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SOUTH CAROLINA, a State in the South Atlantic Division of the North American Union; bounded by North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Atlantic Ocean; one of the original 13 States; number of counties, 40; capital, Columbia; area, 30,170 square miles; population (1910) 1,515,400; (1920) 1,683,724.

Topography.—The State has a seaboard of 210 miles, and running W. from this is a low, sandy, and in places, marshy plain, from 80 to 100 miles wide. Beyond the plain is what is known as the middle country, consisting of low sand hills. A series of terraces rises W. of this and terminates in the Blue Ridge Mountains, passing through the N. W. of the State. The highest elevation in South Carolina is Table Mountain, 4,000 feet, on the Tennessee border. The principal river, the Santee, is 150 miles long, and is formed by the junction of the Wateree and Congaree. This latter river is formed by the union of the Broad and Saluda rivers. Other important rivers are Cooper and Ashley, emptying into Charleston harbor; the Edisto and Cambabee into St. Helena Sound; the Great Pedee, Little Pedee, Waccamaw, and Black, emptying into Wingah Bay; and the Oosawhatchie into Port Royal Harbor.

Geology and Mineralogy.—A geological break passing through the center of the State divides it into two distinct formations. The “up country” in the W. is of Primary origin, and the “low country” in the E. is of Tertiary, with occasional outcroppings of the Cretaceous. The mountain region in the N. W. has gneiss as its characteristic rock, with granite, hornblende, slates, limestones and clay. The chief mineral products are phosphate rock, granite, and clay products. A small amount of gold is produced, as well as some silver, iron ore and lime. The total value of the mineral output is about $1,500,000 annually.

Agriculture.—The soil is, as a rule, either loam or clay, rich in phosphate, lime, and potash. Cotton, maize, wheat, rice, and sweet potatoes are the chief staples. The magnolia and palmetto grow abundantly along the coast, pine and cypress characterize the low country, and hardwoods the highlands. The acreage, production, and value of the principal crops in 1919 was as follows: corn, 2,340,000 acres, production 37,440,000 bushels, value $73,757,000; oats, 510,000 acres, production 11,730,000 bushels, value $12,903,000; wheat, 204,000 acres, production 1,836,000 bushels, value $4,737,000; tobacco, 135,000 acres, production 81,000,000 pounds, value $18,468,000; hay, 275,000 acres, production 358,000 tons, value $11,098,000; peanuts, 13,000 acres, production 585,000 bushels, value $1,708,000; potatoes, 27,000 acres, production 2,295,000 bushels, value $4,590,000; sweet potatoes, 84,000 acres, production 7,560,000 bushels, value $11,189,000; cotton, 2,881,000 acres, production 1,475,000 bales, value $263,288,000.

Manufactures.—In 1914 there were 1,885 manufacturing establishments in the State. These gave employment to 71,914 wage-earners. The capital invested was $203,211,000, the amount paid in wages was $24,173,000, the value of the materials used $91,009,000, and the value of the finished product $138,891,000. The principal industries were cotton manufactures, lumber and timber products, fertilizers, cottonseed oil and cake, flour and grist mill products, planing mill products, rice cleaning and polishing, turpentine and rosin, railroad cars, cotton ginning, and brick and tile.

Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were reported 79 National banks in operation, having $9,605,000 in capital; $7,008,000 in outstanding circulation; and $27,599,000 in United States bonds. There were also 342 State banks, with $13,286,000 capital, and $6,062,000 surplus.

Commerce.—The imports of merchandise at the port of Charleston in the fiscal year 1920 aggregated in value $13,941,871; and the exports $32,474,625.

Education.—School attendance in the State is not compulsory, but the employment of illiterate children in factories or mines is restricted. Separate schools are maintained for white and colored children. In 1918 there were 194,687 white and 199,780 colored children enrolled in the schools. There were 2,464 public schools for white children and 2,408 schools for negro children. There were 5,620 white teachers and 3,013 negro teachers. The State appropriated in that year for schools $497,500. In 1909 there was enacted an elaborate general school law. The colleges include Claflin College, at Orangeburg; Woffard College, at Spartanburg; Furman University, at Greenville; South Carolina College, at Columbia; and Newberry College, at Newberry.

Churches.—The strongest denominations in the State are the African Methodist; Regular Baptist, Colored; Regular Baptist, South; Methodist Episcopal, South; Methodist Episcopal; Presbyterian, South; Lutheran, United Synod; Protestant Episcopal; Presbyterian, North; Roman Catholic; Disciples of Christ; Associate Presbyterian; and Methodist Protestant.

Railroads.—The total length of railroads within the State on Jan. 1, 1919, was 3,824 miles.

Finances.—The total receipts for the year ending Dec. 31, 1919, were $7,195,109, and the expenditures amounted to $6,913,500. The public debt of the State on Dec. 31, 1919, was $5,577,804.

Charities and Corrections.—The State maintains a number of charitable institutions, including a hospital for the insane, an asylum for the deaf, dumb and blind, 9 orphanages, 10 hospitals, and 10 homes for adults and children, which are maintained chiefly by private charity.

State Government.—The governor is elected for a term of two years. Legislative sessions are held annually beginning on the second Tuesday in January, and are limited in time to 40 days each. The Legislature has 44 members in the Senate and 124 in the House. There are 7 Representatives in Congress.

History.—The first settlement in South Carolina was attempted in 1562 by a colony of French Protestant exiles, who named it Carolina in honor of their monarch, Charles IX., King of France. In 1663, Charles II., King of England, granted a charter to a company of English nobles, and under their auspices the first successful settlement was made at Port Royal, previously founded by the French. In 1680 the foundation of Charleston was laid. During the Revolution important battles occurred at Charleston, Fort Moultrie, Cowpens, Camden, King's Mountain, and Eutaw Springs. The State constitution was adopted in 1776, and the Constitution of the United States was ratified in 1788. South Carolina was the first State to secede from the Union, on Dec. 20, 1860. The first hostile act in the Civil War was the bombardment of Fort Sumter, in April, 1861. During the war the State suffered greatly, her harbors were blockaded, and much property was destroyed by the Federal soldiers on the great march under General Sherman. In 1865 the ordinance of secession was repealed and slavery abolished. A new constitution, establishing perfect equality between the white and the colored races, was voted in 1868; and in the same year the ratification of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States being carried by a vote of 18 to 1 in the Senate and 88 to 3 in the House, the State was readmitted to representation in Congress.

Collier's 1921 South Carolina.jpg
Copyright, L. L. Poates Eng. Co., 1921