NEW HAMPSHIRE, a State in the North Atlantic Division of the North American Union; bounded by Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, Quebec, and the Atlantic Ocean; one of the original 13 States; capital, Concord; number of counties, 10; area, 9,005 square miles; pop. (1890) 376,530; (1900) 411,588; (1910) 430,572; (1920) 443,083.
Topography.—The surface of the State is rugged. The Appalachian range of mountains enters the State from Maine, and as the White Mountains crosses the State diagonally with a maximum elevation in Mount Washington of 6,285 feet. Along the W. part of the State these mountains dwindle down to a range of hills. The White Mountain district is divided by the Saco and Lower Ammonoosuc river valleys, and the “Notch” into the White and Franconia ranges. This region presents magnificent scenery and is known as the “Switzerland of America.” Besides Mount Washington, there are 28 other peaks over 4,000 feet high. The river system is divided into five drainage basins. The Connecticut river, forming the entire Vermont boundary line, and fed by the Upper and Lower Ammonoosuc, Mascona, Sugar, and Ashuelot rivers, drains the entire W. part of the State. The Androscoggin river, rising in Lake Umbagog, drains the N. E. and the E. mountain district is drained by the Saco. The Piscataqua, with its tributaries, the Salmon Falls, and the Cocheco, forms a S. E. basin. The mouth of this river forms the harbor of Portsmouth, the only harbor on the New Hampshire coast. The Merrimac river, formed by the junction of the Pemigewasset and Winnipiseogee, flows through a region of manufacturing cities to which it supplies unlimited water power. There are numerous beautiful lakes and ponds in the State, the largest being Winnipiseogee. Other lakes are the Umbagog, Squam, Sunapee, Great Bay, New Found, Connecticut, and Diamond lakes.
Geology.—The principal geological formations of New Hampshire are of Eozoic origin, this State being one of the first portions of the American continent to appear above the primal ocean. Terminal moraines and boulders illustrate the Glacial period, and deposits of Laurentian, Labradorian, Huronian, and Atlantic periods are also present. Magnetic and specular iron ore are found in places, and some copper is mined in the towns of Lyman and Monroe. New Hampshire is not an important State in the production of minerals and metals. The chief mineral product is granite. The annual output is valued at about $1,500,000. Bricks were produced in considerable quantities. Other mineral products are garnet, mica, mineral waters, and scythe stones. The total value of the mineral products is about $2,000,000 annually.
Soil and Productions.—The soil is light and sandy and with the exception of the Connecticut valley and portions of Coos county is not adaptable to farming. The soil is as a rule worn out from constant tillage and makes much better pasturage than farmland. The agricutural interests have of late been turned to stock raising and dairy farming. Large quantities of maple sugar and syrup are produced. The principal farm products are hay, rye, wheat, oats, potatoes, and buckwheat. The production of the principal crops in 1919 was as follows: corn, 1,050,000 bushels, valued at $1,785,000; oats, 1,221,000 bushels, valued at $1,038,000; hay, 675,000 tons, valued at $16,200,000; potatoes, 2,400,000 bushels, valued at $4,200,000. The forest trees include several varieties of pine, hemlock, spruce, and maple, oak, beech, birch, elm, hickory, butternut, chestnut, poplar, cherry, ash, and moosewood.
Manufactures.—In common with other New England States, the industrial interests of New Hampshire are devoted to manufacturing. The abundant water power produced by the Merrimac river makes central and southern New Hampshire one of the most important manufacturing sections of the country. The statistics of manufactures in 1914 was as follows: number of establishments, 1,736; average number of wage earners, 78,993; capital invested, $156,749,000; wages paid, $40,642,000; value of materials used, $114,993,000; value of finished products, $182,844,000. The principal products were cotton and woolen goods, boots and shoes, hosiery and knit goods, leather, machine shop and foundry products, paper, flour, clothing, furniture and wood pulp.
Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were reported 55 National banks in operation, having $5,235,000 in capital, $5,457,000 in outstanding circulation, and $5,616,500 in United States bonds, and 14 loan and trust companies with $805,000 capital and $932,000 surplus.
Education.—The total school population of the State is about 80,000. It has an enrolment of about 75,000. In the elementary schools there are about 2,500 teachers and about 600 in the secondary schools. The average yearly salary of male teachers in the secondary schools is about $1,400 and the women teachers about $650. For higher education there were 52 public high schools; 31 private secondary schools; the State Normal School, at Plymouth; Dartmouth College, at Hanover; St. Anselm's College, at Manchester; and the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, at Durham.
Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State are the Roman Catholic, Congregational, Methodist Episcopal, Regular Baptist, Free Will Baptist, Unitarian, Protestant Episcopal, Advent Christian, and Universalist.
Transportation.—The total railway mileage of the State in 1919 was 2,202. Of this 1,020 miles are controlled by the Boston and Maine.
Finances—The receipts for the fiscal year 1918 amounted to $4,367,422 and the disbursements to $4,062,048. The net debt of the State amounts to about $1,600,000.
Charities and Collections.—The charitable and correctional institutions include a State Normal School at Manchester, State Hospital for the Insane at Concord, State Prison at Concord, State Sanatorium at Concord, School for Feeble-Minded at Laconia, and Soldiers' Home at Tilton. There are also a number of orphan asylums and homes for the children. A child welfare department was created in 1918.
State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of two years. Legislative sessions are held biennially, beginning on the first Wednesday of January, and are unlimited as to length. The Legislature has 24 members in the Senate, and 300 in the House. There are 2 representatives in Congress. The State government in 1920 was Republican.
History.—New Hampshire was settled in 1629 by an English colonist named Mason, under a grant made in 1623. In 1641 New Hampshire became a portion of the Colony of Massachusetts; who maintained her authority there till 1679, when the case being brought before the highest court of appeal in England on colonial matters, it was decided that the claim of Massachusetts was illegal, and New Hampshire was constituted a separate province. In 1686, the charter of Massachusetts, having been annulled, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, and Narragansett were united in one royal province, under President Dudley, and afterward under Governor Andros. In 1689, upon the news of the English Revolution, the government of Andros was overthrown, and Massachusetts resumed her old charter. In 1692, the province of New Hampshire was re-established by the English government. In 1776, the province issued a public declaration of independence, and organized a temporary government. After taking a prominent and distinguished part in the War of the Revolution New Hampshire, in convention (1788), gave in her adhesion to the United States Constitution by a majority of 11 votes in an assembly numbering 103; and in 1807, the seat of government was permanently established at Concord. On July 1, 1869, the State ratified the 15th Amendment to the National Constitution.