Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Iowa
IOWA, a State in the North Central Division of the North American Union; bounded by Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota; admitted to the Union, Dec. 28, 1846; number of counties, 99; capital, Des Moines; area, 56,025 square miles; pop. (1890) 1,911,896; (1900) 2,231,853; (1910) 2,224,771: (1920) 2,404,021.
Topography.—The surface of the State is generally level, with a gentle rise toward the N. The highest elevation is near Spirit Lake, in Dickinson co., 1,694 feet. The center of the State forms a watershed between the Mississippi and the Missouri. There are no hills of consequence, the entire surface being a plateau, and whenever irregularities occur, they are depressions below the general level. There are steep bluffs along the river banks, caused by the wearing away of the drift and rocks by the water. The State is covered with prairie land, with no swamps or natural forests. The water system is divided into two parts, those rivers flowing into the Mississippi in the E., and those flowing into the Missouri in the W. Among the former are the Upper Iowa, Turkey, Maquoketa, Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, Skunk, Des Moines, and Boone, while the Missouri system includes the Chariton, Grand Platte, Nodaway, Nishnabotna, Boyer, Maple, Little Sioux, Rock, and Floyd rivers. The Big Sioux river forms most of the W. boundary. There are many small and beautiful lakes, the largest being Spirit Lake, and the Okoboji Lakes, in Dickinson co.
Geology.—The State presents 20 distinct geological formations. The N. part belongs to the drift deposits of Minnesota. Lower down the Lower Silurian is prominent, with Potsdam sandstone, lower magnesium limestone, and St. Peter's sandstone. The Upper Silurian is represented by the Niagara and Le Clair limestone, and the Devonian by the Hamilton and Chemung carboniferous limestones.
Mineralogy.—The Illinois coal field extends over an area of 20,000 square miles in this State, and lead is found in Galena limestone near Dubuque. The coal production of the State in 1918 was 8,240,000 tons, which was 725,000 tons less than the production of 1917. The other mineral products are mineral waters, cement, gypsum, sand and gravel. The value of the cement produced in 1916 was $6,870,863. The total value of the mineral production in that year was $39,336,372.
Soil.—The soil generally is a soft black loam, formed directly through deposits of the Quaternary age, and varies from 1 to 100 feet in depth. The soil is easily worked, free from stones and stumps, and of almost inexhaustible fertility. The soil of the prairies is a diluvial drift, while the river beds furnish a light alluvial deposit. The principal natural trees are several varieties of oak, hickory, elm, black walnut, linden, cottonwood, maple, cedar, slippery elm, butternut, sycamore, ash, pine, and box-elder.
Agriculture.—The fertility of the soil and the ease with which it may be worked present special advantages for agricultural pursuits. Among native fruits are the plum, crabapple, grape, cherry, blackberry, gooseberry, strawberry, and raspberry, while the wild prairie grass is used for pasturage and for hay. The production and value of the principal crops in 1919 was as follows: corn, 416,000,000 bushels, valued at $499,200,000; oats, 196,182,000 bushels, valued at $125,556,000; wheat, 23,675,000 bushels, valued at $47,350,000; hay, 5,181,000 tons, valued at $90,149,000; potatoes, 4,945,000 bushels, valued at $9,494,000.
Manufactures.—There were in 1914 5,614 manufacturing establishments in the State, with 63,113 wage earners. The capital invested amounted to $233,127,000; and the wages paid to $39,816,000. The value of the materials used amounted to $205,451,000, and the value of the finished product to $310,750,000. The principal manufacturing places are Sioux City, noted for its flour mills; Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Dubuque, and Des Moines. The chief articles of manufacture include dairy products, agricultural implements, confectionery, clothing, flour and grist, lumber, saddlery and harness, packed meat, and tobacco.
Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were 354 National banks in operation, having $25,115,000 in capital, $20,413,200 in outstanding circulation, and $19,532,000 in United States bonds. There were also 371 State banks, with $16,634,000 capital, and $6,140,000 surplus; 23 trust and loan companies, with $4,046,000 capital and $908,000 surplus. In the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, the exchanges at the United States clearing house at Des Moines aggregated $528,019,000, an increase over the previous year of $38,325,000.
Education.—The school population of the State is about 680,000, with an average daily attendance of about 400,000. There were about 30,000 teachers with an average monthly salary for male teachers of about $90.00 and for female teachers of $80.00, Among the colleges are the State University of Iowa, at Iowa City, Cornell College, at Mount Vernon, Drake University, at Des Moines, Iowa College, at Grinnell, Luther College, at Decorah, and the Iowa Wesleyan University, at Mount Pleasant.
Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State are the Roman Catholic, Methodist Episcopal, Disciples of Christ, Regular Baptist, Presbyterian, North Lutheran, Congregational, United Brethren and Friends.
Railroads.—The total railway mileage for the State in 1919 was 9,935. This includes single track line only. There has been very little construction in recent years.
Finances.—The total receipts for the biennal period 1916-18 amounted to $20,806,476, and the disbursements to $19,398,657. There was a balance on hand at the end of the year of $2,125,644. There was no bonded debt, but a net debt of about $1,300,000.
State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of two years, and receives a salary of $5,000 per annum. Legislative sessions are held biennially and are unlimited in length. The Legislature has 50 members in the Senate, and 108 in the House, There are 11 representatives in Congress. The government in 1920 was Republican.
History.—Iowa was first visited by Marquette and Joliet, the French explorers, in 1673, and the first settlement was made by Julien Dubuque and a party of 10 to work the lead mines near the present city of Dubuque. The territory including Iowa was ceded to Spain in 1763, and receded to France in 1801, and became the property of the United States by the “Louisiana Purchase” in 1803. It became a separate territory in 1838, and was admitted to the Union as a State in 1846. In 1857 occurred the Spirit Lake massacre, an Indian raid, in which about 40 settlers were killed and their homes destroyed. The State capital was formerly at Iowa City, but in 1857 was removed to Des Moines.
Charities and Corrections.—The principal charitable and correctional institutions are as follows: five state hospitals, a Soldiers' Home, a training school for boys and girls, an institution for feeble minded children and a tuberculosis sanatorium.