Canterbury Tales (ed. Skeat)/Franklin

Here folwen the wordes of the Frankelin to the Squier, and the wordes of the Host to the Frankelin.

'In feith, Squier, thou hast thee wel y-quit,
And gentilly I preise wel thy wit,'
Quod the Frankeleyn, 'considering thy youthe,        675
So feelingly thou spekest, sir, I allow the!
As to my doom, there is non that is here
Of eloquence that shal be thy pere,
If that thou live; god yeve thee good chaunce,
And in vertu sende thee continuaunce!        680
For of thy speche I have greet deyntee.
I have a sone, and, by the Trinitee,        (10)
I hadde lever than twenty pound worth lond,
Though it right now were fallen in myn hond,
He were a man of swich discrecioun        685
As that ye been! fy on possessioun
But-if a man be vertuous with-al.
I have my sone snibbed, and yet shal,
For he to vertu listeth nat entende;
But for to pleye at dees, and to despende,        690
And lese al that he hath, is his usage.
And he hath lever talken with a page        (20)
Than to comune with any gentil wight
Ther he mighte lerne gentillesse aright.'—

  'Straw for your gentillesse,' quod our host;        695
'What, frankeleyn? pardee, sir, wel thou wost
That eche of yow mot tellen atte leste
A tale or two, or breken his biheste.'

  'That knowe I wel, sir,' quod the frankeleyn;
'I prey yow, haveth me nat in desdeyn        700
Though to this man I speke a word or two.'

  'Telle on thy tale with-outen wordes mo.'        (30)
'Gladly, sir host,' quod he, 'I wol obeye
Un-to your wil; now herkneth what I seye.
I wol yow nat contrarien in no wyse        705
As fer as that my wittes wol suffyse;
I prey to god that it may plesen yow,
Than woot I wel that it is good y-now.'

The Prologe of the Frankeleyns Tale.

Thise olde gentil Britons in hir dayes
Of diverse aventures maden layes,        710
Rymeyed in hir firste Briton tonge;
Which layes with hir instruments they songe,        (40)
Or elles redden hem for hir plesaunce;
And oon of hem have I in remembraunce,
Which I shal seyn with good wil as I can.        715

  But, sires, by-cause I am a burel man,
At my biginning first I yow biseche
Have me excused of my rude speche;
I lerned never rethoryk certeyn;
Thing that I speke, it moot be bare and pleyn.        720
I sleep never on the mount of Pernaso,
Ne lerned Marcus Tullius Cithero.        (50)
Colours ne knowe I none, with-outen drede,
But swiche colours as growen in the mede,
Or elles swiche as men dye or peynte.        725
Colours of rethoryk ben me to queynte;
My spirit feleth noght of swich matere.
But if yow list, my tale shul ye here.

Here biginneth the Frankeleyns Tale.

In Armorik, that called is Britayne,
Ther was a knight that loved and dide his payne        730
To serve a lady in his beste wyse;
And many a labour, many a greet empryse
He for his lady wroghte, er she were wonne.
For she was oon, the faireste under sonne,
And eek therto come of so heigh kinrede,        735
That wel unnethes dorste this knight, for drede,
Telle hir his wo, his peyne, and his distresse.
But atte laste, she, for his worthinesse,        (10)
And namely for his meke obeysaunce,
Hath swich a pitee caught of his penaunce,        740
That prively she fil of his accord
To take him for hir housbonde and hir lord,
Of swich lordshipe as men han over hir wyves;
And for to lede the more in blisse hir lyves,
Of his free wil he swoor hir as a knight,        745
That never in al his lyf he, day ne night,
Ne sholde up-on him take no maistrye
Agayn hir wil, ne kythe hir Ialousye,        (20)
But hir obeye, and folwe hir wil in al
As any lovere to his lady shal;        750
Save that the name of soveraynetee,
That wolde he have for shame of his degree.

  She thanked him, and with ful greet humblesse
She seyde, 'sire, sith of your gentillesse
Ye profre me to have so large a reyne,        755
Ne wolde never god bitwixe us tweyne,
As in my gilt, were outher werre or stryf.
Sir, I wol be your humble trewe wyf,        (30)
Have heer my trouthe, til that myn herte breste.'
Thus been they bothe in quiete and in reste.        760

  For o thing, sires, saufly dar I seye,
That frendes everich other moot obeye,
If they wol longe holden companye.
Love wol nat ben constreyned by maistrye;
Whan maistrie comth, the god of love anon        765
Beteth hise winges, and farewel! he is gon!
Love is a thing as any spirit free;
Wommen of kinde desiren libertee,        (40)
And nat to ben constreyned as a thral;
And so don men, if I soth seyen shal.        770
Loke who that is most pacient in love,
He is at his avantage al above.
Pacience is an heigh vertu certeyn;
For it venquisseth, as thise clerkes seyn,
Thinges that rigour sholde never atteyne.        775
For every word men may nat chyde or pleyne.
Lerneth to suffre, or elles, so moot I goon,
Ye shul it lerne, wher-so ye wole or noon.        (50)
For in this world, certein, ther no wight is,
That he ne dooth or seith som-tyme amis.        780
Ire, siknesse, or constellacioun,
Wyn, wo, or chaunginge of complexioun
Causeth ful ofte to doon amis or speken.
On every wrong a man may nat be wreken;
After the tyme, moste be temperaunce        785
To every wight that can on governaunce.
And therfore hath this wyse worthy knight,
To live in ese, suffrance hir bihight,        (60)
And she to him ful wisly gan to swere
That never sholde ther be defaute in here.        790

  Heer may men seen an humble wys accord;
Thus hath she take hir servant and hir lord,
Servant in love, and lord in mariage;
Than was he bothe in lordship and servage;
Servage? nay, but in lordshipe above,        795
Sith he hath bothe his lady and his love;
His lady, certes, and his wyf also,
The which that lawe of love acordeth to.        (70)
And whan he was in this prosperitee,
Hoom with his wyf he gooth to his contree,        800
Nat fer fro Penmark, ther his dwelling was,
Wher-as he liveth in blisse and in solas.

  Who coude telle, but he had wedded be,
The Ioye, the ese, and the prosperitee
That is bitwixe an housbonde and his wyf?        805
A yeer and more lasted this blisful lyf,
Til that the knight of which I speke of thus,
That of Kayrrud was cleped Arveragus,        (80)
Shoop him to goon, and dwelle a yeer or tweyne
In Engelond, that cleped was eek Briteyne,        810
To seke in armes worship and honour;
For al his lust he sette in swich labour;
And dwelled ther two yeer, the book seith thus.

  Now wol I stinte of this Arveragus,
And speken I wole of Dorigene his wyf,        815
That loveth hir housbonde as hir hertes lyf.
For his absence wepeth she and syketh,
As doon thise noble wyves whan hem lyketh.        (90)
She moorneth, waketh, wayleth, fasteth, pleyneth;
Desyr of his presence hir so distreyneth,        820
That al this wyde world she sette at noght.
Hir frendes, whiche that knewe hir hevy thoght,
Conforten hir in al that ever they may;
They prechen hir, they telle hir night and day,
That causelees she sleeth hir-self, allas!        825
And every confort possible in this cas
They doon to hir with al hir bisinesse,
Al for to make hir leve hir hevinesse.        (100)

  By proces, as ye knowen everichoon,
Men may so longe graven in a stoon,        830
Til som figure ther-inne emprented be.
So longe han they conforted hir, til she
Receyved hath, by hope and by resoun,
The emprenting of hir consolacioun,
Thurgh which hir grete sorwe gan aswage;        835
She may nat alwey duren in swich rage.

  And eek Arveragus, in al this care,
Hath sent hir lettres hoom of his welfare,        (110)
And that he wol come hastily agayn;
Or elles hadde this sorwe hir herte slayn.        840

  Hir freendes sawe hir sorwe gan to slake,
And preyede hir on knees, for goddes sake,
To come and romen hir in companye,
Awey to dryve hir derke fantasye.
And finally, she graunted that requeste;        845
For wel she saugh that it was for the beste.

  Now stood hir castel faste by the see,
And often with hir freendes walketh she        (120)
Hir to disporte up-on the bank an heigh,
Wher-as she many a ship and barge seigh        850
Seilinge hir cours, wher-as hem liste go;
But than was that a parcel of hir wo.
For to hir-self ful ofte 'allas!' seith she,
'Is ther no ship, of so manye as I see,
Wol bringen hom my lord? than were myn herte        855
Al warisshed of his bittre peynes smerte.'

  Another tyme ther wolde she sitte and thinke,
And caste hir eyen dounward fro the brinke.        (130)
But whan she saugh the grisly rokkes blake,
For verray fere so wolde hir herte quake,        860
That on hir feet she mighte hir noght sustene.
Than wolde she sitte adoun upon the grene,
And pitously in-to the see biholde,
And seyn right thus, with sorweful sykes colde:

  'Eterne god, that thurgh thy purveyaunce        865
Ledest the world by certein governaunce,
In ydel, as men seyn, ye no-thing make;
But, lord, thise grisly feendly rokkes blake,        (140)
That semen rather a foul confusioun
Of werk than any fair creacioun        870
Of swich a parfit wys god and a stable,
Why han ye wroght this werk unresonable?
For by this werk, south, north, ne west, ne eest,
Ther nis y-fostred man, ne brid, ne beest;
It dooth no good, to my wit, but anoyeth.        875
See ye nat, lord, how mankinde it destroyeth?
An hundred thousand bodies of mankinde
Han rokkes slayn, al be they nat in minde,        (150)
Which mankinde is so fair part of thy werk
That thou it madest lyk to thyn owene merk.        880
Than semed it ye hadde a greet chiertee
Toward mankinde; but how than may it be
That ye swiche menes make it to destroyen,
Whiche menes do no good, but ever anoyen?
I wool wel clerkes wol seyn, as hem leste,        885
By arguments, that al is for the beste,
Though I ne can the causes nat y-knowe.
But thilke god, that made wind to blowe,        (160)
As kepe my lord! this my conclusioun;
To clerkes lete I al disputisoun.        890
But wolde god that alle thise rokkes blake
Were sonken in-to helle for his sake!
Thise rokkes sleen myn herte for the fere.'
Thus wolde she seyn, with many a pitous tere.

  Hir freendes sawe that it was no disport        895
To romen by the see, but disconfort;
And shopen for to pleyen somwher elles.
They leden hir by riveres and by welles,        (170)
And eek in othere places delitables;
They dauncen, and they pleyen at ches and tables.        900

  So on a day, right in the morwe-tyde,
Un-to a gardin that was ther bisyde,
In which that they had maad hir ordinaunce
Of vitaille and of other purveyaunce,
They goon and pleye hem al the longe day.        905
And this was on the sixte morwe of May,
Which May had peynted with his softe shoures
This gardin ful of leves and of floures;        (180)
And craft of mannes hand so curiously
Arrayed hadde this gardin, trewely,        910
That never was ther gardin of swich prys,
But-if it were the verray paradys.
The odour of floures and the fresshe sighte
Wolde han maad any herte for to lighte
That ever was born, but-if to gret siknesse,        915
Or to gret sorwe helde it in distresse;
So ful it was of beautee with plesaunce.
At-after diner gonne they to daunce,        (190)
And singe also, save Dorigen allone,
Which made alwey hir compleint and hir mone;        920
For she ne saugh him on the daunce go,
That was hir housbonde and hir love also.
But nathelees she moste a tyme abyde,
And with good hope lete hir sorwe slyde.

  Up-on this daunce, amonges othere men,        925
Daunced a squyer biforen Dorigen,
That fressher was and Iolyer of array,
As to my doom, than is the monthe of May.        (200)
He singeth, daunceth, passinge any man
That is, or was, sith that the world bigan.        930
Ther-with he was, if men sholde him discryve,
Oon of the beste faringe man on-lyve;
Yong, strong, right vertuous, and riche and wys,
And wel biloved, and holden in gret prys.
And shortly, if the sothe I tellen shal,        935
Unwiting of this Dorigen at al,
This lusty squyer, servant to Venus,
Which that y-cleped was Aurelius,        (210)
Had loved hir best of any creature
Two yeer and more, as was his aventure,        940
But never dorste he telle hir his grevaunce;
With-outen coppe he drank al his penaunce.
He was despeyred, no-thing dorste he seye,
Save in his songes somwhat wolde he wreye
His wo, as in a general compleyning;        945
He seyde he lovede, and was biloved no-thing.
Of swich matere made he manye layes,
Songes, compleintes, roundels, virelayes,        (220)
How that he dorste nat his sorwe telle,
But languissheth, as a furie dooth in helle;        950
And dye he moste, he seyde, as dide Ekko
For Narcisus, that dorste nat telle hir wo.
In other manere than ye here me seye,
Ne dorste he nat to hir his wo biwreye;
Save that, paraventure, som-tyme at daunces,        955
Ther yonge folk kepen hir observaunces,
It may wel be he loked on hir face
In swich a wyse, as man that asketh grace;        (230)
But no-thing wiste she of his entente.
Nathelees, it happed, er they thennes wente,        960
By-cause that he was hir neighebour,
And was a man of worship and honour,
And hadde y-knowen him of tyme yore,
They fille in speche; and forth more and more
Un-to his purpos drough Aurelius,        965
And whan he saugh his tyme, he seyde thus:

  'Madame,' quod he, 'by god that this world made,
So that I wiste it mighte your herte glade,        (240)
I wolde, that day that your Arveragus
Wente over the see, that I, Aurelius,        970
Had went ther never I sholde have come agayn;
For wel I woot my service is in vayn.
My guerdon is but bresting of myn herte;
Madame, reweth upon my peynes smerte;
For with a word ye may me sleen or save,        975
Heer at your feet god wolde that I were grave!
I ne have as now no leyser more to seye;
Have mercy, swete, or ye wol do me deye!'        (250)
She gan to loke up-on Aurelius:
'Is this your wil,' quod she, 'and sey ye thus?        980
Never erst,' quod she, 'ne wiste I what ye mente.
But now, Aurelie, I knowe your entente,
By thilke god that yaf me soule and lyf,
Ne shal I never been untrewe wyf
In word ne werk, as fer as I have wit:        985
I wol ben his to whom that I am knit;
Tak this for fynal answer as of me.'
But after that in pley thus seyde she:        (260)

  'Aurelie,' quod she, 'by heighe god above,
Yet wolde I graunte yow to been your love,        990
Sin I yow see so pitously complayne;
Loke what day that, endelong Britayne,
Ye remoeve alle the rokkes, stoon by stoon,
That they ne lette ship ne boot to goon—
I seye, whan ye han maad the coost so clene        995
Of rokkes, that ther nis no stoon y-sene,
Than wol I love yow best of any man;
Have heer my trouthe in al that ever I can.'        (270)

  'Is ther non other grace in yow,' quod he.

  'No, by that lord,' quod she, 'that maked me!        1000
For wel I woot that it shal never bityde.
Lat swiche folies out of your herte slyde.
What deyntee sholde a man han in his lyf
For to go love another mannes wyf,
That hath hir body whan so that him lyketh?'        1005

  Aurelius ful ofte sore syketh;
Wo was Aurelie, whan that he this herde,
And with a sorweful herte he thus answerde:        (280)

  'Madame,' quod he, 'this were an inpossible!
Than moot I dye of sodein deth horrible.'        1010
And with that word he turned him anoon.
Tho come hir othere freendes many oon,
And in the aleyes romeden up and doun,
And no-thing wiste of this conclusioun,
But sodeinly bigonne revel newe        1015
Til that the brighte sonne loste his hewe;
For thorisonte hath reft the sonne his light;
This is as muche to seye as it was night.        (290)
And hoom they goon in Ioye and in solas,
Save only wrecche Aurelius, allas!        1020
He to his hous is goon with sorweful herte;
He seeth he may nat fro his deeth asterte.
Him semed that he felte his herte colde;
Up to the hevene his handes he gan holde,
And on his knowes bare he sette him doun,        1025
And in his raving seyde his orisoun.
For verray wo out of his wit he breyde.
He niste what he spak, but thus he seyde;        (300)
With pitous herte his pleynt hath he bigonne
Un-to the goddes, and first un-to the sonne:        1030

  He seyde, 'Appollo, god and governour
Of every plaunte, herbe, tree and flour,
That yevest, after thy declinacioun,
To ech of hem his tyme and his sesoun,
As thyn herberwe chaungeth lowe or hye,        1035
Lord Phebus, cast thy merciable yë
On wrecche Aurelie, which that am but lorn.
Lo, lord! my lady hath my deeth y-sworn        (310)
With-oute gilt, but thy benignitee
Upon my dedly herte have som pitee!        1040
For wel I woot, lord Phebus, if yow lest,
Ye may me helpen, save my lady, best.
Now voucheth sauf that I may yow devyse
How that I may been holpe and in what wyse.

  Your blisful suster, Lucina the shene,        1045
That of the see is chief goddesse and quene,
Though Neptunus have deitee in the see,
Yet emperesse aboven him is she:        (320)
Ye knowen wel, lord, that right as hir desyr
Is to be quiked and lightned of your fyr,        1050
For which she folweth yow ful bisily,
Right so the see desyreth naturelly
To folwen hir, as she that is goddesse
Bothe in the see and riveres more and lesse.
Wherfore, lord Phebus, this is my requeste—        1055
Do this miracle, or do myn herte breste—
That now, next at this opposicioun,
Which in the signe shal be of the Leoun,        (330)
As preyeth hir so greet a flood to bringe,
That fyve fadme at the leeste it overspringe        1060
The hyeste rokke in Armorik Briteyne;
And lat this flood endure yeres tweyne;
Than certes to my lady may I seye:
"Holdeth your heste, the rokkes been aweye."

  Lord Phebus, dooth this miracle for me;        1065
Preye hir she go no faster cours than ye;
I seye, preyeth your suster that she go
No faster cours than ye thise yeres two.        (340)
Than shal she been evene atte fulle alway,
And spring-flood laste bothe night and day.        1070
And, but she vouche-sauf in swiche manere
To graunte me my sovereyn lady dere,
Prey hir to sinken every rok adoun
In-to hir owene derke regioun
Under the ground, ther Pluto dwelleth inne,        1075
Or never-mo shal I my lady winne.
Thy temple in Delphos wol I barefoot seke;
Lord Phebus, see the teres on my cheke,        (350)
And of my peyne have som compassioun.'
And with that word in swowne he fil adoun,        1080
And longe tyme he lay forth in a traunce.

  His brother, which that knew of his penaunce,
Up caughte him and to bedde he hath him broght.
Dispeyred in this torment and this thoght
Lete I this woful creature lye;        1085
Chese he, for me, whether he wol live or dye.

  Arveragus, with hele and greet honour,
As he that was of chivalrye the flour,        (360)
Is comen hoom, and othere worthy men.
O blisful artow now, thou Dorigen,        1090
That hast thy lusty housbonde in thyne armes,
The fresshe knight, the worthy man of armes,
That loveth thee, as his owene hertes lyf.
No-thing list him to been imaginatyf
If any wight had spoke, whyl he was oute,        1095
To hire of love; he hadde of it no doute.
He noght entendeth to no swich matere,
But daunceth, Iusteth, maketh hir good chere;        (370)
And thus in Ioye and blisse I lete hem dwelle,
And of the syke Aurelius wol I telle.        1100

  In langour and in torment furious
Two yeer and more lay wrecche Aurelius,
Er any foot he mighte on erthe goon;
Ne confort in this tyme hadde he noon,
Save of his brother, which that was a clerk;        1105
He knew of al this wo and al this werk.
For to non other creature certeyn
Of this matere he dorste no word seyn.        (380)
Under his brest he bar it more secree
Than ever dide Pamphilus for Galathee.        1110
His brest was hool, with-oute for to sene,
But in his herte ay was the arwe kene.
And wel ye knowe that of a sursanure
In surgerye is perilous the cure,
But men mighte touche the arwe, or come therby.        1115
His brother weep and wayled prively,
Til atte laste him fil in remembraunce,
That whyl he was at Orliens in Fraunce,        (390)
As yonge clerkes, that been likerous
To reden artes that been curious,        1120
Seken in every halke and every herne
Particuler sciences for to lerne,
He him remembred that, upon a day,
At Orliens in studie a book he say
Of magik natural, which his felawe,        1125
That was that tyme a bacheler of lawe,
Al were he ther to lerne another craft,
Had prively upon his desk y-laft;        (400)
Which book spak muchel of the operaciouns,
Touchinge the eighte and twenty mansiouns        1130
That longen to the mone, and swich folye,
As in our dayes is nat worth a flye;
For holy chirches feith in our bileve
Ne suffreth noon illusion us to greve.
And whan this book was in his remembraunce,        1135
Anon for Ioye his herte gan to daunce,
And to him-self he seyde prively:
'My brother shal be warisshed hastily;        (410)
For I am siker that ther be sciences,
By whiche men make diverse apparences        1140
Swiche as thise subtile tregetoures pleye.
For ofte at festes have I wel herd seye,
That tregetours, with-inne an halle large,
Have maad come in a water and a barge,
And in the halle rowen up and doun.        1145
Somtyme hath semed come a grim leoun;
And somtyme floures springe as in a mede;
Somtyme a vyne, and grapes whyte and rede;        (420)
Somtyme a castel, al of lym and stoon;
And whan hem lyked, voyded it anoon.        1150
Thus semed it to every mannes sighte.

  Now than conclude I thus, that if I mighte
At Orliens som old felawe y-finde,
That hadde this mones mansions in minde,
Or other magik naturel above,        1155
He sholde wel make my brother han his love.
For with an apparence a clerk may make
To mannes sighte, that alle the rokkes blake        (430)
Of Britaigne weren y-voyded everichon,
And shippes by the brinke comen and gon,        1160
And in swich forme endure a day or two;
Than were my brother warisshed of his wo.
Than moste she nedes holden hir biheste,
Or elles he shal shame hir atte leste.'

  What sholde I make a lenger tale of this?        1165
Un-to his brotheres bed he comen is,
And swich confort he yaf him for to gon
To Orliens, that he up stirte anon,        (440)
And on his wey forthward thanne is he fare,
In hope for to ben lissed of his care.        1170

  Whan they were come almost to that citee,
But-if it were a two furlong or three,
A yong clerk rominge by him-self they mette,
Which that in Latin thriftily hem grette,
And after that he seyde a wonder thing:        1175
'I knowe,' quod he, 'the cause of your coming';
And er they ferther any fote wente,
He tolde hem al that was in hir entente.        (450)

  This Briton clerk him asked of felawes
The whiche that he had knowe in olde dawes;        1180
And he answerde him that they dede were,
For which he weep ful ofte many a tere.

  Doun of his hors Aurelius lighte anon,
And forth with this magicien is he gon
Hoom to his hous, and made hem wel at ese.        1185
Hem lakked no vitaille that mighte hem plese;
So wel arrayed hous as ther was oon
Aurelius in his lyf saugh never noon.        (460)

  He shewed him, er he wente to sopeer,
Forestes, parkes ful of wilde deer;        1190
Ther saugh he hertes with hir homes hye,
The gretteste that ever were seyn with yë.
He saugh of hem an hondred slayn with houndes,
And somme with arwes blede of bittre woundes.
He saugh, whan voided were thise wilde deer,        1195
Thise fauconers upon a fair river,
That with hir haukes han the heron slayn.

  Tho saugh he knightes Iusting in a playn;        (470)
And after this, he dide him swich plesaunce,
That he him shewed his lady on a daunce        1200
On which him-self he daunced, as him thoughte.
And whan this maister, that this magik wroughte,
Saugh it was tyme, he clapte his handes two,
And farewel! al our revel was ago.
And yet remoeved they never out of the hous,        1205
Whyl they saugh al this sighte merveillous,
But in his studie, ther-as his bookes be,
They seten stille, and no wight but they three.        (480)

  To him this maister called his squyer,
And seyde him thus: 'is redy our soper?        1210
Almost an houre it is, I undertake,
Sith I yow bad our soper for to make,
Whan that thise worthy men wenten with me
In-to my studie, ther-as my bookes be.'

  'Sire,' quod this squyer, 'whan it lyketh yow,        1215
It is al redy, though ye wol right now.'
'Go we than soupe,' quod he, 'as for the beste;
This amorous folk som-tyme mote han reste.'        (490)

  At-after soper fille they in tretee,
What somme sholde this maistres guerdon be,        1220
To remoeven alle the rokkes of Britayne,
And eek from Gerounde to the mouth of Sayne.

  He made it straunge, and swoor, so god him save,
Lasse than a thousand pound he wolde nat have,
Ne gladly for that somme he wolde nat goon.        1225

  Aurelius, with blisful herte anoon,
Answerde thus, 'fy on a thousand pound!
This wyde world, which that men seye is round,        (500)
I wolde it yeve, if I were lord of it.
This bargayn is ful drive, for we ben knit.        1230
Ye shal be payed trewely, by my trouthe!
But loketh now, for no necligence or slouthe,
Ye tarie us heer no lenger than to-morwe.'
'Nay,' quod this clerk, 'have heer my feith to borwe.'

  To bedde is goon Aurelius whan him leste,        1235
And wel ny al that night he hadde his reste;
What for his labour and his hope of blisse,
His woful herte of penaunce hadde a lisse.        (510)

  Upon the morwe, whan that it was day,
To Britaigne toke they the righte way,        1240
Aurelius, and this magicien bisyde,
And been descended ther they wolde abyde;
And this was, as the bokes me remembre,
The colde frosty seson of Decembre.

  Phebus wex old, and hewed lyk latoun,        1245
That in his hote declinacioun
Shoon as the burned gold with stremes brighte;
But now in Capricorn adoun he lighte,        (520)
Wher-as he shoon ful pale, I dar wel seyn.
The bittre frostes, with the sleet and reyn,        1250
Destroyed hath the grene in every yerd.
Ianus sit by the fyr, with double berd,
And drinketh of his bugle-horn the wyn.
Biforn him stant braun of the tusked swyn,
And "Nowel" cryeth every lusty man.        1255

  Aurelius, in al that ever he can,
Doth to his maister chere and reverence,
And preyeth him to doon his diligence        (530)
To bringen him out of his peynes smerte,
Or with a swerd that he wolde slitte his herte.        1260

  This subtil clerk swich routhe had of this man,
That night and day he spedde him that he can,
To wayte a tyme of his conclusioun;
This is to seye, to make illusioun,
By swich an apparence or Iogelrye,        1265
I ne can no termes of astrologye,
That she and every wight sholde wene and seye,
That of Britaigne the rokkes were aweye,        (540)
Or elles they were sonken under grounde.
So atte laste he hath his tyme y-founde        1270
To maken his Iapes and his wrecchednesse
Of swich a superstitious cursednesse.
His tables Toletanes forth he broght,
Ful wel corrected, ne ther lakked noght,
Neither his collect ne his expans yeres,        1275
Ne his rotes ne his othere geres,
As been his centres and his arguments,
And his proporcionels convenients        (550)
For his equacions in every thing.
And, by his eighte spere in his wirking,        1280
He knew ful wel how fer Alnath was shove
Fro the heed of thilke fixe Aries above
That in the ninthe speere considered is;
Ful subtilly he calculed al this.

  Whan he had founde his firste mansioun,        1285
He knew the remenant by proporcioun;
And knew the arysing of his mone weel,
And in whos face, and terme, and every-deel;        (560)
And knew ful weel the mones mansioun
Acordaunt to his operacioun,        1290
And knew also his othere observaunces
For swiche illusiouns and swiche meschaunces
As hethen folk used in thilke dayes;
For which no lenger maked he delayes,
But thurgh his magik, for a wyke or tweye,        1295
It semed that alle the rokkes were aweye.

  Aurelius, which that yet despeired is
Wher he shal han his love or fare amis,        (570)
Awaiteth night and day on this miracle;
And whan he knew that ther was noon obstacle,        1300
That voided were thise rokkes everichon,
Doun to his maistres feet he fil anon,
And seyde, 'I woful wrecche, Aurelius,
Thanke yow, lord, and lady myn Venus,
That me han holpen fro my cares colde:'        1305
And to the temple his wey forth hath he holde,
Wher-as he knew he sholde his lady see.
And whan he saugh his tyme, anon-right he,        (580)
With dredful herte and with ful humble chere,
Salewed hath his sovereyn lady dere:        1310

  'My righte lady,' quod this woful man,
'Whom I most drede and love as I best can,
And lothest were of al this world displese,
Nere it that I for yow have swich disese,
That I moste dyen heer at your foot anon,        1315
Noght wolde I telle how me is wo bigon;
But certes outher moste I dye or pleyne;
Ye slee me giltelees for verray peyne.        (590)
But of my deeth, thogh that ye have no routhe,
Avyseth yow, er that ye breke your trouthe.        1320
Repenteth yow, for thilke god above,
Er ye me sleen by-cause that I yow love.
For, madame, wel ye woot what ye han hight;
Nat that I chalange any thing of right
Of yow my sovereyn lady, but your grace;        1325
But in a gardin yond, at swich a place,
Ye woot right wel what ye bihighten me;
And in myn hand your trouthe plighten ye        (600)
To love me best, god woot, ye seyde so,
Al be that I unworthy be therto.        1330
Madame, I speke it for the honour of yow,
More than to save myn hertes lyf right now;
I have do so as ye comanded me;
And if ye vouche-sauf, ye may go see.
Doth as yow list, have your biheste in minde,        1335
For quik or deed, right ther ye shul me finde;
In yow lyth al, to do me live or deye;—
But wel I woot the rokkes been aweye!'        (610)

  He taketh his leve, and she astonied stood,
In al hir face nas a drope of blood;        1340
She wende never han come in swich a trappe:
'Allas!' quod she, 'that ever this sholde happe!
For wende I never, by possibilitee,
That swich a monstre or merveille mighte be!
It is agayns the proces of nature':        1345
And hoom she gooth a sorweful creature.
For verray fere unnethe may she go,
She wepeth, wailleth, al a day or two,        (620)
And swowneth, that it routhe was to see;
But why it was, to no wight tolde she;        1350
For out of toune was goon Arveragus.
But to hir-self she spak, and seyde thus,
With face pale and with ful sorweful chere,
In hir compleynt, as ye shul after here:

  'Allas,' quod she, 'on thee, Fortune, I pleyne,        1355
That unwar wrapped hast me in thy cheyne;
For which, tescape, woot I no socour
Save only deeth or elles dishonour;        (630)
Oon of thise two bihoveth me to chese.
But nathelees, yet have I lever to lese        1360
My lyf than of my body have a shame,
Or knowe my-selven fals, or lese my name,
And with my deth I may be quit, y-wis.
Hath ther nat many a noble wyf, er this,
And many a mayde y-slayn hir-self, allas!        1365
Rather than with hir body doon trespas?

  Yis, certes, lo, thise stories beren witnesse;
Whan thretty tyraunts, ful of cursednesse,        (640)
Had slayn Phidoun in Athenes, atte feste,
They comanded his doghtres for tareste,        1370
And bringen hem biforn hem in despyt
Al naked, to fulfille hir foul delyt,
And in hir fadres blood they made hem daunce
Upon the pavement, god yeve hem mischaunce!
For which thise woful maydens, ful of drede,        1375
Rather than they wolde lese hir maydenhede,
They prively ben stirt in-to a welle,
And dreynte hem-selven, as the bokes telle.        (650)

  They of Messene lete enquere and seke
Of Lacedomie fifty maydens eke,        1380
On whiche they wolden doon hir lecherye;
But was ther noon of al that companye
That she nas slayn, and with a good entente
Chees rather for to dye than assente
To been oppressed of hir maydenhede.        1385
Why sholde I thanne to dye been in drede?

  Lo, eek, the tiraunt Aristoclides
That loved a mayden, heet Stimphalides,        (660)
Whan that hir fader slayn was on a night,
Un-to Dianes temple goth she right,        1390
And hente the image in hir handes two,
Fro which image wolde she never go.
No wight ne mighte hir handes of it arace,
Til she was slayn right in the selve place.
Now sith that maydens hadden swich despyt        1395
To been defouled with mannes foul delyt,
Wel oghte a wyf rather hir-selven slee
Than be defouled, as it thinketh me.        (670)

  What shal I seyn of Hasdrubales wyf,
That at Cartage birafte hir-self hir lyf?        1400
For whan she saugh that Romayns wan the toun,
She took hir children alle, and skipte adoun
In-to the fyr, and chees rather to dye
Than any Romayn dide hir vileinye.

  Hath nat Lucresse y-slayn hir-self, allas!        1405
At Rome, whanne she oppressed was
Of Tarquin, for hir thoughte it was a shame
To liven whan she hadde lost hir name?        (680)

  The sevene maydens of Milesie also
Han slayn hem-self, for verray drede and wo,        1410
Rather than folk of Gaule hem sholde oppresse.
Mo than a thousand stories, as I gesse,
Coude I now telle as touchinge this matere.

  Whan Habradate was slayn, his wyf so dere
Hirselven slow, and leet hir blood to glyde        1415
In Habradates woundes depe and wyde,
And seyde, "my body, at the leeste way,
Ther shal no wight defoulen, if I may."        (690)

  What sholde I mo ensamples heer-of sayn,
Sith that so manye han hem-selven slayn        1420
Wel rather than they wolde defouled be?
I wol conclude, that it is bet for me
To sleen my-self, than been defouled thus.
I wol be trewe un-to Arveragus,
Or rather sleen my-self in som manere,        1425
As dide Demociones doghter dere,
By-cause that she wolde nat defouled be.

  O Cedasus! it is ful greet pitee,        (700)
To reden how thy doghtren deyde, allas!
That slowe hem-selven for swich maner cas.        1430

  As greet a pitee was it, or wel more,
The Theban mayden, that for Nichanore
Hir-selven slow, right for swich maner wo.

  Another Theban mayden dide right so;
For oon of Macedoine hadde hir oppressed,        1435
She with hir deeth hir maydenhede redressed.

  What shal I seye of Nicerates wyf,
That for swich cas birafte hir-self hir lyf?        (710)

  How trewe eek was to Alcebiades
His love, that rather for to dyen chees        1440
Than for to suffre his body unburied be!
Lo which a wyf was Alceste,' quod she.

  'What seith Omer of gode Penalopee?
Al Grece knoweth of hir chastitee.

  Pardee, of Laodomya is writen thus,        1445
That whan at Troye was slayn Protheselaus,
No lenger wolde she live after his day.

  The same of noble Porcia telle I may;        (720)
With-oute Brutus coude she nat live,
To whom she hadde al hool hir herte yive.        1450

  The parfit wyfhod of Arthemesye
Honoured is thurgh al the Barbarye,

  O Teuta, queen! thy wyfly chastitee
To alle wyves may a mirour be.
The same thing I seye of Bilia,        [T. om.
Of Rodogone, and eek Valeria.'        [T. om.

  Thus pleyned Dorigene a day or tweye,
Purposinge ever that she wolde deye.        (730)

  But nathelees, upon the thridde night,
Hom cam Arveragus, this worthy knight,        1460
And asked hir, why that she weep so sore?
And she gan wepen ever lenger the more.

  'Allas!' quod she, 'that ever was I born!
Thus have I seyd,' quod she, 'thus have I sworn'—
And told him al as ye han herd bifore;        1465
It nedeth nat reherce it yow na-more.

  This housbond with glad chere, in freendly wyse,
Answerde and seyde as I shal yow devyse:        (740)
'Is ther oght elles, Dorigen, but this?'

  'Nay, nay,' quod she, 'god help me so, as wis;        1470
This is to muche, and it were goddes wille.'

  'Ye, wyf,' quod he, 'lat slepen that is stille;
It may be wel, paraventure, yet to-day.
Ye shul your trouthe holden, by my fay!
For god so wisly have mercy on me,        1475
I hadde wel lever y-stiked for to be,
For verray love which that I to yow have,
But-if ye sholde your trouthe kepe and save.        (750)
Trouthe is the hyeste thing that man may kepe':—
But with that word he brast anon to wepe,        1480
And seyde, 'I yow forbede, up peyne of deeth,
That never, whyl thee lasteth lyf ne breeth,
To no wight tel thou of this aventure.
As I may best, I wol my wo endure,
Ne make no contenance of hevinesse,        1485
That folk of yow may demen harm or gesse.'

  And forth he cleped a squyer and a mayde:
'Goth forth anon with Dorigen,' he sayde,        (760)
'And bringeth hir to swich a place anon.'
They take hir leve, and on hir wey they gon;        1490
But they ne wiste why she thider wente.
He nolde no wight tellen his entente.        (764)

  Paraventure an heep of yow, y-wis,        [T. om.
Wol holden him a lewed man in this,        [T. om.
That he wol putte his wyf in Iupartye;        [T. om.
Herkneth the tale, er ye up-on hir crye.        [T. om.
She may have bettre fortune than yow semeth;        [T. om.
And whan that ye han herd the tale, demeth.        [T. om.

  This squyer, which that highte Aurelius,        (771)
On Dorigen that was so amorous,        1500
Of aventure happed hir to mete
Amidde the toun, right in the quikkest strete,
As she was boun to goon the wey forth-right
Toward the gardin ther-as she had hight.
And he was to the gardinward also;        1505
For wel he spyed, whan she wolde go
Out of hir hous to any maner place.
But thus they mette, of aventure or grace;        (780)
And he saleweth hir with glad entente,
And asked of hir whiderward she wente?

  And she answerde, half as she were mad,
'Un-to the gardin, as myn housbond bad,
My trouthe for to holde, allas! allas!'

  Aurelius gan wondren on this cas,
And in his herte had greet compassioun        1515
Of hir and of hir lamentacioun,
And of Arveragus, the worthy knight,
That bad hir holden al that she had hight,        (790)
So looth him was his wyf sholde breke hir trouthe;
And in his herte he caughte of this greet routhe,        1520
Consideringe the beste on every syde,
That fro his lust yet were him lever abyde
Than doon so heigh a cherlish wrecchednesse
Agayns franchyse and alle gentillesse;
For which in fewe wordes seyde he thus:        1525

  'Madame, seyth to your lord Arveragus,
That sith I see his grete gentillesse        (800)
To yow, and eek I see wel your distresse,
That him were lever han shame (and that were routhe)
Than ye to me sholde breke thus your trouthe,        1530
I have wel lever ever to suffre wo
Than I departe the love bitwix yow two.
I yow relesse, madame, in-to your hond
Quit every surement and every bond,
That ye han maad to me as heer-biforn,        1535
Sith thilke tyme which that ye were born.
My trouthe I plighte, I shal yow never repreve
Of no biheste, and here I take my leve,        (810)
As of the treweste and the beste wyf
That ever yet I knew in al my lyf.        1540
But every wyf be-war of hir biheste,
On Dorigene remembreth atte leste.
Thus can a squyer doon a gentil dede,
As well as can a knight, with-outen drede.'

  She thonketh him up-on hir knees al bare,        1545
And hoom un-to hir housbond is she fare,
And tolde him al as ye han herd me sayd;
And be ye siker, he was so weel apayd,        (820)
That it were inpossible me to wryte;
What sholde I lenger of this cas endyte?        1550

  Arveragus and Dorigene his wyf
In sovereyn blisse leden forth hir lyf.
Never eft ne was ther angre hem bitwene;
He cherisseth hir as though she were a quene;
And she was to him trewe for evermore.        1555
Of thise two folk ye gete of me na-more.

  Aurelius, that his cost hath al forlorn,
Curseth the tyme that ever he was born:        (830)
'Allas,' quod he, 'allas! that I bihighte
Of pured gold a thousand pound of wighte        1560
Un-to this philosophre! how shal I do?
I see na-more but that I am fordo.
Myn heritage moot I nedes selle,
And been a begger; heer may I nat dwelle,
And shamen al my kinrede in this place,        1565
But I of him may gete bettre grace.
But nathelees, I wol of him assaye,
At certeyn dayes, yeer by yeer, to paye,        (840)
And thanke him of his grete curteisye;
My trouthe wol I kepe, I wol nat lye.'        1570

  With herte soor he gooth un-to his cofre,
And broghte gold un-to this philosophre,
The value of fyve hundred pound, I gesse,
And him bisecheth, of his gentillesse,
To graunte him dayes of the remenaunt,        1575
And seyde, 'maister, I dar wel make avaunt,
I failled never of my trouthe as yit;
For sikerly my dette shal be quit        (850)
Towardes yow, how-ever that I fare
To goon a-begged in my kirtle bare.        1580
But wolde ye vouche-sauf, up-on seurtee,
Two yeer or three for to respyten me,
Than were I wel; for elles moot I selle
Myn heritage; ther is na-more to telle.'

  This philosophre sobrely answerde,        1585
And seyde thus, whan he thise wordes herde:
'Have I nat holden covenant un-to thee?'
'Yes, certes, wel and trewely,' quod he.        (860)
'Hastow nat had thy lady as thee lyketh?'
'No, no,' quod he, and sorwefully he syketh.        1590
'What was the cause? tel me if thou can.'
Aurelius his tale anon bigan,
And tolde him al, as ye han herd bifore;
It nedeth nat to yow reherce it more.

  He seide, 'Arveragus, of gentillesse,        1595
Had lever dye in sorwe and in distresse
Than that his wyf were of hir trouthe fals.'
The sorwe of Dorigen he tolde him als,        (870)
How looth hir was to been a wikked wyf,
And that she lever had lost that day hir lyf,        1600
And that hir trouthe she swoor, thurgh innocence:
'She never erst herde speke of apparence;
That made me han of hir so greet pitee.
And right as frely as he sente hir me,
As frely sente I hir to him ageyn.        1605
This al and som, ther is na-more to seyn.'

  This philosophre answerde, 'leve brother,
Everich of yow dide gentilly til other.        (880)
Thou art a squyer, and he is a knight;
But god forbede, for his blisful might,        1610
But-if a clerk coude doon a gentil dede
As wel as any of yow, it is no drede!

  Sire, I relesse thee thy thousand pound,
As thou right now were cropen out of the ground,
Ne never er now ne haddest knowen me.        1615
For sire, I wol nat take a peny of thee
For al my craft, ne noght for my travaille.
Thou hast y-payed wel for my vitaille;        (890)
It is y-nogh, and farewel, have good day:'
And took his hors, and forth he gooth his way.        1620

  Lordinges, this question wolde I aske now,        1621
Which was the moste free, as thinketh yow?
Now telleth me, er that ye ferther wende.
I can na-more, my tale is at an ende.        (896)

Here is ended the Frankeleyns Tale.

Variae Lectiones, etc.

Heading. So E.; Hn. The prologe of the Marchauntes tale.—676. E. allowethe; Hn. allowthe.—689. E. listneth; rest listeth, lusteth.—695, 696. Laud 600 has host, wost; E. Hn. Pt. hoost, woost.—Heading. So E.; Ln. Incipit prologus de le Frankeleyne; Hn. Pt. Here bigynneth the Frankeleyns tale. Hl. omits ll. 709-1223.—712. E. whiche.—722. E. Hn. Scithero.—726. Cp. Ln. ben me to; Pt. bene to me; Hn. they ben to; E. been to.—772. E. auantate (sic).—791. E. Heere.—794. E. Thanne.—801. Ln. penmarke; rest Pedmark.—803. Pt. Ln. had; rest hadde.—810. Cm. er (for eek); Pt. om.—814. E. stynten.—842. Cm. preyede; Cp. preyed; E. Hn. preyde; Pt. preiden.—851. E. Hn. Seillynge.—852. E. thanne.—855. E. thanne.—862. E. Thanne.—873. MSS. eest, est.—874. MSS. beest, best.—881. E. Thanne.—Pt. cheerte.—882. E. thanne.—887. E. om. ne.—889. Cm. Cp. Pt. this is (this = this is).—890. E. al this: rest om. this.—903. E. hadde.—906. E. in; rest on.—907. E. hadde.—914. So Cm. (see Group F, l. 396); E. Hn. maked, and om. for to; Cp. Pt. Wold han made ony pensif herte light.—926. Cp. biforen; Hn. Cm. bifore; E. biforn.—939. E. hadde.—941. E. Hn. tellen.—950. E. Cm. a furye; Hn. Pt. a fuyre; Cp. fuyre; Ln. fire.—956. E. Hn. yong.—965. E. Hn. this; rest his.—971. E. Hn. Cm. Ln. Hadde.—973. E. Hn. gerdon.—987. E. Hn. Taak.—993. Cm. remoue; Cp. Ln. remewe; Pt. remeue.—997. E. Thanne.—1010. E. Thanne.—1011. MSS. anon, anone.—1012. E. Hn. coome.—1017. Ln. the orizonte;—1025. Cm. kneis; Cp. Pt. knees.—1035. E. Hn. or; rest and. —Pt. hie; E. Hn. Cp. heighe; Cm. hyghe; Ln. hihe.—1036. Pt. ye; Cm. lye; E. Hn. Cp. eighe; Ln. eyhe.—1037. that.—1044. E. holpen.—1045. E. Lucina, glossed i. luna.—1048. E. Emperisse.—1050. Hn. lighted; Cm. lyghtenyd.—1063. E. Hn. Cm. Cp. Thanne.—1069. E. Hn. Cm. Cp. Thanne.—1074. E. Hn. dirke.—1078. E. teeris.—1086. E. wheither.—1096. Cp. Pt. Ln. ther-of (for of it).—1100. E. Cm. I wol (wele) yow; rest wol (wil) I.—1101. E. Hn. Cm. furyus.—1109. E. Hn. baar.—1118. Cm. whil; rest whiles.—Ln. Cp. Pt. Orliaunce.—1125. E. natureel.—1129. Pt. om. the (which seems better).—1140. E. whee(!); for whiche.—1141. Cm tregettourys; Cp. tregetoures; rest tregetours.—1147, 8. Cp. Pt. Ln. omit these two lines.—1150. E. Cm. Ln. hym; rest hem.—1152. E. thanne.—1155. E. natureel.—1161. E. Hn. Pt. enduren.—Hn. Cm. day; E. wowke; Cp. Pt. Ln. yeer.—1162, 3. E. Thanne.—1184. E. Hn. Cm. put forth before is.—1185. E. Hn. maden.—1191-1196. Cp. Pt. Ln. omit six lines. —1192. Cm. Iye; E. Hn. eye.—1216. E. though; Hn. thogh.—1217. E. Hn. Cm. thanne.—1218. E. Hn. hir reste; rest om. hir.—1220. E. Hn. Cm. gerdoun.—1221. Cm. remeuyn; Cp. remewe; Ln. remoue].—1224. Here Hl. begins again.—1241. So all; see 1184.—1243. E. Hn. thise; Hl. these; rest the.—1245. Cm. Pt. wex; E. Hn. Hl. Cp. wax.—1254. Hl. Cm. Cp. braun; Pt. brawne; E. Hn. brawen.—1257. E. chiere; Cm. Ln. Hl. chier.—1263. E. Hn. Cm. wayten.—1264. E. Cm. maken.—1265. E. a (for an).—1269. E. ellis.—1273. E. Hn. tolletanes; Hl. tollitanes; rest colletanes(!).—E. brought; Hn. broght.—1274. E. nought; Hn. noght.—1275. E. yeeris.—1276. So all: (E. hise, rootes, geris).—1277. Ln. centres; rest centris.—1278. Hn. Hl. proporcionels; E. -cioneles; Cm. -ciounnys; Cp. Pt. -cions.   1280. E. speere.—1283. Cm. nynte; Hl. fourthe(!); rest 9.—1284. E. he hadde kalkuled; rest om. hadde.—1285. E. hadde.—1293. Cp. Pt. Hl. vsed; E. Hn. vseden.—1295. E. Hn. Cm. wyke; Hl. Cp. wike; Pt. Ln. weke.—1296. Hl. om. alle.—1302. E. Cm. hise.—1318. Pt. Cp. giltelees; Hl. gulteles; rest giltless (-les).—1333. E. Hn. Hl. do; rest don.—1336. E. Hn. shal; Ln. schal.—1340. Hl. oon; Pt. on (for a).—1354. E. Hn. Cm. shal.—1357. Hl. Fro; rest For.—1358. E. Hn. Pt. Ln. om. elles.—1360. Pt. Hl. om. to.—1367. Cm. bere.—1368. Cm. thretty; Hl. thritty; rest xxx.—1369. E. Hadde.—E. Hn. Cm. Atthenes.—E. at; rest atte, at the.—1374. Cp. Ln. pament.—1379. Cm. Messene; E. Hn. Hl. Mecene.—1388. E. Hl. heet; Hn. Cm. highte; Cp. Ln. that hight (hiht); Pt. which hiȝt.—1406. Hl. whanne; E. Hn. Cm. whan; Cp. Pt. there; Ln. thare.—1408. Hn. Cm. Hl. hadde; rest had.—1409. Hn. Cp. Ln. Milesie; E. Cm. Melesie.—1410. Hn. Cm. Hl. verray; rest om.—1414. Hn. Hl. habradace; Cp. Pt. habradas; Ln. Abradas.—1430. All hem-self; see l. 1420.—1435. Cm. Massedoyne; Ln. Macedoyne; Cp. Macedoigne; Pt. Masidoigne; Hl. Macidone; E. Hn. Macidonye.—1437. Hn. Hl. Niceratis; Cm. Nycherates.—1440. Cm. al (for that); E. om.—1442. Cp. Ln. Alcestem; Pt. Alcesteyn; rest Alceste.—1443. E. Penalopee; rest Penolopee (-pe).—1445. Hn. Hl. Laodomya; E. Cm. Lacedomya; rest Leodamya.—1450. Cp. Cm. Hl. yiue; E. Hn. Pt. yeue.—1452. E. Honured.—1453. Cm. Cp. Hl. queen; rest queene (quene).—1455, 1456. These two lines are in E. and edd. only.—E. Bilyea (edd. Bilia; see note).—1457. E. pleyne; rest pleyned.—1463. E. I was; rest was I.—1467. E. Hl. chiere.—1475. Hl. on; E. Hn. Cm. vp on.—1481. E. om. of.—1483. Hn. tel; rest telle; see l. 1591.—1493-98. found in E. only.—1500. E. Hn. Cm. amorus.—1503. E. bown; rest boun.—1515. E. Hn. Cm. hadde.—1527. E. Hn. seyeth.—1534. Hn. serement; Hl. seurement.—1556. E. om. two.—1580. E. Hn. Cp. a-begged; Ln. abigged; Hl. a begge; Cm. Pt. a beggere.—1581. Cm. Cp. Hl. seurte; Pt. swerte; E. Hn. seuretee.—1583. E. Thanne.—1596. E. Hn. Hadde.—1602. E. Hn. Hl. hadde herd; rest herde (herd).—1606. E. Hn. This; rest This is.—1613. E. releesse.—1614. Cp. Hl. crope; Ln. crepe. Cm. om. the.—1616. E. Cm. Cp. taken.—1621. E. Hn. Cp. Ln. ins. thanne before wolde.—Colophon. From E.; Hn. Here endeth, &c.; Pt. Thus endeth the Frankleyn his tale.