Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
UNITED PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH, formerly known as the Northwestern Provinces and Oudh. A province of British India in the valley of the upper Ganges river. It has an area of 107,267 square miles, of which 83,109 belong to the territory of Agra, and 24,158 to the territory of Oudh. The province, for the most part, consists of a low plain, well watered by the Ganges river. There is, however, in the extreme southern part, the mountain region of the Himalaya. The climate is hot and unhealthful. The chief industries are the growing of wheat, which in recent years has been increased by extensive irrigation works. Over 50,000,000 acres are under cultivation. Rice is also grown in large quantities, as are other agricultural products. Sugar cane is an important agricultural product. Other crops include maize, cotton, opium, and indigo. There are cotton mills in Cawnpore and other cities. The province is better supplied with railroads than any other in India. They are under the administration of a lieutenant-governor, who is assisted by a legislative council of 50 members. Pop., about 48,000,000.