformly, the acceleration being no longer constant.

(6) The angle (in radians) turned through by a wheel is given by , where is the time in seconds from a certain instant; find the angular velocity and the angular acceleration , (a) after second; (b) after it has performed one revolution. At what time is it at rest, and how many revolutions has it performed up to that instant?

Writing for the acceleration

.

When , ; rad./sec.; .

When ,

.

This is a retardation; the wheel is slowing down.

After revolution

.

By plotting the graph, , we can get the value or values of for which ; these are and (there is a third negative value).

When ,

;

.

When ,

;

.

The velocity is reversed. The wheel is evidently at rest between these two instants; it is at rest when , that is when , or when sec., it has performed

revolutions.

*Exercises V* (See page 256 for Answers)

*Ans.* ; .

(2) A body falling freely in space describes in seconds a space , in feet, expressed by the equation . Draw a curve showing the relation between and . Also determine the velocity of the body at the following times from its being let drop: seconds; seconds; second.

(3) If ; find and .

(4) If a body move according to the law

,

find its velocity when seconds; being in feet.

(5) Find the acceleration of the body mentioned in the preceding example. Is the acceleration the same for all values of ?

(6) The angle (in radians) turned through by a revolving wheel is connected with the time (in seconds) that has elapsed since starting; by the law

.

Find the angular velocity (in radians per second) of that wheel when seconds have elapsed. Find also its angular acceleration.

(7) A slider moves so that, during the first part of its motion, its distance s in inches from its starting point is given by the expression

; being in seconds.

Find the expression for the velocity and the acceleration at any time; and hence find the velocity and the acceleration after seconds.

(8) The motion of a rising balloon is such that its height , in miles, is given at any instant by the expression ; being in seconds.

Find an expression for the velocity and the acceleration at any time. Draw curves to show the variation of height, velocity and acceleration during the first ten minutes of the ascent.

(9) A stone is thrown downwards into water and its depth in metres at any instant seconds after reaching the surface of the water is given by the expression

.

Find an expression for the velocity and the acceleration at any time. Find the velocity and acceleration after seconds.

(10) A body moves in such a way that the spaces described in the time from starting is given by , where is a constant. Find the value of when the velocity is doubled from the th to the th second; find it also when the velocity is numerically equal to the acceleration at the end of the th second.