Constitution of Romania (1952)

Constitution of Romania  (1952) 
Romania/PMR

CONSTITUTION of the Romanian People's RepublicEdit

Introductory chapterEdit

The Romanian People's Republic is a state of working people from towns and villages.

The Romanian People's Republic was born as a result of the historic victory of the Soviet Union over German fascism and the liberation of Romania by the glorious Soviet Army, a liberation which empowered the working people, led by the working class under the leadership of the Communist Party, to overthrow the fascist dictatorship, to destroy the power of the exploiting classes and to establish the state of people's democracy, which fully corresponds to the interests and wishes of the popular masses of Romania.

Thus the centuries-long struggle of the Romanian working people for freedom and national independence, the heroic struggles of the working class allied with the working peasantry for the overthrow of the capitalist-mossian regime and the shaking off of the imperialist yoke were crowned with a historic victory.

The forging and strengthening of the state of people's democracy, the friendship and alliance with the great Soviet Union, its selfless and brotherly support and help ensured the independence, state sovereignty, development and flourishing of the Romanian People's Republic.

The armed forces of the Romanian People's Republic stand guard over the borders of the country, the sovereignty and independence of the Romanian people, its security and peace.

The foreign policy of the People's Republic of Romania is a policy of defence of peace, of friendship and alliance with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the countries of people's democracy, a policy of peace and friendship with all peace-loving peoples.

The national minorities of the Romanian People's Republic enjoy full equality of rights with the Romanian people. In the Romanian People's Republic, administrative-territorial autonomy is ensured to the Hungarian population in the secessionist districts, where they form a compact mass.

The present Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic enshrines the results achieved so far by the working people, led by the working class, in the work of building a socialist society in our country.

The policy of the state of people's democracy is directed towards the liquidation of the exploitation of man by man and the building of socialism.

CHAPTER 1 Social OrientationEdit

Article 1

The Romanian People's Republic is a state of working people from towns and villages.

Article 2

The basis of popular power in the People's Republic of Romania is the alliance of the working class with the working peasantry, in which the leading role belongs to the working class.

Article 3

The Romanian People's Republic was born and strengthened as a result of the liberation of the country by the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from the yoke of fascism and imperialist domination, as a result of the overthrow of the power of the landlords and capitalists by the masses in the towns and villages, led by the working class, under the leadership of the Romanian Communist Party.

Article 4

In the Romanian People's Republic power belongs to the working people of the towns and villages, who exercise it through the Great National Assembly and the People's Councils. The People's Councils constitute the political basis of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 5

The national economy of the Romanian People's Republic comprises three social-economic formations: the socialist formation, the small commodity production and the private-capitalist formation.

Article 6

The basis of the socialist social-economic formation is the socialist ownership of the means of production, which is either in the form of state ownership (common property of the people) or in the form of cooperative-collectivist ownership (ownership of collective agricultural households or cooperative organizations). In the socialist formation of the national economy, the exploitation of man by man is eliminated. The socialist formation, to which the leading role in the national economy of the Romanian People's Republic belongs, is the basis for the development of the country along the path of socialism. The state of people's democracy, proclaiming the building of socialism as its main task, is constantly strengthening and expanding the socialist formation, ensuring the uninterrupted growth of the material well-being and cultural level of the working people.

Article 7

The wealth of the subsoil, factories, factories and mines, forests, waters, springs of natural energy, communication routes of all kinds, rail, river, sea and air transport, banks, post, telegraph, telephone, radio, printing presses, cinema and theatre, state agricultural holdings, car and tractor stations, communal enterprises and the nationalized part of the housing stock of towns, constitute state property, the common property of the people.

Article 8

The land in the Romanian People's Republic belongs to those who work it.

Article 9

The living and dead inventory of collective agricultural households and cooperatives, the production they produce, and all enterprises or buildings belonging to them, shall constitute the obsolete property of collective agricultural households and cooperatives. Peasants who are members of collective agricultural households have in their personal use a plot of land in addition to their house and in their personal property the household on this plot, the dwelling house, productive animals, poultry, small agricultural inventory - in accordance with the statute of the collective agricultural household.

Article 10

Small-scale production of goods in the People's Republic of Romania includes small and medium-sized peasant households, which possess private ownership of land based on the producer's own labour, as well as workshops of craftsmen who do not exploit the labour of others. The state protects the right of private ownership of land of peasants with small and medium-sized households, based on the laws in force. The people's democratic state supports small and medium-sized peasants and artisans in order to protect them from capitalist exploitation, to increase their production and to raise their welfare.

Article 11

The private-capitalist formation in the People's Republic of Romania comprises the Chiapas households, private commercial enterprises, small non-capitalist industrial enterprises based on the exploitation of wage labour. The People's Democratic State consistently carries out the policy of encumbering and eliminating capitalist elements.

Article 12

The right of personal property of the citizens of the People's Republic of Romania to the income and savings derived from work, to the house of residence and auxiliary household besides the house, to household and personal objects, as well as the right of inheritance to the personal property of citizens shall be protected by law.

Article 13

The economic life of the Romanian People's Republic shall develop on the basis of the state plan of the national economy, in the interest of building socialism, the uninterrupted growth of the material and cultural well-being of the working people, the strengthening of the national independence of the country and its defence capacity.

Article 14

In the People's Republic of Romania, foreign trade is a state monopoly.

Article 15

In the People's Republic of Romania, work is a duty and a matter of honour for every citizen capable of work, according to the principle "who does not work, does not eat". In the Romanian People's Republic, the principle of socialism is increasingly implemented: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his work".

CHAPTER 2 State OrganizationEdit

Article 16

The state regime of the Romanian People's Republic is the regime of people's democracy, which represents the power of the working people.

Article 17

The Romanian People's Democratic State - a unitary, sovereign and independent state: a) defend the independence and sovereignty of the Romanian people, the conquests of the working people in towns and villages, the rights, freedoms and power of the working people, against the enemies of the working people; b) ensure the strengthening and development of the productive forces of the country through its socialist industrialization, through the liquidation of economic, technical and cultural backwardness, through the gradual socialist transformation of agriculture on the basis of the free consent of the working peasants; c) Organize and develop the planned economy, based on state and cooperative enterprises; d) organizes the defence of the Republic against foreign enemies and leads the armed forces of the country; e) ensure the internal security of the citizens, and incriminate and suppress the enemies of the people; f) manages the banking and credit system, prepares and implements the state budget, sets taxes, duties and revenues necessary for the needs of the state; g) administers banks, enterprises and state industrial, agricultural and commercial institutions; h) manages public education of all grades; i) ensure the continuous improvement of the welfare and health of the popular masses in towns and villages; j) ensure the development of the culture of the Romanian people and the culture of national minorities, socialist in content, national in form; k) ensure that the Constitution and the laws of the Romanian People's Republic are applied and respected, since they are the expression of the will and interests of the working people. The observance and the exact application of the Constitution and the laws of the country is the main duty of every state institution and of every citizen, and they are binding throughout the territory of the Republic.

Article 18

The Romanian People's Republic shall have the following administrative-territorial division: Regions: Arad, Bacau, Baia Mare, Barlad, Bucharest, Cluj, Constanta, Craiova, Galati, Hunedoara, Iasi, Oradea, Pitesti, Ploiesti, Stalin, Suceava, Timisoara, Hungarian Autonomous Region.

Article 19

The Hungarian Autonomous Region of the Romanian People's Republic consists of the territory inhabited by the compact Hungarian Szekler population and has an autonomous administrative leadership, elected by the population of the Autonomous Region. The Hungarian Autonomous Region comprises the districts: Ciuc, Gheorgheni, Odorhei, Reghin, Sangeorgiu de Padure, Sf. Gheorghe, Targu-Mures, Targu-Sacuesc, Toplita. The administrative centre of the Hungarian Autonomous Region is the city of Targu-Mures.

Article 20

The laws of the Romanian People's Republic, the decisions and provisions of the central state bodies are binding on the territory of the Hungarian Autonomous Region.

Article 21

The regulations of the Hungarian Autonomous Region shall be drawn up by the People's Council of the Autonomous Region and submitted for approval to the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic.

CHAPTER 3 The supreme organ of state power of the Romanian People's RepublicEdit

Article 22

The supreme organ of state power of the Romanian People's Republic is the Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 23

The Great National Assembly is the sole law-making body of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 24

The Grand National Assembly shall have direct competence: a) the election of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic; b) the formation of the Government of the Romanian People's Republic; c) amending the Constitution; d) matters of war and peace; e) the establishment of plans for the national economy; f) approval of the state budget, the closure of budgetary years and the establishment of taxes and revenues for the state budget; g) the establishment of the number of ministries, the designation, merger and dissolution of ministries; h) modification of the division of the territory of the Romanian People's Republic into regions; i) granting amnesty; j) general control over the application of the Constitution.

Article 25

The Great National Assembly shall be elected by the working people, citizens of the People's Republic of Romania, by electoral constituencies, one deputy per 40,000 inhabitants. The Grand National Assembly is elected for a term of 4 years.

Article 26

A law shall be deemed adopted if it is voted by a simple majority of the Grand National Assembly.

Article 27

After the adoption of laws by the Grand National Assembly, they shall be signed by the President and the Secretary of the Presidium and published in the Official Bulletin of the Grand National Assembly. Compliance with the laws adopted by the Grand National Assembly shall be binding on all citizens of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 28

Sessions of the Grand National Assembly shall be held twice a year. The convocation of the Grand National Assembly shall be made by the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly.

Article 29

The Grand National Assembly may be convened in extraordinary sessions by the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly, or at the request of at least one third of the total number of deputies.

Article 30

The Grand National Assembly elects in each legislature a President and two Vice-Presidents, who conduct the sittings of the Grand National Assembly in accordance with the internal rules of procedure.

Article 31

The Grand National Assembly shall validate the mandates of the elected deputies. In order to verify the conditions under which the election of each Member was held, the Grand National Assembly shall elect a validation commission. This commission submits its report or approval to the Grand National Assembly, which decides whether to validate or annul the election of each deputy.

Article 32

The Grand National Assembly may appoint committees of inquiry and review in various matters. All state organs and officials are obliged to provide these commissions with the necessary information and documents. The Grand National Assembly shall determine for each commission its powers and the manner of its activity.

Article 33

Each member shall have the right to ask questions or to question the Government or individual ministers. The Government or the minister questioned shall be obliged to reply verbally or in writing within a maximum of three days.

Article 34

No member of the Grand National Assembly may be prosecuted or arrested without the consent of the Grand National Assembly during sessions and between sessions - of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly.

Article 35

The Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic elects the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly, composed of a President, two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and thirteen members.

Article 36

The Presidium of the Grand National Assembly shall be responsible to the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic for all its activities.

Article 37

The Presidium of the Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic shall have the following duties: a) convene the Grand National Assembly in sessions; b) issue decrees; c) interpret the laws in force in the Romanian People's Republic; d) decides to consult the people (referendum); e) cancels the decisions and provisions of the Council of Ministers when they do not comply with the laws; f) in the interval between sessions of the Grand National Assembly, removes from office and appoints ministers to the Government on the proposal of the President of the Council of Ministers and with the subsequent approval of the Grand National Assembly; g) establish decorations, medals and honorary titles of the Romanian People's Republic; h) confer decorations, medals and honorary titles of the Romanian People's Republic; establish military ranks, diplomatic ranks and other special titles; i) in the interval between sessions of the Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic, at the proposal of the Government, declare a state of war in the event of armed aggression directed against the Romanian People's Republic or against another state to which the Romanian People's Republic has mutual defence obligations under international treaties; j) appoint and dismiss the supreme commander of the armed forces of the Romanian People's Republic; k) declare partial or general mobilisation; l) exercise the right of pardon and commutation of punishments; m) ratify and denounce the international treaties of the Romanian People's Republic; n) accredits and recalls the plenipotentiary representatives of the Romanian People's Republic in foreign countries; o) receives letters of accreditation and recall of diplomatic representatives of foreign states accredited to the Presidium; p) in the interest of the defence of the Romanian People's Republic or of ensuring public order and state security, proclaims in some localities or on the entire territory of the country a state of emergency.

Article 38

The mandate of the Grand National Assembly shall cease at the end of the term for which it was elected.

Article 39

After the expiry of the term of office of the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic, the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly shall fix new elections within three months, counted from the day of expiry of the term of office of the Grand National Assembly. The Presidium in office shall retain its powers until the election of a new Presidium by the new Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 40

In case of war or other exceptional circumstances, the Grand National Assembly may extend its mandate for as long as the exceptional situation lasts.

Article 41

The newly elected Grand National Assembly shall be convened by the Presidium in office not later than three months after the elections.

CHAPTER 4 Bodies of State Administration of the Romanian People's RepublicEdit

Article 42

The supreme executive and executive organ of the state power of the Romanian People's Republic is the Council of Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 43

The Council of Ministers is constituted by the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic and consists of: - The President of the Council of Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic; - the Vice-Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic; - Chairman of the State Planning Committee; - Chairman of the State Control Commission; - Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic; - Chairman of the State Committee on Supply; - Chairman of the State Committee for the Collection of Agricultural Products; - Chairman of the Higher Education Committee; - Chairman of the Committee for Cinematography; - Chairman of the Art Committee.

Article 44

The Council of Ministers shall be responsible and accountable for its work to the Grand National Assembly, and in the intervals between sessions of the Grand National Assembly - to the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly.

Article 45

The Council of Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic shall issue decisions and orders on the basis of the laws in force or for their implementation and shall control their execution.

Article 46

The application of the decisions and provisions of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Romania shall be obligatory throughout the territory of the People's Republic of Romania.

Article 47

The Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Romania shall have the following powers: a) coordinate and guide the activity of the ministries and other institutions subordinated to it; b) take measures for the implementation of the national economic plan, the state budget and for the consolidation of the banking and credit system; c) takes measures to ensure public order, defend the interests of the State and protect the rights of citizens; d) exercise general leadership in the field of relations with foreign states; e) determine the annual quotas of citizens to be called up for active military service; it directs the general organization of the country's armed forces; f) establishes, as required, special committees and commissions, as well as general directorates within the Council of Ministers for economic, cultural, legal and military matters.

Article 48

The Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Romania may annul the orders and instructions of the Ministers not in conformity with the laws and decisions of the Council of Ministers.

Article 49

Within the limits of the competence of the ministries they head, Ministers shall issue orders and instructions on the basis of and for the implementation of the laws in force, decisions and orders of the Council of Ministers, controlling their execution.

Article 50

The Ministries of the Romanian People's Republic are the following: Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Internal Affairs; Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Foreign Trade; Ministry of Internal Trade; Ministry of Construction and Building Materials Industry; Ministry of Religious Affairs; Ministry of Electric Power and Electrotechnical Industry; Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Armed Forces; Ministry of State Agriculture; Ministry of Municipal Households and Local Industry; Ministry of Forestry; Ministry of Food Industry; Ministry of Meat, Fish and Dairy Industry; Ministry of Coal Industry; Ministry of Chemical Industry; Ministry of Metallurgical Industry; Ministry of Petroleum Industry; Ministry of Wood, Paper and Pulp Industry; Ministry of Light Industry; Ministry of Public Education; Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications; Ministry of Social Welfare; Ministry of Health; Ministry of State Security; Ministry of Transport.

CHAPTER 5 Local Bodies of State PowerEdit

Article 51

The organs of state power in regions, districts, towns and communes are the People's Councils of the working people of towns and villages.

Article 52

The People's Councils shall be composed of deputies elected for two years by the working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic, of the respective region, district, town and commune. The rules of representation in the People's Councils are established by law.

Article 53

The People's Councils shall guide the work of the administrative bodies subordinated to them, shall conduct local economic and cultural activities, shall ensure the maintenance of public order, the observance of laws and the protection of citizens' rights, and shall draw up the local budget.

Article 54

The People's Councils shall organise the active participation of working people in the management of state and local affairs and in the work of building socialism.

Article 55

The People's Councils shall take decisions and issue orders within the limits of the rights granted to them by the laws of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 56

The executive and executive bodies of the regional, district, city and municipal People's Councils are the Executive Committees elected by the deputies of the People's Councils and are composed of the President, Vice-Presidents, Secretary and members.

Article 57

The organ of state power of the Hungarian Autonomous Region is the People's Council of the Autonomous Region. The executive and executive organ of the People's Council of the Hungarian Autonomous Region is the Executive Committee elected by it.

Article 58

The People's Council of the Hungarian Autonomous Region shall be elected according to the rules established by law, for a period of two years, by the working people of the Autonomous Region, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 59

The executive and executive body of the People's Councils of the small municipalities is composed of the President, Vice-President and Secretary, elected by the members of the respective People's Council.

Article 60

The executive and administrative bodies of the People's Councils shall be accountable for their work both to the People's Council that elected them and to the Executive Committee of the next higher People's Council.

Article 61

Regional, district and city People's Councils shall organize sections of the Executive Committees. The organisation, functioning and activity of the sections shall be determined by law.

Article 62

The sections of the Executive Committees of the People's Councils shall be subordinate both to the People's Council and the Executive Committee under which they function and to the corresponding section of the Executive Committee of the next higher People's Council and to the respective Ministries.

Article 63

After the expiry of the term of office of the People's Councils, the Executive Committees shall retain their functions until the newly elected People's Councils set up new executive bodies.

CHAPTER 6 Courts and Public ProsecutionEdit

Article 64

Justice in the People's Republic of Romania shall be administered by the Supreme Court of the People's Republic of Romania, the Regional Courts and the People's Courts, as well as by special courts established by law. The organization, competence and procedure of the courts are established by law.

Article 65

The Tribunals shall defend the regime of people's democracy and the conquests of the working people; they shall ensure the people's legality, the property of the people and the rights of citizens.

Article 66

The trial of cases in all courts shall be conducted with the participation of people's advisers, except in cases where the law provides otherwise.

Article 67

The Supreme Tribunal of the Romanian People's Republic shall be elected by the Great National Assembly for a term of five years. Judges and popular advisors shall be elected in accordance with the procedure established by law. The appointment of judges to special courts shall be determined by law.

Article 68

In the People's Republic of Romania, the judicial procedure shall be conducted in the Romanian language, ensuring in the regions and districts inhabited by a population of a nationality other than Romanian the use of the mother tongue of that population. Parties who do not speak the language in which the judicial proceedings are conducted shall be given the opportunity to be acquainted, through a translator, with the documents of the case file, as well as the right to speak in court and to make submissions in their mother tongue.

Article 69

In all courts the proceedings shall be public, except in cases provided for by law. The accused shall be guaranteed the right of defence.

Article 70

Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law.

Article 71

Courts shall pronounce their decisions in the name of the people.

Article 72

The Supreme Tribunal of the Romanian People's Republic shall supervise the judicial activity of all courts of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 73

The Prosecutor General of the People's Republic of Romania shall supervise the observance of the laws by the Ministries and other central bodies, by the local bodies of state power and administration, as well as by civil servants and other citizens.

Article 74

The Prosecutor General of the Romanian People's Republic shall be appointed by the Grand National Assembly for a term of five years. The deputies of the Prosecutor General of the People's Republic of Romania and the prosecutors of the local units of the Prosecutor's Office shall be appointed by the Prosecutor General for a term of four years.

Article 75

The Prosecutor General shall be accountable to the Grand National Assembly of the People's Republic of Romania, and - between sessions - to the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly and to the Council of Ministers.

Article 76

The organs of the Prosecutor's Office shall be independent of the local organs, being subordinate only to the Prosecutor General of the Romanian People's Republic.

CHAPTER 7 Fundamental rights and duties of citizensEdit

Article 77

Citizens of the People's Republic of Romania shall be guaranteed the right to work, i.e. the right to obtain guaranteed work paid in accordance with its quantity and quality. The right to work is guaranteed by the existence and development of the socialist formation of the national economy, by the uninterrupted and systematic growth of the productive forces in the People's Republic of Romania, by the elimination of the possibility of economic crises and by the elimination of unemployment.

Article 78

Citizens of the Romanian People's Republic have the right to rest. The right to rest is ensured by: establishing an 8-hour working day for workers and civil servants; reducing the working day to less than 8 hours for certain professions with heavy working conditions and for sections with particularly heavy working conditions; establishment of paid annual leave for all workers and civil servants; provision of rest houses, sanatoriums and cultural institutions for working people.

Article 79

Citizens of the People's Republic of Romania have the right to material insurance in old age, in case of illness or incapacity for work. This right shall be guaranteed by the broad development of social insurance for workers and civil servants, at the expense of the State, by free medical assistance to those who work and by making spa and health resorts available to working people.

Article 80

Citizens of the Romanian People's Republic have the right to education. This right shall be ensured through general, compulsory and free elementary education; through the system of state scholarships granted to deserving students and pupils in higher, middle and elementary schools, through the organisation of free vocational education for working people in addition to industrial enterprises, state agricultural farms, machine and tractor stations and collective agricultural farms. Education of all grades is state education. The state takes care of the development of science, literature and art.

Article 81

Working people, citizens of the People's Republic of Romania, regardless of nationality or race, shall be guaranteed full equality of rights in all areas of economic, political and cultural life. Any kind of direct or indirect degradation of the rights of working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic, the establishment of direct or indirect privileges on the basis of the race or nationality to which the citizens belong, any manifestation of chauvinism, race hatred, national hatred or submissive nationalist propaganda shall be punishable by law.

Article 82

In the Romanian People's Republic, the national minorities shall be guaranteed the free use of their mother tongue, education of all grades in their mother tongue, books, newspapers and theatres in their mother tongue. In the districts inhabited by populations of a nationality other than Romanian, all bodies and institutions shall use orally and in writing the language of the respective nationality and shall appoint officials from the respective nationality or from other local people who know the language and way of life of the local population.

Article 83

Women in the Romanian People's Republic have equal rights with men in all areas of economic, political, state and cultural life. Women shall have equal rights with men to work, wages, rest, social insurance and education. The state protects marriage and the family and defends the interests of mother and child. The state provides support for mothers with many children and single mothers, paid leave for pregnant women; it organises maternity wards, crèches and children's homes.

Article 84

Freedom of conscience is guaranteed to all citizens of the Romanian People's Republic. Religious cults shall be free to organize themselves and may function freely. The freedom to exercise religious cults is guaranteed to all citizens of the People's Republic of Romania. Schools are separated from churches. No denomination, congregation or religious community may open or maintain general educational institutions, but only special schools for the training of religious personnel. The organisation and functioning of religious cults is regulated by law.

Article 85

In accordance with the interests of those who work and in order to strengthen the regime of popular democracy, the citizens of the Romanian People's Republic shall be guaranteed by law: (a) freedom of speech; b) freedom of the press; c) freedom of assembly and meetings; d) freedom of processions and street demonstrations. These rights shall be secured by providing the working masses and their organizations with printing works, paper stores, public buildings, streets, means of communication and other material conditions necessary for the exercise of these rights.

Article 86

In accordance with the interests of the working people and for the purpose of developing the political and labour activity of the masses of the people, the citizens of the People's Republic of Romania shall be guaranteed the right of association in labour organisations, professional trade unions, co-operative unions, women's organisations, youth organisations, sports organisations, cultural, technical and scientific associations. Any fascist or anti-democratic association is prohibited. Participation in such associations is punishable by law. The most active and most conscious citizens of the working class and the other working class people unite in the Romanian Workers' Party, the vanguard detachment of the working people in the struggle for the strengthening and development of the regime of popular democracy and the building of socialist society. The Romanian Workers' Party is the leading force both of the organizations of the working people and of the state organs and institutions. All the workers' organisations of the Romanian People's Republic are united around it.

Article 87

Citizens of the Romanian People's Republic are guaranteed inviolability of person. No one may be arrested except on the basis of a court or prosecutor's decision, in accordance with the law.

Article 88

The inviolability of citizens' homes and the secrecy of correspondence are protected by law.

Article 89

The People's Republic of Romania shall grant the right of asylum to foreign citizens who are prosecuted for defending the interests of those who work, for scientific activity, for participation in the struggle for national liberation or for the defence of peace.

Article 90

Every citizen of the People's Republic of Romania shall respect the Constitution and the laws of the State of People's Democracy; shall safeguard, strengthen and develop the socialist property of the State; shall respect the discipline of labour; shall actively contribute to the strengthening of the regime of People's Democracy and to the economic and cultural development of the country.

Article 91

Military service is compulsory. Military service in the ranks of the Armed Forces of the Romanian People's Republic is a duty of honour of the citizens of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 92

The defence of the Motherland is the sacred duty of every citizen of the Romanian People's Republic. Betrayal of the Fatherland, violation of the oath of allegiance, siding with the enemy, harming the defence capacity of the State, espionage are the most serious crimes against the people and the State and shall be punished by law with all severity.

CHAPTER 8 Electoral SystemEdit

Article 93

Elections of deputies to the Grand National Assembly and to the People's Councils shall be by universal, equal, direct and secret ballot.

Article 94

Elections of deputies shall be by universal suffrage. All working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic, who have reached the age of 18, regardless of race or nationality, sex, religion, degree of culture, profession or length of residence, shall have the right to take part in the election of deputies, except for the alienated, persons sentenced by court decision to the loss of electoral rights and those declared unworthy by law. Any working man, citizen of the Romanian People's Republic with the right to vote, who has attained the age of 23, can be elected deputy of the Great National Assembly and of the People's Councils.

Article 95

Elections of deputies shall be by equal vote. All working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic, shall take part in the elections on equal terms and each shall have the right to one vote.

Article 96

Women have the right to elect and to be elected to the Grand National Assembly and to the People's Councils on the same basis as men.

Article 97

Citizens in the ranks of the Armed Forces of the Romanian People's Republic shall have the right to elect and be elected, like all working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic.

Article 98

Elections of deputies shall be by direct vote. In the elections to the Grand National Assembly and to all People's Councils, the working people, citizens of the Romanian People's Republic shall participate directly by direct vote.

Article 99

Elections of deputies shall be by secret ballot.

Article 100

Candidates for the election of deputies shall be submitted by electoral constituencies according to the rules established by law. The right to file candidacies is guaranteed to all organizations of working people: organizations of the Romanian Workers' Party, professional unions, cooperatives, youth organizations and other mass organizations, as well as cultural associations.

Article 101

Every deputy is obliged to give an account to the voters of his activity and that of the elected body of which he is a member. A deputy may be deprived of his mandate at any time, following the decision of a majority of voters, taken in accordance with the procedure established by law.

CHAPTER 9 Coat of Arms, Flag and Capital of the Romanian People's RepublicEdit

Article 102

The Coat of Arms of the Romanian People's Republic represents mountains covered with trees, above which the sun rises. On the left side of the coat of arms there is a probe. The coat of arms is framed by a wreath of wheat ears. At the top of the coat of arms is a five-pointed star. At the bottom of the coat of arms, the ears of wheat are wrapped in a tricolour ribbon on which are written the letters R.P.R.

Article 103

The flag of the Romanian People's Republic bears the colours red, yellow and blue, placed vertically with blue near the chain. The coat of arms of the Romanian People's Republic is placed in the middle.

Article 104

The capital of the Romanian People's Republic is the city of Bucharest.

CHAPTER 10 Procedure for amending the Constitution of the Romanian People's RepublicEdit

Article 105

The Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic may be amended only by a law voted by the Great National Assembly. The draft law on the amendment of the Constitution shall be considered adopted if it has been voted by at least two thirds of the total number of members of the Grand National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic.


NOTE:

The Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic of 1952 was adopted by the Great National Assembly on the basis of Articles 38 and 104 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic of 1948 after discussion of the draft published on 19 July 1952 by the Constitutional Commission for the preparation of the draft Constitution. The Great National Assembly voted the Constitution in its session of 24 September 1952, with unanimity of 324 votes, a situation certified by the President of the Great National Assembly, Coliu Dumitru, and by the secretaries of the Great National Assembly, Marussi Gheorghe and Belea Miron.

The Constitution was promulgated on 24 September 1952, under the signature of the President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly, Dr. Petru Groza, and the Secretary of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly, Marin Florea Ionescu, and was published in the "Official Bulletin of the Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic" no. 1 of 27 September 1952

The Constitution entered into force on 24 September 1952, i.e. on the date of its adoption. It implicitly repeals, on the same date, the 1948 Constitution.

The 1952 Constitution consisted of an introductory chapter and 105 articles grouped into 10 chapters.

This Constitution was amended by the following normative acts: 1) Law No. 3/1953 on the reorganization of some ministries and the inclusion of the President of the State Committee for Architecture and Construction in the Council of Ministers of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Bulletin No. 4 of 29 January 1953 (amends Article 43 and 50); 2) Law No. 7/1953 amending Articles 43 and 50 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 6 of 26 January 1954; 3) Law No. 3/1954 for the amendment of Article 35 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 19 of 21 April 1954; 4) Law No. 4/1955 on the amendment of Articles 43 and 50 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 13 of 2 June 1955; 5) Law No. 5/1956 on the amendment of Articles 18, 19(2) and 50 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 11 of 4 April 1956; 6) Law No 1/1957 on the amendment of Articles 43, 47 (f) and 56, and on the abrogation of Articles 50, 59 and 62 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No 11 of 28 March 1957; 7) Law No 1/1958 for the amendment of Article 35 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No 3 of 15 January 1958; 8) Law No. 2/1959 on the amendment of Articles 52 and 58 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 31 of 31 December 1959; 9) Law No. 2/1960 on the modification of Articles 18, 19 and 39 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 27 of 27 December 1959; 10) Law No. 1/1961 for the amendment of Chapter III and Articles 43, 44 and 75 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 9 of 25 March 1961; 11) Law No. 2/1964 for the amendment of Article 25 of the Constitution of the Romanian People's Republic, published in the Official Gazette No. 24 of 30 December 1964.

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