Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Agriculture

For works with similar titles, see Agriculture.

AGRICULTURE, the art of cultivating the ground, whether by pasturage, by tillage, or by gardening. In many countries the process of human economical and social development has been from the savage state to hunting and fishing, from these to the pastoral state, from it again to agriculture, properly so called, and thence, finally, to commerce and manufactures, though even in the most advanced countries every one of the states now mentioned, excepting only the first, and, in part, the second, still exist and flourish. The tillage of the soil has existed from a remote period of antiquity, and experience has from time to time improved the processes adopted and the instruments in use; but it was not till a very recent period that the necessity of basing the occupation of the farmer on physical and other science has been even partially recognized. Now a division is made into theoretical and practical agriculture, the former investigating the scientific principles on which the cultivation of the soil should be conducted, and the best methods of carrying them out; and the latter actually doing so in practice.

The soil used for agricultural purposes is mainly derived from subjacent rocks, which cannot be properly understood without some knowledge of geology, while a study of the dip and strike of the rocks will also be of use in determining the most suitable directions for drains and places for wells. The composition of the soil, manures, etc., requires for its determination agricultural chemistry. The weather cannot be properly understood without meteorology. The plants cultivated, the weeds requiring extirpation, the fungus growths which often do extensive and mysterious damage, fall under the province of botany; the domestic animals, and the wild mammals, birds and insects which prey on the produce of the field, under that of zoölogy. The complex machines and even the simplest implements are constructed upon principles revealed by natural philosophy; farm buildings cannot be properly planned or constructed without a knowledge of architecture. Rents can be understood only by the student of political economy. Finally, farm laborers cannot be governed or rendered loyal and trustworthy unless their superior knows the human heart, and acts on the Christian principle of doing to those under him as he would wish them, if his or their relative positions were reversed, to do to him. Notwithstanding the enormous expansion of the manufacturing industries in the 19th century, agriculture is still the greatest of the occupations of man.

Historical and General Aspects.—In all countries and ages, history records no instance of any civilization attained without noteworthy progress in agriculture. The relationship of agriculture to population expansion is one of the vital questions for economists. It appears that, in times so remote that their antiquity is only conjecturable, an excellent system of agriculture supported, in the valleys of the Nile and Euphrates, populations at least as dense as any existing to-day. The same agricultural perfection, attended by much the same exceptional conditions of the population which distinguished the oldest civilizations of the world, is still conspicuously characteristic of such Oriental countries as retain any national vitality, especially India, China, and Japan. For instance, Japan contains more inhabitants than the United Kingdom, and supports them without taking any food products from abroad (actually, indeed, exporting considerable quantities of rice), whereas England imports foodstuffs to the value of hundreds of millions of dollars.


Agriculture (Primitive) CNE-v1-p58-I.jpg
©Keystone View Company
PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE ON THE NILE


In the Middle Ages, agriculture was almost wholly disregarded throughout Europe, and, consequently, civilization was generally at a low ebb. On the other hand, the era of the Saracens in Spain is memorable for civilization, and particularly for its admirable agriculture. Without exception, all the European nations that enjoy eminence to-day possess carefully developed agricultural systems, while in Spain, the one noticeably backward country, agriculture languishes. It is proverbial that the wealth of France is not in her luxurious capital, but in her provincial acres. Belgium and Holland, the richest regions of Europe in proportion to area, with populations correspondingly dense, owe their pre-eminence to the elaborate cultivation. The collapse of the Mohammedan power finds one of its chief explanations in the indolence of the Turk and his neglect of the soil.

The first mention of agriculture is found in the writings of Moses. From them we learn that Cain was a “tiller of the ground”; that Abel sacrificed the “firstlings of his flock”; and that Noah “began to be a husbandman and planted a vineyard.” The Chinese, Japanese, Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Phœnicians appear to have held husbandry in high estimation. The Egyptians were so sensible of its blessings that they ascribed its invention to superhuman agency, and even carried their gratitude to such an excess as to worship the ox, for his services as a laborer. The Carthaginians carried the art of agriculture to a higher degree than other nations, their contemporaries. Mago, one of their most famous generals, wrote no less than 28 books on agricultural topics, which, according to Columella, were translated into Latin by an express decree of the Roman Senate. Hesiod, the Greek writer, supposed to be contemporary with Homer, wrote a poem on agriculture, entitled “Weeks and Days,” which was so denominated because husbandry requires an exact observance of times and seasons. Other Greek writers wrote on rural economy, and Xenophon, among the number, but their works have been lost in the lapse of ages. Columella, who flourished in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, wrote 12 books on husbandry, which constituted a complete treatise on rural affairs. Pliny ascribes the invention of manures to the Greek King Augeas, and Theophrastus not only mentions six kinds of manures, but declares that a mixture of soils produces the same effects as manures. Cato, the Roman censor, equally celebrated as a statesman, orator, and general, derived his highest and most durable honors from having written a voluminous work on agriculture. In the “Georgics” of Vergil, the majesty of verse and the harmony of numbers add dignity and grace to the most useful of all topics. Varro, Pliny, and Palladius were likewise among the distinguished Romans who wrote on agricultural subjects.

It is interesting to note here that irrigation had an influential advocate as long ago as the time of Vergil, who in his “Georgics” advises husbandmen to “bring down the waters of a river upon the sown corn, and, when the field is parched and the plants drying, convey it from the brow of a hill in channels.” To the credit of the Romans let it be remembered that, unlike many conquerors, instead of desolating they improved the countries which they subdued, and first of all in agriculture.

Recent Progress.—From the details of primitive agricultural methods given in ancient writings and represented in monumental inscriptions, it is evident that not till the 19th century had anything very material been done toward the creation of a distinctive agricultural science. The original arts of husbandry, practiced ages ago, have simply been adapted, with little improvement till very lately, to modify conditions. Most of the mechanical appliances to which our ancestors were restricted—the plow, roller, hoe, sickle—are found pictured in the Egyptian inscriptions and paintings. It is also known that the Egyptians were familiar with the advantages of rotation in crops, and that they were exceedingly intelligent and systematic in the administration of estates and the regulation of all rural concerns.


Agriculture (Plowing) CNE-v1-p58-H.jpg
©Ewing Galloway
PLOWING AN ALFALFA FIELD BY TRACTOR


Within the last hundred years, however, the foundations of an entirely new agriculture have been securely laid. The two active agencies in this change have been chemical science and invention. Chemical science, as applied to agriculture, is based on very simple elements. The arable surface soil becomes exhausted if grain is sown upon it in successive years, this exhaustion being occasioned by the removal of the mineral substances necessary to the life of the grain. By the system of rotation, a cereal crop is followed by a so-called green crop, the roots of which penetrate deep into the subsoil and extract from it a fresh supply of the needful minerals; thus the vigor of the surface soil is renewed and it again produces an abundant grain crop.

The fundamentals of the new rural economy are to secure maximum productiveness on the agricultural lands, as a whole, by a comprehensive utilization of a great variety of fertilizers, and, by studying the needs of the soil, to apply to them the particular fertilizers best adapted to their nature. The demonstrations of experimental chemistry in these directions have been so effective that agricultural science has become one of the leading subjects of practical investigation, receiving the actual encouragement of all civilized governments. The energetic spirit stimulated by the latest teachings of chemical science has reflected constant advance in all other departments of scientific agriculture, such as drainage, irrigation, the improvement of breeds and plants, meteorology, etc.

Agricultural Interests and the Government.—The growth of agriculture and the evolution of enlightened governmental administration have uniformly gone hand in hand. The great distinguishing characteristic of the Dark Ages in Europe was the crushing oppression of the rural population. The lifting of the arbitrary burdens resting on the agricultural class has in all countries marked the beginning of the era of enlarged civil liberty and of diffused intelligence. The marvelous progress of the United States is above all the result of the rapid absorption of lands by its own native citizens and by industrious immigrants from Europe. From the earliest period the Federal Government, having enormous tracts of unoccupied lands at its disposal, pursued an extremely liberal policy to encourage settlement. Thus, in a brief time, every section of the country was peopled and the foundations of a great commonwealth were laid. With the vigorous revival of enterprise and thrift after the Civil War, and the steady advance of immigration, the epoch of abundant, fertile lands obtainable for a nominal price was brought to its close; and the intense rivalry witnessed at the opening of Oklahoma Territory was a demonstration of the practical termination of the era of settlement. In a new country, the soil of which has been accessible to all, the farmers have not been prompt to turn their attention to the strictly scientific aspects of agriculture, yet the government has manifested appreciation of the spirit of the age and the needs of the future by its generous provisions for the founding of agricultural colleges, and by its admirable system of agricultural experiment stations. The latter, like the agricultural colleges, are modeled upon the technical institutions originated in Europe for scientific investigation concerning all the branches of agriculture. The Federal Government makes an annual grant for experiment station purposes to each State and Territory in which an agricultural college is in operation, and some of the States also contribute to the support of the stations. The Department of Agriculture of the National Government is excellently equipped for the promotion of agricultural interests in both practical and experimental aspects. Its Weather Bureau, Bureau of Animal Industries, and various divisions, are constantly performing work of much value, and a great variety of useful information is systematically disseminated.

The following tables give the acreage, value, and production (000 omitted) of the principal agricultural crops in 1919:

BARLEY



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 6  168  286 
New Hampshire  1  25  47 
Vermont 14  420  630 
New York 113  2,486  3,381 

Pennsylvania

16  392  502 
Maryland 6  198  244 
Virginia 15  375  488 
Ohio 125  3,150  3,938 
Indiana 55  1,430  1,687 
Illinois 212  5,724  6,926 
Michigan 280  5,320  6,278 
Wisconsin 512  13,568  16,417 
Minnesota 910  18,200  21,112 
Iowa 315  8,032  8,996 
Missouri 11  330  429 
North Dakota 1,300  14,950  16,146 
South Dakota 875  19,250  22,138 
Nebraska 217  5,577  5,577 
Kansas 600  16,200  16,200 
Kentucky 4  100  157 
Tennessee 8  176  317 
Texas 25  875  980 
Oklahoma 50  1,500  1,830 
Montana 90  540  756 
Wyoming 35  525  919 
Colorado 200  3,900  4,680 
New Mexico 20  680  748 
Arizona 29  1,102  1,543 
Utah 24  720  1,015 
Nevada 12  420  630 
Idaho 120  3,360  4,704 
Washington 138  4,140  5,589 
Oregon 82  1,886  2,829 
California 1,000  30,000  42,300 



 United States  7,420  165,719  200,419 


CORN



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 20  1,100  2,145 
New Hampshire  21  1,050  1,785 
Vermont 40  2,120  3,710 
Massachusetts 44  2,640  4,541 
Rhode Island 11  495  921 
 
Connecticut 55  3,300  5,940 
New York 820  35,260  58,532 
New Jersey 270  10,800  16,524 
Pennsylvania 1,536  72,192  106,122 
Delaware 230  6,900  10,005 
 
Maryland 693  28,413  39,778 
Virginia 1,600  44,800  75,712 
West Virginia 735  24,990  40,984 
North Carolina 2,900  55,100  101,935 
South Carolina 2,340  37,440  73,757 
 
Georgia 4,820  69,890  111,824 
Florida 840  12,600  17,640 
Ohio 3,700  162,800  196,988 
Indiana 4,750  175,750  219,688 
Illinois 8,600  301,000  391,300 
 
Michigan 1,650  64,350  88,803 
Wisconsin 1,820  85,540  106,925 
Minnesota 2,950  118,000  141,600 
Iowa 10,000  416,000  499,200 
Missouri 5,756  155,412  214,469 
 
North Dakota 508  16,764  23,470 
South Dakota 3,200  91,200  108,528 
Nebraska 7,030  184,186  224,707 
Kansas 4,475  69,362  97,107 
Kentucky 3,300  82,500  127,875 
 
Tennessee 3,250  74,750  117,358 
Alabama 4,334  62,843  99,920 
Mississippi 3,980  59,700  95,520 
Louisiana 1,850  32,375  48,562 
Texas 6,760  202,800  239,304 
 
Oklahoma 3,100  74,400  94,488 
Arkansas 2,707  48,726  79,911 
Montana 128  1,728  2,851 
Wyoming 48  768  1,267 
Colorado 671  11,206  15,913 
 
New Mexico 240  7,200  10,872 
Arizona 39  1,287  2,574 
Utah 24  432  648 
Nevada 3  90  126 
 
Idaho 24  840  1,386 
Washington 45  1,620  2,997 
Oregon 71  1,860  2,883 
California 87  2,871  5,139 



 United States  102,075   2,917,450   3,934,234 


FLAXSEED



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Wisconsin 6  63  271 
Minnesota 320  2,880  12,816 
Iowa 16  152  638 
Missouri 5  48  215 
North Dakota 760  3,800  16,758 
South Dakota  145  1,160  4,930 
 
Nebraska 3  15  60 
Kansas 14  88  334 
Montana 410  697  3,067 
Wyoming 4  16  56 
Colorado . . . .  . . . .  . . . . 



 United States  1,683  8,919  39,145 


WHEAT



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 12  228  502 
Vermont 12  252  572 
New York 524  11,178  24,032 
New Jersey 109  1,962  4,316 
Pennsylvania 1,664  29,055  62,758 
 
Delaware 145  1,740  3,706 
Maryland 790  10,665  22,930 
Virginia 1,060  12,508  28,018 
West Virginia 400  5,400  11,880 
North Carolina 850  7,225  16,834 
 
South Carolina 204  1,836  4,737 
Georgia 240  2,520  6,628 
Ohio 2,860  54,440  115,413 
Indiana 2,886  46,020  96,642 
Illinois 4,150  65,675  137,918 
 
Michigan 1,035  20,237  42,497 
Wisconsin 549  7,355  15,814 
Minnesota 4,015  37,710  94,276 
Iowa 1,700  23,675  47,350 
Missouri 4,296  57,886  120,982 
 
North Dakota 7,770  53,613  129,207 
South Dakota 3,725  30,175  72,420 
Nebraska 4,384  60,675  122,564 
Kansas 11,624  151,001  324,652 
Kentucky 1,046  12,029  25,381 
 
Tennessee 810  7,290  16,184 
Alabama 138  1,242  3,043 
Mississippi 36  504  1,260 
Texas 1,900  31,350  62,700 
Oklahoma 3,760  52,640  107,912 
 
Arkansas 340  3,230  6,525 
Montana 2,221  10,729  25,214 
Wyoming 284  4,008  8,497 
Colorado 1,459  17,645  35,643 
 
New Mexico 283  6,100  12,200 
Arizona 43  1,204  2,709 
Utah 304  3,682  7,732 
Nevada 29  668  1,429 
 
Idaho 1,030  18,705  38,345 
Washington 2,440  40,100  85,814 
Oregon 1,126  20,495  43,449 
California 900  16,335  33,323 



 United States  73,243  940,987  2,024,008 


COTTON



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bales Dollars
Virginia 42  22  3,850 
North Carolina 1,568  875  154,000 
South Carolina  2,881  1,475  263,288 
Georgia 5,288  1,730  309,670 
Florida 117  17  3,570 
 
Alabama 2,621  715  124,410 
Mississippi 2,950  946  177,375 
Louisiana 1,532  300  52,500 
Texas 10,346  2,700  472,500 
Arkansas 2,563  830  151,060 
 
Tennessee 775  298  49,915 
Missouri 111  60  10,200 
Oklahoma 2,341  930  163,680 
 
California 167  102  21,930 
Arizona 116  75  19,125 
Other 11  7  1,250 



 United States   33,344   11,030   1,967,143 


OATS



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 169  5,746  5,286 
New Hampshire  33  1,221  1,038 
Vermont 110  3,960  3,564 
Massachusetts 15  570  513 
Rhode Island 2  68  65 
 
Connecticut 20  620  546 
New York 1,160  29,580  24,551 
New Jersey 82  2,460  1,968 
Pennsylvania 1,189  36,859  29,487 
Delaware 5  115  104 
 
Maryland 65  1,820  1,492 
Virginia 240  5,280  5,280 
West Virginia 190  4,750  4,322 
North Carolina 322  3,767  3,993 
South Carolina 510  11,730  12,903 
 
Georgia 540  10,800  12,420 
Florida 60  1,140  1,368 
Ohio 1,548  51,858  37,338 
Indiana 1,825  60,225  41,555 
Illinois 4,102  123,060  86,142 
 
Michigan 1,475  36,875  26,181 
Wisconsin 2,339  78,123  54,686 
Minnesota 3,220  90,160  57,702 
Iowa 5,670  196,182  125,556 
Missouri 1,417  38,259  27,164 
 
North Dakota 2,400  38,400  25,728 
South Dakota 1,850  53,650  33,800 
Nebraska 2,133  69,962  45,475 
Kansas 1,574  44,229  32,287 
Kentucky 440  9,900  9,009 
 
Tennessee 400  9,200  8,556 
Alabama 372  6,696  7,031 
Mississippi 278  5,282  5,446 
Louisiana 75  1,650  1,650 
Texas 2,250  94,500  60,480 
 
Oklahoma 1,500  49,500  34,650 
Arkansas 420  9,240  8,131 
Montana 612  6,120  6,569 
Wyoming 315  5,670  6,350 
Colorado 249  6,524  5,872 
 
New Mexico 65  2,340  2,223 
Arizona 13  533  533 
Utah 72  2,448  2,399 
Nevada 12  384  384 
 
Idaho 220  7,700  7,546 
Washington 320  12,800  11,904 
Oregon 347  11,104  10,216 
California 175  5,250  5,040 



 United States 42,400  1,248,310  895,603 


POTATOES



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 102  24,480  34,272 
New Hampshire  20  2,400  4,200 
Vermont 25  3,125  4,906 
Massachusetts 33  2,970  5,643 
Rhode Island 5  425  765 
 
Connecticut 24  1,680  3,276 
New York 363  39,567  57,372 
New Jersey 110  10,560  17,846 
Pennsylvania 254  25,400  39,116 
Delaware 11  913  1,141 
 
Maryland 55  5,170  6,721 
Virginia 121  11,495  18,047 
West Virginia 57  5,130  8,978 
North Carolina 58  4,930  8,036 
South Carolina 27  2,295  4,590 
 
Georgia 23  1,610  3,494 
Florida 24  1,824  3,830 
Ohio 150  9,300  17,856 
Indiana 100  4,400  8,580 
Illinois 155  8,060  15,798 
 
Michigan 326  28,688  38,729 
Wisconsin 300  28,200  39,480 
Minnesota 300  26,100  39,933 
Iowa 115  4,945  9,494 
Missouri 110  8,250  15,180 
 
North Dakota 90  5,670  9,072 
South Dakota 90  4,500  8,550 
Nebraska 115  6,825  12,018 
Kansas 68  5,168  9,819 
Kentucky 72  5,040  10,584 
 
Tennessee 48  3,120  5,366 
Alabama 44  3,520  7,568 
Mississippi 18  1,530  2,830 
Louisiana 25  1,600  3,520 
Texas 52  3,796  7,972 
 
Oklahoma 44  3,520  7,216 
Arkansas 41  3,321  6,808 
Montana 47  2,820  4,512 
Wyoming 33  2,640  5,016 
Colorado 92  11,040  18,768 
 
New Mexico 11  495  940 
Arizona 5  350  682 
Utah 17  2,397  3,284 
Nevada 6  900  1,350 
 
Idaho 36  5,400  8,154 
Washington 58  7,250  10,512 
Oregon 45  4,230  6,345 
California 88  11,352  19,412 



 United States 4,013  357,901  577,581 


BUCKWHEAT



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 17  408  714 
New Hampshire  2  52  81 
Vermont 9  225  382 
Massachusetts 2  44  70 
Connecticut 5  100  200 
 
New York 233  5,126  7,433 
New Jersey 11  198  297 
Pennsylvania 256  5,530  7,742 
Delaware 6  108  173 
Maryland 14  322  499 
 
Virginia 25  475  736 
West Virginia 42  882  1,499 
North Carolina 11  209  293 
Ohio 26  621  963 
Indiana 14  231  346 
 
Illinois 4  72  130 
Michigan 48  662  907 
Wisconsin 31  502  753 
Minnesota 15  240  312 
 
Iowa 7  98  166 
Missouri 6  90  166 
Nebraska 1  16  29 
Tennessee 5  90  135 



 United States 790  16,301  24,026 


RYE



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Vermont 1  17  26 
Massachusetts 5  115  201 
Connecticut 11  220  440 
New York 120  1,932  2,898 
New Jersey 81  1,296  2,074 
 
Pennsylvania 228  3,648  5,727 
Delaware 2  26  42 
Maryland 30  420  685 
Virginia 72  828  1,408 
West Virginia 20  260  429 
 
North Carolina 90  810  1,701 
South Carolina 17  170  502 
Georgia 33  294  800 
Ohio 115  1,886  2,735 
Indiana 380  5,320  7,448 
 
Illinois 250  4,125  5,362 
Michigan 900  13,500  17,280 
Wisconsin 525  8,295  11,032 
Minnesota 522  7,830  10,179 
Iowa 70  1,113  1,469 
 
Missouri 60  720  1,080 
North Dakota 1,945  15,560  18,828 
South Dakota 500  6,500  8,125 
Nebraska 408  6,650  7,648 
Kansas 200  2,520  3,553 
 
Kentucky 62  744  1,302 
Tennessee 31  279  558 
Alabama 4  38  99 
Texas 7  119  199 
Oklahoma 25  350  525 
 
Arkansas 3  28  56 
Montana 68  272  503 
Wyoming 28  252  454 
Colorado 143  1,258  1,635 
 
Utah 18  126  252 
Idaho 9  135  236 
Washington 20  240  444 
Oregon 60  582  1,106 



 United States  7,063  88,478  119,041 


HAY (TAME)



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Bushels Dollars
Maine 1,120  1,456  27,227 
New Hampshire  450  675  16,200 
Vermont 910  1,456  29,266 
Massachusetts 410  656  17,712 
Rhode Island 57  86  2,752 
 
Connecticut 340  544  16,429 
New York 4,386  6,579  134,870 
New Jersey 325  488  14,201 
Pennsylvania 2,978  4,318  103,632 
Delaware 82  105  2,730 
 
Maryland 450  630  15,120 
Virginia 1,100  1,650  39,105 
West Virginia 810  1,215  31,104 
North Carolina 800  1,040  25,168 
South Carolina 275  358  11,098 
 
Georgia 557  613  15,509 
Florida 113  141  3,243 
Ohio 2,879  3,973  86,611 
Indiana 2,200  3,080  66,528 
Illinois 3,250  4,810  102,934 
 
Michigan 2,650  3,180  74,412 
Wisconsin 2,677  4,738  96,181 
Minnesota 2,000  3,800  55,100 
Iowa 3,140  5,181  90,149 
Missouri 2,810  3,794  73,983 
 
North Dakota 605  908  12,803 
South Dakota 890  1,558  21,033 
Nebraska 1,769  4,299  60,186 
Kansas 1,832  4,507  71,211 
Kentucky 1,115  1,561  39,649 
 
Tennessee 1,280  1,792  48,384 
Alabama 1,367  1,367  30,484 
Mississippi 405  648  13,284 
Louisiana 250  450  10,350 
Texas 662  1,258  22,644 
 
Oklahoma 700  1,540  23,254 
Arkansas 550  770  15,785 
Montana 752  827  19,021 
Wyoming 605  853  19,619 
Colorado 1,065  2,396  44,326 
 
New Mexico 235  646  11,757 
Arizona 169  676  13,520 
Utah 453  938  20,542 
Nevada 225  526  10,310 
 
Idaho 650  1,625  35,750 
Washington 794  1,906  43,838 
Oregon 854  1,452  27,733 
California 2,352  4,257  73,220 



 United States 56,348  91,326  1,839,967 


TOBACCO BY TYPES AND DISTRICTS

I.—Cigar Types



District  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres Pounds Dollars
New England 35.0  54,400  25,187 
New York 3.7  3,483  784 
Pennsylvania 41.0  54,120  9,200 
Ohio-Miami Valley 40.0  40,000  6,000 
Wisconsin 48.0  60,960  13,533 
Georgia and Florida 6.2  5,890  3,210 



 Total cigar types 172.9  218,853  57,914 


II.—Chewing, Smoking, Snuff, and Export Types


Burley 313.0  262,920  146,609 
Paducah 137.8  110,240  26,458 
Henderson 106.5  87,330  17,466 
One-sucker 47.5  37,050  6,132 
Clarksville and Hopkinsville 126.0  100,800  26,006 
Virginia sun-cured 13.0  8,320  2,271 
Virginia dark 70.0  47,600  14,280 
Old Bright 395.0  201,450  114,020 
New Bright 463.0  277,800  118,065 
Maryland and eastern Ohio export 33.5  24,120  6,874 
Louisiana Perique .4  174  113 



 Total chewing, smoking, snuff, and export types  1,705.7  1,157,804  478,294 
All other 22.6  12,801  6,339 



 Total 1,901.2  1,389,458  542,547 

RICE



State  Acreage   Production  Total
 farm value 




Acres[1] Bushels[2] Dollars[2]
North Carolina 400  10  28 
South Carolina  3,700  90  270 
Georgia 1,200  29  80 
Florida 2,000  42  110 
Missouri 600  23  55 
Alabama 600  16  43 
Mississippi 3,300  96  182 
Louisiana 560,000  19,712  53,420 
Texas 218,000  6,998  19,594 
Arkansas 158,000  6,162  14,789 
California 142,000  7,881  21,042 



 United States   1,089,800  41,059  109,613 

Statistics of other products not included in the tables above are as follows: peanuts, 1,251,400 acres, production 33,263,000 bushels, value $79,839,000; beans, 1,018,000 acres, production 11,488,000 bushels, value $49,181,000; sweet potatoes, 1,029,000 acres, production 103,579,000 bushels, value $138,085,000; hops, 23,900 acres, production 29,346,000 pounds, value $22,656,000. The total value of thirteen crops in all the States in 1919 was $12,421,342,000. The total value of live stock on the farms in 1920 amounted to $8,566,313,000.


Source: Collier's New Encyclopedia 1. (1921) New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company. 69-75.

  1. Figures in full (000 not omitted).
  2. 2.0 2.1 (000 omitted).