Cavalier Playing Cards
A PACK OF
Cavalier Playing Cards
TEMP. CHARLES II.
A COMPLETE POLITICAL SATIRE
EDMUND GOLDSMID, F.R.H.S.,
E. & G. GOLDSMID.
Through the courtesy of Lord Nelson, the very curious Pack of Cards here presented in facsimile was placed at the disposal of the Aungervyle Society of Edinburgh. The Committee of this Society were very anxious to reproduce these extremely quaint memorials of a by-gone age, but on enquiry it was found that the cost of re-engraving the fifty-two cards on copper, the only really satisfactory method, would be far beyond the means of a Society then barely numbering 120 members. Being Honorary Secretary both the Aungervyle and Clarendon Historical Societies, I suggested that the work should be undertaken at the joint expense of the two Societies. This was rather outside the plans of the Clarendon, but the Committee at length agreed to provide a portion of the necessary funds on condition that after the fifty-two cards had been re-produced in thirteen plates, accompanied by a small explanatory pamphlet, a second series of the Cards, the precise fac-simile of the originals, should be presented to each member of the two Societies. There still remained, however, a considerable sum to be raised. I thereupon proposed, after satisfying the above conditions, to purchase the plates from the Societies. These are now in my possession. The work, executed by the firm of Murdoch and Son, of this City, is perfect in every detail, and heavy though the cost has been, I feel sure that in this case at any rate, the object aimed at has been fully attained. Not a line, not a stroke of the original, but appears in exact counterpart in the reprint.
Lord Nelson, unfortunately, had lost, or never had in his possession, two Cards, the ace and three of hearts. After much trouble, these have been supplied from another source, and, with the exception that the figures of Cromwell and Fairfax in the latter are on a somewhat smaller scale than those on the threes of the other suits, it would be difficult to suspect that they did not belong to the original pack.
In the following notes, I have merely attempted to explain the allusions contained in the Cards. A few however remain riddles to me.
Edinburgh, 12th October 1885.
A PACK OF CAVALIER PLAYING CARDS.
1. Ace of Hearts
Cromwell, Ireton and Hudson all in ye same boate.
In 1650, Cromwell was named Commander-in-Chief in Ireland; Ireton, his son-in-law, his deputy; and Hewson or Huson (here misprinted Hudson) governor of Dublin. In the plate they are sailing away from the sun of loyalty towards the night of treason. The portrait of Cromwell at the stern is not to be mistaken. Next to him is Hewson distinguished from Ireton by his older features.
2. Ace of Clubs
A Free State or a Toleration for all sorts of Villany.
In the Mystery of the Good Old Cause* (London 1660) a Royalist attack on the leading members of the Long Parliament, the author says of the Roundheads, "Their pretences were no doubt the most specious and plausible that could be imagined,... but, alas! never were these things more pretended to, and less in reality designed; greatness, wealth and command were the inducements of the most hypocritical persons in the world to profane the name of God ... to murder many innocent persons ... to ruin many noble families, etc., ... but let destruction be the reward of our destroyers, let the prey be torn out of their teeth, let the blood they have shed fall upon their own heads, and let their names be detested and infamous to all posterity!"
* Reprinted by the Aungervyle Society. Second Series.
3. Ace of Spades.
Bradshaw, the jaylor and ye hangman, keepers of the liberty of England.
Bradshaw was appointed president of the High Court of Justice in 1648, a year "of reproach and infamy above all years which had passed before it; a year of the highest dissimulation and hypocrisy, of the deepest villany and most bloody treasons, that any nation was ever cursed with or under: a year, in which the memory of all transactions ought to be erased from all records, lest, by the success of it, atheism, infidelity and rebellion, should be propagated in the world." (Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 154, Oxford 1726, folio). He was born in 1586, died in 1659, and his body exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration. He was a cousin of Milton, who has written a Eulogy of him in his Second Defense of the People of England.
4. Ace of Diamonds.
The High Court of Justice or Oliver's Slaughter-House.
"The charge and accusation, upon which they resolved to proceed against the King, being thus settled and agreed upon, they began to consider in what manner and form to proceed, that there might be some appearance of justice.... A new form they did erect never before heard of. They constituted and erected a Court that should be called the High Court of Justice. The number of the Judges named was about an hundred and fifty ... Bradshaw ... was named president ... and with great humility accepted the office, which he administered with all the pride, impudence, and superciliousness imaginable."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 138-139).
5. II of Hearts.
Onsley. Father and Sonne.
This is evidently a misprint for Onslow. Sir Richard Onslow, Kt., "of the old stamp, a gentleman of Surrey, of good parts and considerable revenue," successfully weathered the tempests of the period. He was commander at the siege of Basing House, was driven from the House of Commons by Pride's Purge, and was afterwards at the head of a Surrey regiment at Worcester. He spoke strongly in favour of Cromwell's becoming king. Later he became a member of the Convention Parliament which restored Charles II.
6. II of Clubs.
Lenthall. Father and Sonn.
William Lenthall, of Lincoln's Inn, a Counsellor at Law, and Speaker of the House of Commons. "Oliver (Cromwell) once made a spunge of him, and squeezed him out of £15,000. Who turning him and his tribe out of doors, he veered about to save himself and his great offices; and he that had been so long bell-weather in the Commons House, was thought, for his compliance and his money, to deserve to be one of the herd of Lords in the Other House," (Mystery of the Good Old Cause.) John Lenthall, son of the speaker, was knighted by Oliver Cromwell, made a Colonel of foot, and governor of Windsor Castle.
7. II of Spades.
Parry. Father and Sonne.
Query, Sir George Parry, one of the Commissioners for Dorsetshire, who with those of Somerset and Cornwall, met Prince Rupert at Bridgewater shortly before the Battle of Naseby?—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 393).
8. II of Diamonds.
Vane. Father and Sonne.
"Sir Henry Vane was of very ordinary parts by Nature, and had not cultivated them at all by art, for he was illiterate. But being of a stirring and boisterous disposition, very industrious and very bold, he still wrought himself into some employment.... His malice to the Earl of Strafford transported him to all imaginable thoughts of revenge, ... and that disposed him to sacrifice his honour and faith and his Master's interest, that he might ruin the Earl, and was buried himself in the same ruin; for which, being justly chastised by the King and being turned out of his service, he was left to his own despair.... He grew into the hatred and contempt of those who had made most use of him; and dyed in universal reproach, and not more contemn'd by any of his enemies than by his own son; who had been his principal conductor to destruction."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii., p. 132).
Sir Harry Vane, the younger, "was a man of extraordinary parts.... He was chosen to cozen a whole nation which was thought to excel in craft and cunning,* which he did with notable pregnancy and dexterity."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii., p. 233). "He totally ousted Sir William Russel. He was a discontent during all Oliver's and Richard's government. He is, no doubt, a man of much religion, and would have become one of the rulers in Israel, if the intended match between his son and Lambert's daughter had not been spoiled by the restitution of the Rump."—(Mystery of the Good Old Cause.)
* The Scots.
9. III of Hearts.
"Cromwell pypeth unto Fairfax."
Cromwell is here represented playing the pipe and tabor to Fairfax, who is performing a Morris dance. This dance was brought to England in the reign of Edward III., it is said by John of Gaunt. It was originally a military dance, in which bells were jingled, and swords clashed. The word Morris is a corruption of Moorish. In ancient times it used to be danced by five men and a boy, but in the reign of Elizabeth, we have an instance of Kempe, one of Shakespeare's colleagues at the Globe Theatre, having danced alone all the way from London to Norwich.—(Kemp's nine daies wonder, reprinted in Goldsmid's Collectanea Adamantæa, No. 29). Thomas, Lord Fairfax, warmly espoused the cause of the Parliament when the rupture with the King took place. He was, however, opposed to the execution of the King, and became a warm advocate of the Restoration. He died in 1671.
10. III of Clubs.
"Bulstrod and Whitlock present to Oliver the instrument of Government."
On the 26th of June, 1657, the ceremony of conferring the protectorate on Cromwell took place. "After a short speech, ... Withrington, the Speaker, with the Earl of Warwick and Whitlock. vested him with a rich purple velvet robe lined with ermines; ... then the Speaker presented him with a fair Bible of the largest edition, richly bound; then he, in the name of all the people, girded a sword about him; and lastly, presented him with a sceptre of gold, which he put in his hand, and made him a large discourse of those emblems of government and authority. Upon the close of which, there being little wanting to a perfect formal Coronation but a crown and an Archbishop, he took his oath, administered to him by the Speaker."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, Vol. III., page 343.) Bulstrode and Whitlock spoken of as two men on the Card, are one and the same. "Bulstrode Whitlocke, ... before the troubles was an intimate friend to Sir Richard Lane, who, going to Oxford, entrusted him with his chambers in the Temple; of which, with all the goods and an excellent library, he hath kept possession ever since; and would not own that ever he knew such a man, when Sir Richard's son was brought to wait upon him in his greatness.... Under Dick he was made Commissioner of the Seal; and, he being discarded, wheeled about and worshipped the Rump.... He hath a good fleece, and heir to Lilly the Astrologer."—(Mystery of the Good Old Cause).
11. III of Spades.
"H. Martin defends Ralph, who design'd to kill the King."
"Henry Martin, colonel of a regiment of horse and a regiment of whores. He had given him £3000 at one time, to put him upon the Holy Sisters, and take off from the Levellers. He had the reputation of a precious saint from his youth, in reference to all kinds of debauchery, uncleanness, and fraud, having sold his estate three times over."—(Mystery of the Good Old Cause).
12. III of Diamonds.
"Simonias sland'ring ye High Priest to get his place."
One of the riddles I have spoken of in the Introduction, unless it refers to Cromwell having urged the trial of the King.
13. IV of Hearts.
"The Rump roasted salt it well it stinks exceedingly."
The long parliament, not proving itself sufficiently complacent, Colonel Pride entered the House with two regiments of soldiers, imprisoned 60 members, drove 160 into the streets, and left only 60. These were called the Rump. The name was revived in the Protectorate of Richard Cromwell, and to distinguish the two, the former was called the Bloody Rump, and the latter the Rump of a Rump.
14. IV of Clubs.
"A Covenanting Scot and an English Independent differ about ye things of this world."
"There was a wonderful difference, throughout their whole proceedings, between the heads of those who were thought to sway the Presbyterian Counsels, and those who govern'd the Independents, though they were equally masters of dissimulation, and had equally malice and wickedness in their intentions, though not of the same kind.... The Presbyterians submitted to their senseless and wretched clergy; whose infectious breath corrupted, and govern'd the People, and whose authority was prevalent upon their own wives, and in their domestic affairs in order to corrupt and seduce them ... whereas Cromwell and the Independents ... considered what was necessary to their main end; and then, whether it were right or wrong, made all other means subservient to it; couzen'd and deceiv'd men as long as they could induce them to contribute to what they desired; and when they would keep company with them no longer, compelled them by force to submit to what they should not be able to oppose: and so the one resolv'd, only to do what they believ'd the People would like and approve; and the other, that the People should like and approve what they had resolv'd." (Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii., pp. 63-64).
15. IV of Spades.
"Argyle a muckle Scotch knaue in gude faith Sir."
Archibald Campbell, Marquis of Argyle, a zealous partisan of the Covenanters, and the opponent of Montrose. Born in 1598 he succeeded to his fathers titles in 1638. In the same year he was called to London with other Scotch Nobles, and advised the abolition of Episcopacy in Scotland. In 1641 he was created Marquis. He acquiesced in the Protectorate of Cromwell, and for this at the restoration he was committed to the Tower. In 1661 he was sent to Scotland, tried for high treason and beheaded.
16. IV of Diamonds.
"Laird of Warriston an arrant knaue An my Soul man."
"It was agreed that the committee of safety should consist of three-and-twenty persons, ... men try'd, and faithful to the public interest ... besides three or four others who had been the kings judges, with Warreston, Vane, Steel, and Whitlock."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 402).
17. V of Hearts.
"The E. of Pem.: in ye H. of Com. thanks ye Speaker for his Admission."
On the 29th of January 1643, a letter was addressed by Members of both Houses at Oxford to the Earl of Essex. Clarendon observes "This letter was subscribed by His Highness the Prince, the Duke of York, and three-and-forty Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons, and 118 Members of the House of Commons; ... so that the numbers at London were very thin; for there were not above two-and-twenty peers, who either sat in the Parliament, or were engaged in their party; that is to say, the Earls of Northumberland, Pembroke, Essex, etc."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 274).
According to Clarendon, vol. ii. pp. 127-128, the Earl of Pembroke was a weak man with a great sense of his own importance, whom disappointed ambition "Got into actual rebellion, which he never intended to do."
18. V of Clubs.
"Sir H. Mildmay beaten by a foot boy, a great breach of privilege."
It is said that in the year 1642, Sir H. Mildmay got mixed up in a brawl in Fleet Street. Whether this Card alludes to that fact or not, I cannot tell. Clarendon states that Sir John Danvers and Sir H. Mildmay were the only two members of the High Court of Justice, whom the King knew besides the officers in the army.—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii, p. 144).
19. V of Spades.
"Nye and Godwin, Oliver's Confessors."
In "an ordinance appointing Commissioners for approbation of Publique Preachers," printed by "William Du Gard and Henry Hills printers to His Highness the Lord Protector" 1653, appear the names of Dr. Thomas Goodwin and Mr. Philip Ny as Commissioners for such approbation. A copy of the pamphlet is in my possession, and it will be reprinted by the Clarendon Historical Society at an early date.
20. V of Diamonds.
"Sir W. Waller looses two armys yet getts by ye bargaine."
Sir William Waller was defeated at the battle of Roundway Down by Lord Wilmot, losing 600 killed, 900 prisoners, all their cannon, arms, ammunition and baggage. He was again defeated at Cropredy Bridge, by the army under the King in person, when he again lost all his artillery. He was however, subsequently named Lieutenant of Ireland.—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 179; p. 311; and vol. iii. p. 70).
21. VI of Hearts.
"Worsley an Inckle Weaver A man of personal valor."
Worsley, one of Cromwell's Major-Generals, and a most dear friend of his, was the first M.P. for Manchester, and his statue is in the Town Hall.... The incles were tapes; and the word comes into Shakespeare's Winter's Tale. The word is now very little known, except in a proverb, "As thick (i.e. as intimate) as Incle-weavers." I do not see this pack mentioned in the History of Playing Cards. Can the date of publication be proved? It looks as if they were intended to keep up the spirit of the Cavaliers in depressed times.—Communicated by John Bailey, Esq., F.S.A., Manchester.
22. VI of Clubs.
"Desbrow Olivers Champion haueing a cannon in each pocket."
With reference to the proposal in Parliament to elect Cromwell King, Clarendon observes: "That which put an end to the present debate was that some of his own family who had grown up under him, and had their whole dependance upon him, as Desborough, Fleetwood, Whaley, and others, passionately contradicted the motion."—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii., page 339.)
23. VI of Spades.
"Skippon a waggoner to Sr. F. Vere one of Olivers Hectors."
Major-General Skippon was left in charge of the Army by the Earl of Essex, when the latter fled from Fowey to Plymouth. Skippon surrendered all his Artillery, 100 barrels of powder, and about 6000 arms (muskets) on condition that the officers should be convoyed in safety to Poole or Southampton. Skippon was originally a waggoner, as stated in the Card.—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. ii., page 327.)
24. VI of Diamonds.
"Kelsey, a sneeking Bodice maker a gifted Brother."
On October 17th, 1645, a "summons to surrender was sent to the Garrison (of Langford House, near Salisbury) and fair and equal conditions were speedily agreed upon, Lieutenant Colonel Hewson and Major Kelsey being deputed to act for Cromwell."—(Godwin's Civil War in Hampshire, page 248.) This is probably the individual alluded to.
25. VII of Hearts.
"Nathaniel Fines whereby hangs a tale."
"Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes, brother of Lord Say and Sele, who had been educated at Winchester College, and had been admitted to a Fellowship at New College, Oxford, in quality of Founder's kin, surrendered Bristol to Prince Rupert on 26 July (1643.) and on the last day of the same month reached Southampton, at the head of 80 horse, each of whom had a woman riding behind him."—(Mercurius Aulicus, August 5th, 1643.) This, I presume, is the tale alluded to.
26. VII of Clubs.
"Harrison the Carpenter cutting down ye horne of ye beast in Daniel."
Harrison was the son of a butcher near Nantwich, in Cheshire, and he it was who, with Ireton, succeeded in bringing the King before the High Court of Justice.—(Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii., page 141.) Of the beast in Daniel, it is said, "I beheld, and the same horn made war with the Saints ... but the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end."—(Daniel, chap. vii., verses 21 and 26.)
27. VII of Spades.
"Feek the seer."
Feek was one of Cromwell's officers, who at the celebrated meeting at Windsor, in 1648, declared that in a vision the Almighty had appeared to him and announced that Monarchy should never more prevail in England.—(The Saints Triumph, 1648, page 3.)
28. VII of Diamonds.
"Marshall curseing Mevoz."
At Edgehill, "the reverend and renowned Master Marshall, Master Ask, Master Mourton, Masters Obadiah and John Sedgwick and Master Wilkins, and divers others, eminently pious and learned pastors rode up and down the army through the thickest dangers and in much personal hazard most faithfully and courageously exhorting and encouraging the soldiers to fight valiantly and not to fly, but now, if ever, to stand to it and fight for their religion and laws."—(Jehovah Jirah, by John Vicars, p. 200.)
29. VIII of Hearts.
"Lambert Kt. of ye golden Tulip."
When Lambert was cashiered by Parliament, he and eight other officers of the Army conspired to wrest the power from Parliament. The badge adopted by the conspirators was a yellow tulip.
30. VIII of Clubs.
"Pride Oliver's drayman."
Parliament not proving willing to condemn Charles I., was purged of its unruly members by Colonel Pride, (who was said to have been originally a drayman) who entered the house and drove 160 members into the streets, leaving 60 of the faithful to govern the kingdom and murder their monarch.—(Imprisonment and death of King Charles I., Aungervyle Society reprint, p. 58).
31. VIII of Spades.
"Scot Oliver's clerk or tallyman."
Scott was one of the members of the long parliament, and with Robinson was sent to Monk to "give some check to that license of addresses and resort of malignants."—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 410.)
32. VIII of Diamonds.
"Don Haselrigg Kt. of ye codled braine."
"Haselrigg was of a rude, and stubborn nature, and of a weak understanding."—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 401).
33. IX of Hearts.
"Huson the cobler entring London."
Hewson, who had originally been a cobbler, became Lt.-Col. of Cromwell's Ironsides.
34. IX of Clubs.
"The army entring the city persuing the apprentices."
Parliament had voted that "the militia of the city of London should be put into such hands as the army should desire.... Many thousands, apprentices and young citizens, brought petitions to parliament" in opposition. Parliament "durst not deny concurrence, the apprentices behaving themselves so insolently, that they would scarce suffer the door of the House of Commons to be shut."—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 36). The army assembled at Hounslow Heath, and Colonel Rainsborough having seized in the night the defences of London Bridge, "the army of horse, foot and cannon marched next day through the city."—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 39).
35. IX of Spades.
"A Committee at Derby House to continue the warr."
Parliament had appointed a committee "for the raising of men ... and listing in all places, companies of volunteers" which met at Derby House.
36. IX of Diamonds.
"Lenthall runs away with his mace to the army."
The Army having declared against the Committee of Safety, Lenthall the Speaker recovered his spirit and went into the city uniting with the army against the committee.—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii., p. 407.)
37. X of Hearts.
"The Rump and dreggs of the house of Com. remaining after the good Members were purged out."
The explanation of this Card will be found above. (See VIII of Clubs.)
38. X of Clubs.
"Oliver seeking God while the K. is murthered by his order."
Cromwell who signed the warrant for the Execution of Charles I., is said to have spent the night of the 29th of January, 1648, in prayer, and to have taken good care to let his fanatic followers know it.
39. X of Spades.
"A comitte at Haberdashers hall to spoyle the caualeers, as the Jews did the Egyptians."
Parliament, after the battle of Edgehill appointed a committee to sit at Haberdashers Hall to consider the fines to be imposed upon those of the King's adherents who had been taken prisoners there.
40. X of Diamonds
"A comittee for plundered ministers, Miles Corbet in the chaire."
This card speaks for itself.
41. Knave of Hearts.
"Hugh Peters shews the bodkins and thimbles gluen by the wives of Wappin for the good old cause."
Hugh Peters was born at Fowey, publicly whipped and expelled from the University of Cambridge, and obliged to leave England for adultery. After some years spent in Holland and America, he returned in 1641, and became chaplain to Lord Brooke's regiment. He was a most burlesque preacher, and actually performed the act stated on the card. He styled the king Barabbas and compared the army to Christ. He advised the destruction of Stonehenge. Clarendon calls him the "ungodly confessor" who contrived the tragedy of the two Hothams (Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 383). He is said to have been one of the masked executioners of Charles I. He was beheaded October 16th 1660, and certainly deserved his fate if any of the Regicides did.
42. Knave of Clubs.
"Ireton holds that saints may pass through all forms to obtain his ends."
Ireton was born in 1610, and commanded the left wing of the Parliamentarians at Naseby. He married a daughter of Oliver Cromwell, whom he succeeded as Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, where he died in 1651.
43. Knave of Spades.
"Sir H. Vane finds a distinction betwixt a Legal and an Evangelical Conscience."
Vane was the principal mover of the Solemn League and Covenant, but did not sit on the King's trial.
44. Knave of Diamonds.
"H. Martin moues ye House that ye King may take the Covenant."
Martin, Vane and Hazelrigg were the principal supporters of the self-denying Ordinance.
45. Queen of Hearts.
"The damnable engagement to be true and faithfull."
The taking of the Holy League and Covenant. (See Queen of Diamonds).
46. Queen of Clubs.
"Joane hold my staff Lady Protectoresse."
Another riddle. Cromwell's wife's name was Elizabeth. Query, what was Lady Lambert's name? (See next card).
47. Queen of Spades.
"The lady Lambert and Oliver under a strong conflict."
It was said that an improper intimacy existed between Cromwell and Lambert's wife, but although the Protector is known to have been somewhat profligate in his youth, this charge seems to be mere calumny.
48. Queen of Diamonds.
"The Takeing of the Holy League and Covenant."
The Holy League and Covenant between England and Scotland was solemnly adopted by Parliament on the 16th of November 1643. It was accepted by Charles II. in 1650, but repudiated by him at his Restoration, and declared to be illegal by Parliament.—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. ii. p. 229).
49. King of Hearts.
"The saints think it meet that the Rump make a league with Oneale."
Lord Broghill, president of Munster, and Sir Charles Coote, president of Connaught had shewn enmity to the Rump, who thereupon coquetted with the Irish party.—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 434).
50. King of Clubs.
"Oliver declars himself, and the Rebells to be the Gadly party."
This card needs no explanation.
51. King of Spades.
"Bradshaw in ye High Court of Justice insulting of the King."
"The King demanded by what authority they brought him thither, the President answered that they derived their authority from an act made by the Commons.... The King demurred to the jurisdiction of the Court, but the President overruled this." When the iniquitous sentence was read, "The King would have spoken something before he was withdrawn, but being accounted dead in law immediately after sentence was pronounced, it was not permitted."—(Ludlow's Imprisonment and Death of Charles I.—Aungervyle Soc. Rep. pp. 62-65).
52. King of Diamonds.
"Sir H. Mildmay solicits a Cityzen's wife, for which his owne corrects him."
On September 9, 1641, the House of Commons appointed Pym, St. John, Sir H. Mildmay, Sir H. Vane, and others (six to form a quorum), as a Committee, with extraordinary powers, to act during the recess, "To draw resort and reverence to them from almost all sorts of men." Mildmay is said to have used his political power to further his own projects of lust and greed.—(Clarendon's Rebellion, vol. i., pp. 168 et seq.).