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NATCHEZ, a city and county-seat of Adams co., Miss.; on the Mississippi river, and the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley, the Mississippi Central, the Natchez and Southern, and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern railroads; 100 miles S. W. of Jackson. It is the shipping port for a large cotton region, exporting annually many thousands of bales. Here are a State Hospital, Fisk Library, Carpenter Library, Natchez Institute, Memorial Park, street railroads, electric lights, and several banks. The city has cotton mills, cottonseed oil mills, cotton compress, artificial ice plant, saw and planing mills, etc. Natchez was settled by the French about 1713, and was a military and trade post till 1764. It then became a possession of Great Britain and later passed into that of Spain. In 1798, under a treaty between Spain and the United States, it was ceded to the latter. It was made the State capital and remained so till 1815. During the Civil War it was taken by Admiral Farragut. The name, Natchez, is derived from a noted tribe of Indians. Pop. (1900) 12,210; (1910) 11,791; (1920) 12,608.