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NEW JERSEY, a State in the North Atlantic Division of the North American Union; bounded by New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay; one of the original 13 States; counties, 21; capital, Trenton; area, 8,224 square miles; pop. (1890) 1,444,933; (1900) 1,883,669; (1910) 2,537,167; (1920) 3,155,900.

Topography.—New Jersey is divided into two distinct geographical divisions, the N. portion being undulating and hilly, and the S. a low sandy plain. The N. half of the State is crossed by three parallel mountain ranges running in a S. W. direction. The Blue Ridge or Kittatinny, and the Highland ranges, are part of the Appalachian chain and the third or Orange Mountains belong to a series of low ridges traced from Massachusetts across Connecticut, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Blue Ridge crosses the Delaware river at the Delaware Water Gap, where its altitude is 1,486 to 1,625 feet. The greatest altitude in the the State is High Point, near the New York State line, 1,804 feet. Between the Blue Ridge and Highland ranges is the Kittatinny valley, 10 to 13 miles in width, and noted for its agricultural advantages. The Highland Range is in reality a deeply dissected plateau or tableland, its semi-detached portions being known as mountains, among which the highest are Hamburg Mountain, 1,488 feet, Wawayanda Mountain, 1,450 feet, Schooley's, Musconetcong, and Green Pond Mountains. The Orange Mountains are three parallel ridges of trap rock known as the First and Second Mountains, and Long Hill, separated by narrow valleys, underlaid by sandstone. A ridge of trap extends along the New Jersey shore of the Hudson river, known as the Palisades, and is world renowned for its scenic beauty. The Navesink Highlands, a group of sandy hills S. of Sandy Hook, and other detached hills to the S. W. rise to a height of nearly 400 feet. The entire S. portion of the State is an undulating plain gradually decreasing in altitude toward the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware river. The W. portion of the State is bounded and drained by the Delaware river. The Hudson flows along the E. boundary for 30 miles but receives no drainage. The principal rivers of the State are the Passaic which, fed by the Pompton and Rockaway, empties into Newark Bay; and the Raritan, flowing into Raritan Bay. There are numerous small rivers, and creeks flowing into the Atlantic or into small bays. Among these may be mentioned the Navesink, Shrewsbury, Tom's, Manasquan, Great and Little Egg Harbor rivers. The Atlantic coast has numerous tidal bays, and the N. part of the State abounds in mountains, lakes and ponds. Among the latter are Greenwood Lake, Budd's Lake, Lake Hopatcong, and Green Pond.

Geology.—Bands of geological formation cross the State in a N. E. and S. W. direction. With the exception of the coal measures, all the geologic ages are represented. The Azoic, represented by granite, crystalline limestone, and gneiss, is interlaced with the Palæozoic sandstone, slates, shales, and magnesium limestone in the N. W. The Triassic sandstone, broken by trap and basalt ridges, occupies a belt N. W. of a line from Jersey City to Trenton. This red sandstone deposit is said to have a thickness of 14,000 feet. The Cretaceous belt is just E. of the sandstone, and includes sands, marls, clays, and mixtures of the same. The S. part of the State is of drift deposits of loam, clay, sand and gravel.

Mineralogy.—For its size New Jersey is one of the richest mineral producing States in the Union. The Azoic and Palæozoic formations in the N, W. supply a large amount of magnetic iron, magnetic ore being practically the only kind now mined, though deposits of hematite and amanite are known. Copper ores are worked in Somerset county, and the Schuyler mine at Arlington was the first copper mine worked in the United States. The zinc mines in Sussex county are among the richest in the world. Lead, plumbago, manganese, and nickel are also found. Sand for glass-making, shell marls for fertilizers, lime for mortar and for fertilizing, porcelain, potters' and kaolin clays are among the more useful geographical resources. In building and paving stones New Jersey stands well, the famous Jersey sandstone is largely used for building purposes, and the gneiss-granite, limestone, blue-stone, slate and trap are all of great commercial value. Shipments of iron ore in 1918 amounted to 375,238 long tons, valued at $1,945,651. In the production of clay products New Jersey ranks third among the States, being exceeded only by Ohio and Pennsylvania. There is also an important production of zinc. Clay products were valued at $22,529,232, The total value of the mineral products of the State in that year amounted to $57,710,181.

Agriculture.—The soil is a sandy loam admirably adapted to agriculture, and in places where it has become worked out the abundant natural fertilizers soon reclaim it. The principal forest trees are the black, white, red, and pin oaks, hickory, beech, shagbark, maple, cedar, elm, black walnut, ash, tulip, white and pitch pine, hemlock, spruce, holly, witch-hazel, iron wood, cotton wood, dogwood, birch, alder, tamarack, willow, sweet gum, and wild cherry. The sand plains in the S. raise an abundance of cranberries, and the peach, apple, pear, and berry crops of New Jersey are of great value, while floriculture receives great care. The production and valuee of the prinscipal crops in 1919 were as follows: Corn, 10,800,000 bushels, valued at $16,524,000; wheat, 1,962,000 bushels, valued at $4,316,000; rye, 1,296,000 bushels, valued at $2,074,000; hay, 488,000 tons, valued at $14,201,000; potatoes, 10,560,000 bushels, valued at $17,846,000; sweet potatoes, 1,750,000 bushels, valued at $3,850,000; cranberries, 161,000 barrels, valued at $1,288,000.

Manufactures.—The manufactures of New Jersey are very extensive and varied. Newark is one of the principal general manufacturing centers of the country. Its production of jewelry, leather, and hats, is greater than in any other city in the Union. Jersey City has extensive abattoirs, stockyards, grain elevators, steel works, and sugar refineries. Paterson is noted for its silk mills and locomotive works; Trenton for its potteries; Bridgeton, Millville, Salem and Glassboro for their glass works; Bayonne for its oil refineries and boiler works; and Elizabeth for the shipyards, sewing machines, and machine shops. In 1914 there were 9,742 manufacturing establishments, employing 373,605 wage earners. The capital invested amounted to $1,352,382,000, and the wages paid to $211,136,000. The value of the material used was $883,465,000, and the value of the finished product, $1,406,633,000. The principal articles manufactured included hats, pottery, drugs, refined oils, chemicals, silk, machinery, boilers, bar steel and iron, aluminum goods, celluloid, household and agricultural utensils, paper, cotton and woolen goods, tobacco, sewing machines, glass, structural iron, clothing, brick and terra cotta, scientific apparatus, soap, leather goods, boots and shoes, saddlery, brass goods, jewelry, and hard and soft rubber goods.

Banking.—In 1919 there were reported 206 National banks in operation, having $22,957,000 in capital, $15,936,273 in outstanding circulation, and $14,652,270 in United States bonds. There were also 24 State banks with $2,238,000 capital, and $1,740,000 surplus; and 120 loan and trust companies, with $25,087,000 capital, and $18,689,000 surplus.

Education.—In 1918 the total enrolment in the public schools was 568,825. There was an enrolment in the evening schools of 33,588. There were 15,329 women teachers and 21,014 men teachers. The average daily attendance in the day schools was 423,570. The average salary per year in the day schools was $948.29. The total expenditures for educational purposes were $33,723,115. For higher education there are St. Peter's College at Jersey City, St. Benedict's College at Newark, Princeton University at Princeton, Seton Hall College at South Orange, Rutgers College at New Brunswick, Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken, Drew Theological Seminary at Madison, the German Theological School of Newark at Bloomfield, and Bordentown Female College at Bordentown.

Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State are the Roman Catholic; the Methodist Episcopal; Presbyterian, North; Regular Baptist; Protestant Episcopal; Reformed; African Methodist; Lutheran, General Council; and Congregational.

Railroads.—The total railway mileage in the State in 1919 was 6,006. The roads having the longest mileage are the Pennsylvania and the Central Railroad of New Jersey.

Finances.—The total disbursements for the fiscal year 1919 amounted to $29,392,082, and the receipts to $32,587,384. There was a balance on hand at the end of the year of $18,458,832.

Charities and Corrections.—The charitable and correctional institutions of the State include State Hospitals for the Insane at Trenton and Morris Plains, State Home for the Feeble-Minded at Vineland, State Reformatory for Criminals at Rahway, State Prison at Trenton, deaf and dumb asylum at Trenton, and many other homes for the sick and mentally afflicted. Correctional schools and juvenile courts have been established in the counties of the first class.

State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of three years and receives a salary of $10,000 per annum. Legislature meets annually on the second Tuesday in January and is not limited as to length of session. The legislature has 21 members in the Senate, and 60 in the House. There are 12 representatives in Congress. In 1920 the State legislature was Republican and the governor a Democrat.

History.—The first settlement in New Jersey was made by the Dutch at Bergen Point about 1615. Many Swedes and Danes afterward settled there, but the Dutch maintained possession till 1664, when it became English property and was given to the Duke of York. He divided his grant of New Jersey between Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey where he had previously been governor. In 1682 East Jersey came under the jurisdiction of William Penn, and his partners in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In 1738 on the petition of the colony to have a separate administration, Lewis Morris was made governor of New Jersey, and until the beginning of the Revolutionary War the growth of the colony was peaceful. The province adopted a State constitution in 1776, and throughout the Revolutionary War it was frequently the scene of stirring events. On its soil were fought the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Red Bank, and Monmouth. The first legislature was convened at Princeton in August, 1776, and the Federal Constitution was adopted by a unanimous vote, Dec. 18, 1787. The State capital was definitely located at Trenton in 1790. The constitution of 1776, which was superseded by another on Aug. 13, 1844, was materially modified in 1873 and 1875. The original constitution granted suffrage without distinction to sex or color, and up to 1807 women exercised their right.


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