KEPHIR, a beverage produced by bringing about alcoholic fermentation in milk. Originally made in the Caucasus, mainly from goat's and sheep's milk. It contains approximately three-quarters of one per cent. alcohol, about one per cent. of lactic acid and two-and-one-half per cent. sugar. Koumiss is a similar beverage, originally made by the Tartars from mare's milk, but is also prepared from cow's milk by adding a small quantity of sugar and yeast to skim milk. It may contain as much as three per cent. alcohol.