OHIO, a State in the North Central Division of the North American Union; bounded by Michigan, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana; admitted to the Union, Feb. 19, 1803; capital, Columbus; number of counties, 88; area, 41,040 square miles; pop. (1890) 3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (1910) 4,767,121; (1920) 5,759,394.
Topography.—The surface of the State is an undulating plain with a tranverse ridge crossing it in a N. E. and S. W. direction just N. of the center of the State. This ridge forms the watershed between those rivers belonging to the St. Lawrence, and those of the Ohio river systems. The highest altitude in the State is near Bellefontaine, in Logan county, 1,550 feet. The N. side of the watershed, though smaller, has a move gentle slope than the S. side. The lands in the N. W. were originally swampy. The Ohio river forms over half the E., and the entire S. boundary of the State, and though it has an average descent of eight inches to the mile, is navigable its entire distance along the State. Lake Erie forms over two-thirds the N. boundary and provides Ohio with several excellent harbors. The principal rivers flowing into the lake are the Cuyahoga, whose mouth forms the harbor of Cleveland; the Black, the Vermilion, the Ottawa, the Sandusky, emptying into Sandusky Bay, and the Maumee, emptying into Maumee Bay. All of these rivers have excellent harbors at their mouths. The Maumee river drains the larger portion of the N. of Ohio. The streams flovdng into the Ohio are the Muskingum, emptying at Marietta; the Scioto, at Portsmouth; the Little Miami, 6 miles from Cincinnati; the Big Miami, 20 miles below Cincinnati, and the Hocking.
Geology.—The entire geological formation of Ohio consists of Palæozoic strata, having an average thickness of about 3,600 feet. The Carboniferous, Devonian, and Silurian systems form the surface rock of the State. The Quaternary or drift deposits, cover a large area of the State, consisting of a blue bowlder clay, covered by the Erie clay. The Carboniferous deposits cover one-third the surface, overlying the Devonian, which geologically forms the surface of the N. part of the State. The whole S. E. half of Ohio is underlaid with coal measures, showing seven distinct veins of superior coal, for gas making, or iron smelting. These coal measures have a practical working thickness of over 50 feet.
Mineralogy.—The mineralogical resources of Ohio are very extensive. The State ranks ninth in the United States in the production of petroleum, and clay products; fourth in coal and natural gas; and fourth in salt. Iron is found in several counties, and is adapted to fine class castings. Carbonate of lime, hydraulic cement, and quicklime are extensively manufactured. The sandstone near Cleveland is used extensively for building purposes in the N. States and Canada. Ohio is one of the most important of the mineral producing States. Its two leading products are coal and clay products. There were produced in 1919 47,919,202 short tons of coal. The petroleum produced in the same year amounted to 7,825,226 barrels, valued at $10,061,493. The natural gas production was valued at $17,391,060. The value of the products of the quarries, chiefly sandstone and limestone, was $5,816,923. The Portland cement produced was 1,983,217 barrels, valued at $1,940,824. The value of the clay products was $36,839,621.
Manufactures.—There were in 1914 15,658 manufacturing establishments, employing 510,435 wage earners. The capital invested was $1,677,552,000, and the amount paid in wages was $318,924,000. The value of the materials used was $1,020,782,000 and the value of the finished product was $1,782,808,000.
Soil and Agriculture.—The soil is divided into three grades, limestone soils, clay of the uplands, and swamp lands in the N. W. The former two are well adapted to agriculture, all the fruits, cereals, and vegetables of the temperate zone thriving well. The following figures give the acreage, production and value of the principal crops, in 1919: corn, 3,700,000 acres, production, 162,800,000 bushels, value $196,988,000; oats, 1,548,000 acres, production 51,858,000 bushels, value $37,338,000; wheat, 2,860,000 acres, production 54,440,000 bushels, value $115,413,000; hay, 2,879,000 acres, production 3,973,000 tons, value $86,611,000; tobacco, 90,000 acres, production 77,400,000 pounds, value $26,000,084; potatoes, 150,000 acres, production 9,300,000 bushels, value $17,856,000.
Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were reported 372 National banks in operation, having $65,033,000 in capital, $45,049,000 in outstanding circulation, and $156,342,000 in United States bonds. There were also 609 State banks, with $58,417,000 capital and $39,138,000 surplus; 169 private banks, with $2,657,000 capital, and $990,000 surplus. The exchanges at the United States clearing houses at Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus for the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, aggregated $8,780,512,000.
Education.—School attendance is compulsory for children from 6 to 15 years. There were in 1919 about 11,000 public elementary schools, with about 30,000 teachers and about 870,000 enrolled pupils. There were over 1,000 public high schools, with nearly 130,000 pupils, and 6,500 teachers. There were 5 State normal schools, with about 1,200 students. The total expenditure for education exceeds $55,000,000 annually. Among the colleges are the University of Cincinnati, at Cincinnati; Western Reserve University, at Cleveland; Ohio State University, at Columbus; Ohio Wesleyan University, at Delaware; Oberlin College, at Oberlin; St. Xavier College, at Cincinnati, Oxford and Western Colleges, at Oxford, and the Lake Erie College and Seminary at Painesville.
Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State are the Roman Catholic; Methodist Episcopal; Presbyterian; Regular Baptist, North; Disciples of Christ; United Brethren; Lutheran, Independent Synods; Reformed; Congregational; German Evangelical Synod; and Christian.
Railways.—The total mileage in 1919 was 9,316. There were in addition over 4,300 miles of electric railway track.
Finances.—The receipts for the fiscal year ending July 1, 1918, were $25,411,743. The disbursements were $33,199,499. The cash on hand at the beginning of the year amounted to $7,787,756. There was a balance on July 1, 1919, of $7,375,351. The public debt amounted to $1,665, being a canal loan not bearing interest.
State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of two years. Legislative sessions are held biennially and limited in length to 60 days each. The Legislature has 37 members in the Senate, and 125 members in the House. There are 22 Representatives in Congress. The State government in 1921 was Republican.
History.—The site of the present State of Ohio was first explored by La Salle in 1680. About 1750 the English laid claim to the region, and their effort to make good their claim brought on the French and Indian War. In 1763, the whole region was ceded by France to England, and after the Revolutionary War it became part of the territory of the United States. The Ohio Company, organized in New England in 1787, composed of men who had served in the Revolutionary War, purchased from the government a large tract N. of the Ohio, paying for it in Continental currency. The first permanent settlement was made at Marietta in 1788. Cincinnati was founded soon after, and the settlement of the S. section of the territory progressed rapidly. In 1791 the Indian became stirred up by the encroachments of the whites, and a war ensued, which at first proved disastrous to the United States troops, but was finally ended in victory by General Wayne, in 1794. In the treaty of peace that followed, the Indians ceded a large section of territory, in which several new towns were quickly established. Ohio formed part of the Northwest Territory till 1800, when it was organized as a separate Territory, Chillicothe being made the seat of government. In 1802 a constitution was adopted for the “Eastern Division of the Territory N. W. of the Ohio,” under the name of Ohio, and it was formally admitted into the Union on Feb. 19, 1803. Steamboat navigation on the Ohio began in 1812; excavation of the State canals began in 1825, and was completed in 1844; and the first railroad, begun in 1837, was opened to traffic by 1842. Ohio took an active part in the Civil War, and since the war has given seven Presidents to the Union—Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Harrison, McKinley, Taft, and Harding, all born in this State.