Constitution of the State of Minnesota (1954)

Constitution of the State of Minnesota
Government of the State of Minnesota
1954 Version

Adopted October 13, 1857. Amended November 2, 1954. Also previously amended in 1858, 1860, 1868, 1869, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1881, 1883, 1886, 1888, 1890, 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906, 1910, 1912, 1914, 1916, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1938, 1942, 1944, 1948 and 1950. This text is based on the text of the 1950 Version, with provisions altered in accordance with the amendments which were adopted in the general election of 1954.

Preamble. We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings and secure the same to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution:

ARTICLE I: BILL OF RIGHTSEdit

Object of government. Section 1. Government is instituted for the security, benefit and protection of the people, in whom all political power is inherent, together with the right to alter, modify or reform such government, whenever the public good may require it.

Rights and privileges. Sec. 2. No member of this State shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of his peers. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the State otherwise than the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

Liberty of the press. Sec. 3. The liberty of the press shall forever remain inviolate, and all persons may freely speak, write and publish their sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right.

Trial by jury. Sec. 4. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate, and shall extend to all cases at law without regard to the amount in controversy, but a jury trial may be waived by the parties in all cases in the manner prescribed by law; [and the legislature may provide that the agreement of five-sixths of any jury in any civil action or proceeding, after not less than six (6) hours' deliberation, shall be a sufficient verdict therein.][1]

No excessive bail or unusual punishments. Sec. 5. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor shall excessive fines be imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted.

Rights of accused in criminal prosecutions. Sec. 6. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which county or district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel in his defense.[2]

Due process; prosecutions; second jeopardy; self-incrimination; bail; habeas corpus. Sec. 7. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law, and no person for the same offense shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. All persons shall before conviction be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require.

Redress of injuries or wrongs. Sec. 8. Every person is entitled to a certain remedy in the laws for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or character; he ought to obtain justice freely and without purchase; completely and without denial; promptly and without delay, conformable to the laws.

Treason defined. Sec. 9. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against the same, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

Right against unreasonable searches. Sec. 10. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.

Prohibits ex post facto laws, or laws impairing contracts. Sec. 11. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts shall ever be passed, and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

Imprisonment for debt; property exemption. Sec. 12. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in this state,[3] but this shall not prevent the legislature from providing for imprisonment, or holding to bail, persons charged with fraud in contracting said debt. A reasonable amount of property shall be exempt from seizure or sale for the payment of any debt or liability. The amount of such exemption shall be determined by law. [Provided, however, that all property so exempted shall be liable to seizure and sale for any debts incurred to any person for work done or materials furnished in the construction, repair or improvement of the same, and provided further, that such liability to seizure and sale shall also extend to all real property for any debt incurred to any laborer or servant for labor or service performed.][4]

Private property for public use. Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken, destroyed or damaged for public use without just compensation therefor, first paid or secured.[5]

Military power subordinate. Sec. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power, and no standing army shall be kept up in this State in times of peace.

Lands declared allodial; leases, when void. Sec. 15. All lands within the State are declared to be allodial, and feudal tenures of every description, with all their incidents, are prohibited. Leases and grants of agricultural lands for a longer period than twenty-one years hereafter made, in which shall be reserved any rent or service of any kind, shall be void.

Freedom of conscience; no preference to be given to any religious establishment or mode of worship. Sec. 16. The enumeration of rights in this constitution shall not be construed to deny or impair others retained by and inherent in the people. The right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed, nor shall any man be compelled to attend, erect or support any place of worship, or to maintain any religious or ecclesiastical ministry, against his consent; nor shall any control of or interference with the rights of conscience be permitted, or any preference be given by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the State, nor shall any money be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious societies, or religious or theological seminaries.

No religious test or property qualifications to be required. Sec. 17. No religious test or amount of property shall ever be required as a qualification for any office of public trust under the State. No religious test or amount of property shall ever be required as a qualification of any voter at any election in this State; nor shall any person be rendered incompetent to give evidence in any court of law or equity in consequence of his opinion upon the subject of religion.

No license to peddle. Sec. 18. Any person may sell or peddle the products of the farm or garden occupied and cultivated by him without obtaining a license therefor.[6]

ARTICLE II: ON NAME AND BOUNDARIESEdit

Name and boundaries. Section 1. This State shall be called and known by the name of the State of Minnesota, and shall consist of and have jurisdiction over the territory embraced in the following boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at the point in the center of the main channel of the Red River of the North, where the boundary line between the United States and British Possessions crosses the same; thence up the main channel of said river to that of the Bois des Sioux river; thence up the main channel of said river to Lake Traverse, thence up the center of said lake to the southern extremity thereof; thence in a direct line to the head of Big Stone lake; thence through its center to its outlet; thence by a due south line to the north line of the State of Iowa; thence east along the northern boundary of said State to the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence up the main channel of said river and following the boundary line of the State of Wisconsin until the same intersects the St. Louis river; thence down the said river to and through Lake Superior, on the boundary line of Wisconsin and Michigan, until it intersects the dividing line between the United States and British Possessions; thence up Pigeon river and following said dividing line to the place of beginning.[7]

Jurisdiction on bordering rivers. Sec. 2. The State of Minnesota shall have concurrent jurisdiction on the Mississippi and on all other rivers and waters bordering on the said State of Minnesota, so far as the same shall form a common boundary to said State, and any other state or states now or hereafter to be formed by the same; and said rivers and waters, and navigable waters leading into the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said State as to other citizens of the United States, without any tax, duty, impost, or toll therefor.

Acceptance of propositions in enabling act. Sec. 3. The propositions contained in the act of Congress entitled, “An act to authorize the people of the Territory of Minnesota to form a constitution and state government, preparatory to their admission into the Union on equal footing with the original states,” are hereby accepted, ratified and confirmed, and shall remain irrevocable without the consent of the United States; and it is hereby ordained that this State shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil within the same, by the United States, or with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title to said soil to bona fide purchasers thereof; and no tax shall be imposed on lands belonging to the United States and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents.

ARTICLE III: DISTRIBUTION OF THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENTEdit

Division of powers. Section 1. The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments—legislative, executive, and judicial; and no person or persons belonging to or constituting one of these departments shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except in the instances expressly provided in this constitution.[8]

ARTICLE IV: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENTEdit

Legislature meets biennially; length of session. Section 1. The legislature shall consist of the Senate and House of Representatives, which shall meet biennially at the seat of government of the State, at such time as shall be prescribed by law, but no session shall exceed the term of ninety (90) legislative days; and no new bill shall be introduced in either branch, except on the written request of the governor, during the last twenty (20) days of such sessions, except the attention of the legislature shall be called to some important matter of general interest by a special message from the governor.

Apportionment of members. Sec. 2. The number of members who compose the Senate and House of Representatives shall be prescribed by law, but the representation in the Senate shall never exceed one member for every 5,000 inhabitants, and in the House of Representatives one member for every 2,000 inhabitants. The representation in both houses shall be apportioned equally throughout the different sections of the State, in proportion to the population thereof, exclusive of Indians not taxable under the provisions of law.

Eligibility of members; quorum. Sec. 3. Each house shall be the judge of the election returns and eligibility of its own members; a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to transact business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as it may provide.

Rules of government. Sec. 4. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, sit upon its own adjournment, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member; but no member shall be expelled the second time for the same offense.

Officers; journal of proceedings. Sec. 5. The House of Representatives shall elect its presiding officer and the Senate and House of Representatives shall elect such other officers as may be provided by law; they shall keep journals of their proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, and the yeas and nays, when taken on any question, shall be entered on such journals.

Length of adjournments. Sec. 6. Neither house shall, during a session of the legislature, adjourn for more than three days (Sundays excepted), nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be assembled, without the consent of the other house.

Compensation. Sec. 7. The compensation of senators and representatives shall be three dollars per diem during the first session, but may afterwards be prescribed by law. But no increase of compensation shall be prescribed which shall take effect during the period for which the members of the existing House of Representatives may have been elected.

Privilege from arrest. Sec. 8. The members of each house shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same. For any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Restriction as to holding office. Sec. 9. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he is elected, hold any office under the authority of the United States or the State of Minnesota, except that of postmaster, and no senator or representative shall hold an office under the state which has been created or the , emoluments of which have been increased during the session of the legislature of which he was a member until one year after the expiration of his term of office in the legislature.

Bills of revenue to originate in House. Sec. 10. All bills for raising a revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose and concur with the amendments as on other bills.

Approval of bills by Governor; action on non-approval. Sec. 11. Every bill which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives, in conformity to the rules of each house and the joint rules of the two houses, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor of the State. If he approves, he shall sign and deposit it in the office, of secretary of state for preservation, and notify the house where it originated of the fact. But if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated; when such objections shall be entered at large on the journal of the same, and the house shall proceed to reconsider the bill. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if it be approved by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house, respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within three days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the legislature, by adjournment within that time, prevents its return; in which case it shall not be a law. The governor may approve, sign and file in the office of the secretary of state, within three days after the adjournment of the legislature, any act passed during the last three days of the session, and the same shall become a law.

Governor may cut out items of appropriation bills and otherwise approve. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more of such items, while approving of the other portion of the bill. In such case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, and the appropriation so objected to shall riot take effect. If the legislature be in session, he shall transmit to the house in which the bill originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be separately reconsidered. If, on reconsideration, one or more of such items be approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each house, the same shall be a part of the law, notwithstanding the objections of the governor. All the provisions of this section, in relation to bills not approved by the governor, shall apply in cases in which he shall withhold his approval from any item or items contained in a bill appropriating money.

Money appropriations, how made. Sec. 12. No money shall be appropriated except by bill. Every order, resolution or vote requiring the concurrence of the two houses (except such as relate to the business of adjournment of the same) shall be presented to the governor for his signature, and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being returned by him with his objections, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the members of the two houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

Majority vote of all members-elect to pass a law. Sec. 13. The style of all laws of this State shall be: “Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Minnesota.” No law shall be passed unless voted for by a majority of all the members elected to each branch of the legislature, and the vote entered upon the journal of each house.

Impeachment powers. Sec. 14. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, through a concurrence of a majority of all the members elected to seats therein. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate; and when sitting for that purpose the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation to do justice according to law and evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Exclusion from civil rights. Sec. 15. The legislature shall have full power to exclude from the privilege of electing or being elected any person convicted of bribery, perjury, or any other infamous crime.

Protest and dissent of members. Sec. 16. Two or more members of either house shall have liberty to dissent and protest against any act or resolution which they may think injurious to the public or to any individual, and have the reason of their dissent entered on the journal.

Vacancies in legislature. Sec. 17. The governor shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either house of the legislature. The legislature shall prescribe by law the manner in which evidence in cases of contested seats in either house shall be taken.

Punish for disorderly conduct. Sec. 18. Each house may punish by imprisonment, during its session, any person, not a member, who shall be guilty of any disorderly or contemptuous behavior in their presence, but no such imprisonment shall at any time exceed twenty-four hours.

Open sessions. Sec. 19. Each house shall be open to the public during the sessions thereof, except in such cases as in their opinion may require secrecy.

Reading of bills. Sec. 20. Every bill shall be read on three different days in each separate house, unless, in case of urgency, two-thirds of the house where such bill is pending shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule; and no bill shall be passed by either house until it shall have been previously read twice at length.

Enrollment of bills. Sec. 21. Every bill having passed both houses shall be carefully enrolled, and shall be signed by the presiding officer of each house. Any presiding officer refusing to sign a bill which shall have previously passed both houses shall thereafter be incapable of holding a seat in either branch of the legislature, or hold any other office of honor or profit in the State, and in case of such refusal, each house shall, by rule, provide the manner in which such bill shall be properly certified for presentation to the governor.

Passage of bills on last day of session prohibited. Sec. 22. No bill shall be passed by either house of the legislature upon the day prescribed for the adjournment of the two houses. But this section shall not be so construed as to preclude the enrollment of a bill, or the signature and passage from one house to the other, or the reports thereon from committees, or its transmission to the executive for his signature.

Census enumeration; apportionment. Sec. 23. The legislature shall provide by law for an enumeration of the inhabitants of this State in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, and every tenth year thereafter. At their first session after each enumeration so made, and also at their first session after each enumeration made by the authority of the United States, the legislature shall have the power to prescribe the bounds of congressional, senatorial and representative districts, and to apportion anew the senators and representatives among the several districts according to the provisions of section second of this article.

Senatorial districts; term of office of senators and representatives. Sec. 24. The senators shall also be chosen by single districts of convenient contiguous territory, at the same time that members of the house of representatives are required to be chosen, and in the same manner; and no representative district shall be divided in the formation of a senate district. The senate districts shall be numbered in a regular series. The terms of office of senators and representatives shall be the same as now prescribed by law until the general election of the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight (1878), at which time there shall be an entire new election of all senators and representatives. Representatives chosen at such election, or at any election thereafter, shall hold their office for the term of two years, except it be to fill a vacancy; and the senators chosen at such election by districts designated as odd numbers shall go out of office at the expiration of the second year, and senators chosen by districts designated by even numbers shall go out of office at the expiration of the fourth year; and thereafter senators shall be chosen for four years, except there shall be an entire new election of all the senators at the election of representatives next succeeding each new apportionment provided for in this article.

Qualification of legislators. Sec. 25. Senators and representatives shall be qualified voters of the State, and shall have resided one year in the State and six months immediately preceding the election in the district from which they are elected.

Senators to Congress. Sec. 26. Members of the Senate of the United States from this State shall be elected by the two houses of the legislature in joint convention, at such time and in such manner as may be provided by law. [While still law, this is of no effect because of passage of Federal Constitution No. 17 in 1913.]

Laws to embrace only one subject. Sec. 27. No law shall embrace more than one subject, which shall be expressed in its title.

Divorces. Sec. 28. Divorces shall not be granted by the legislature.

Oath of office. Sec. 29. All members and officers of both branches of the legislature shall, before entering upon the duties of their respective trusts, take and subscribe an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States, the Constitution of the State of Minnesota, and faithfully and impartially to discharge the duties devolving upon him as such member or officer.

Elections viva voce. Sec. 30. In all elections to be made by the legislature, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and their votes shall be entered on the journal.

Prohibition of lotteries. Sec. 31. The legislature shall never authorize any lottery or the sale of lottery tickets.

Change of form of taxation of railroads to be voted upon. Sec. 32. [a] Any law providing for the repeal or amendment of any law or laws heretofore or hereafter enacted, which provides that any railroad company now existing in this State or operating its road therein, or which may be hereafter organized, shall, in lieu of all other taxes and assessments upon their real estate, roads, rolling stock, and other personal property, at and during the time and periods therein specified, pay into the treasury of this State a certain percentage therein mentioned of the gross earnings of such railroad companies now existing or hereafter organized, shall, before the same shall take effect or be in force, be submitted to a vote of the people of the State, and be adopted and ratified by a majority of the electors of the State voting at the election at which the same shall be submitted to them.

Internal improvement lands; investment of proceeds in bonds. Sec. 32. [b] All lands donated to the State of Minnesota for the purpose of internal improvement, under the eighth section of the act of Congress, approved September fourth, eighteen hundred and forty-one, being “An act to appropriate the proceeds of the sale of the public lands, and to grant pre-emption rights,” shall be appraised and sold, in the same manner and by the same officers, and the minimum price shall be the same as is provided by law for the appraisement and sale of the school lands, under the provisions of title one (1), chapter thirty-eight, of the General Statutes, except the modifications hereinafter mentioned. All moneys derived from the sales of said lands shall be invested in the bonds of the United States, or of the State of Minnesota issued since 1860; and the moneys so invested shall constitute the Internal Improvement Land Fund of the State. All moneys received by the county treasurer under the provisions of title one (1), chapter thirty-eight (38), aforesaid, derived from the sale of internal improvement lands, shall be held at all times subject to the order and direction of the state treasurer, for the benefit of the fund to which it belongs; and on the fifteenth day of June in each year, and at such other times as he may be requested so to do by the state treasurer, he shall pay over to the said state treasurer all moneys received on account of such fund.

The bonds purchased in accordance with this amendment shall be transferable only upon the order of the governor, and on each bond shall be written “Minnesota Internal Improvement Land Fund of the State, transferable only on the order of the governor.”

Principal not to be reduced. The principal sum from all sales of internal improvement lands shall not be reduced by any charges or costs of officers, by fees, or by any other means whatever; and section fifty (50), of title one (1), chapter thirty-eight (38), of the General Statutes, shall not be applicable to the provisions of this amendment, and wherever the words “school lands” are used in said title, it shall read as applicable to this amendment, “Internal Improvement Lands.”

Appropriations therefrom to be voted upon before valid. The moneys belonging to the Internal Improvement Land Fund shall not be appropriated for any purpose whatever until the enactment for that purpose shall have been approved by a majority of the electors of the State voting at the annual general election following the passage of the act.[9]

The force of this amendment shall be to authorize the sale of the internal improvement lands, without further legislative enactment.

Against special legislation. Sec. 33. In all cases when a general law can be made applicable, no special law shall be enacted; and whether a general law could have been made applicable in any case is hereby declared a judicial question, and as such shall be judicially determined without regard to any legislative assertion on that subject. The legislature shall pass no local or special law regulating the affairs of, or incorporating, erecting or changing the lines of, any county, city, village, township, ward or school district, or creating the offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of the officers of, or fixing or relating to the compensation, salary or fees of the same, or the mode of election or appointment thereto, authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, vacating or maintaining roads, highways, streets or alleys; remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures; regulating the powers, duties and practice of justices of the peace, magistrates and constables; changing the names of persons, places, lakes or rivers; for opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the places of voting; authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children; changing the law of descent or succession; conferring rights upon minors; declaring any named person of age; giving effect to informal or invalid wills or deeds, or affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability; locating or changing county seats; regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing of schoolhouses, and the raising of money for such purposes; exempting property from taxation or regulating the rate of interest on money; creating corporations, or amending, renewing, extending or explaining the charters thereof; granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or exclusive privilege, immunity or franchise whatever, or authorizing public taxation for a private purpose. Provided, however, That the inhibitions of local or special laws in this section shall not be construed to prevent the passage of general laws on any of the subjects enumerated.

Repeal of existing special laws. The legislature may repeal any existing special or local law, but shall not amend, extend or modify any of the same.

Refers to amendment of 1881, superseded as above. Sec. 34. The legislature shall provide general laws for the transaction of any business that may be prohibited by section one (1) of this amendment, and all such laws shall be uniform in their operation throughout the State.

Against combinations or pools to affect markets. Sec. 35. Any combinations of persons, either as individuals or as members or officers of any corporation, to monopolize the markets for food products in this State, or to interfere with, or restrict the freedom of, such markets, is hereby declared to be a criminal conspiracy, and shall be punished in such manner as the legislature may provide.

[10]City or village may frame its charter; charter submitted to voters; cities classified. Sec. 36. Any city or village in this state may frame a charter for its own government as a city consistent with and subject to the laws of this state as follows: The legislature shall provide, under such restrictions as it deems proper, for a board of fifteen freeholders, who shall be and for the past five years shall have been qualified voters thereof, to be appointed by the district judges of the judicial district in which the city or village is situated, as the legislature may determine, for a term in no event to exceed six years, which board shall, within six months after its appointment, return to the chief magistrate of said city or village a draft of said charter, signed by the members of said board, or a majority thereof. Such charter shall be submitted to the qualified voters of such city or village at the next election thereafter, and if four-sevenths of the qualified voters voting at such election shall ratify the same it shall, at the end of thirty days thereafter, become the charter of such city or village as a city, and supersede any existing charter and amendments thereof; Provided, that in cities having patrol limits now established, such charter shall required a three-fourths majority vote of the qualified voters voting at such election to change the patrol limits now established. Before any city shall incorporate under this act the legislature shall prescribe by law the general limits within which such charter shall be framed. Duplicate certificates shall be made setting forth the charter proposed and its ratification, which shall be signed by the chief magistrate of said city or village and authenticated by its corporate seal. One of said certificates shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, after being recorded in the office of the register of deeds for the county in which such city or village lies, shall be deposited among the archives of such city or village, and all courts shall take judicial notice thereof. Such charter so deposited may be amended by proposal therefor made by a board of fifteen commissioners aforesaid, published for at least once each week for four successive weeks in a legal newspaper of general circulation in such city or village, and accepted by three-fifths of the qualified voters of such city or village voting at the next election and not otherwise; but such charter shall always be in harmony with and subject to the constitution and laws of the state of Minnesota. The legislature may prescribe the duties of the commission relative to submitting amendments of charter to the vote of the people, and shall provide that upon application of five per cent of the legal voters of any city or village, by written petition, such commission shall submit to the vote of the people proposed amendments to such charter set forth in said petition. The board of freeholders above provided for shall be permanent, and all the vacancies by death, disability to perform duties, resignation or removal from the corporate limits, or expiration of term of office, shall be filled by appointment in the same manner as the original board was created, and said board shall always contain its full complement of members. It shall be a feature of all such charters that there shall be provided, among other things, for a mayor or chief magistrate, and a legislative body of either one or two houses; if of two houses, at least one of them shall be elected by general vote of the electors. In submitting any such charter or amendment thereto to the qualified voters of such city or village any alternate section or article may be presented for the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately without prejudice to other articles or sections of the charter or any amendments thereto. The legislature may provide general laws relating to affairs of cities, the application of which may be limited to cities of over fifty thousand inhabitants, or to cities of fifty and not less than twenty thousand inhabitants, or to cities of twenty and not less than ten thousand inhabitants, or to cities of ten thousand inhabitants or less, which shall apply equally to all such cities of either class, and which shall be paramount while in force to the provisions relating to the same matter included in the local charter herein provided for. But no local charter, provision, or ordinance passed thereunder shall supersede any general law of the state defining or punishing crimes or misdemeanors.

ARTICLE V: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTEdit

Officers in executive department. Section 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and attorney general, who shall be chosen by the electors of the State.[11]

Election returns to be sent to secretary of state. Sec. 2. The returns of every election for the officers named in the foregoing section shall be made to the secretary of state, who shall call to his assistance two or more of the judges of the supreme court, and two disinterested judges of the district courts of the State, who shall constitute a board of canvassers, who shall open and canvass said returns and declare the result within three days after such canvass.

Official term of governor and lieutenant governor; qualifications. Sec. 3. The term of office for the governor and lieutenant governor shall be two years, and until their successors are chosen and qualified. Each shall have attained the age of twenty-five (25) years, and shall have been a bona fide resident of the State for one year next preceding his election. Both shall be citizens of the United States.

Powers and duties of governor. [12]Sec. 4. The governor shall communicate by message to each session of the legislature such information touching the state and condition of the country as he may deem expedient. He shall be commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces, and may call out such forces to execute the laws, suppress insurrection and repel invasion. He may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power, in conjunction with the board of pardons, of which the governor shall be ex officio a member, and the other members of which shall consist of the attorney general of the State of Minnesota and the chief justice of the supreme court of the State of Minnesota, and whose powers and duties shall be defined and regulated by law, to grant reprieves and pardons after conviction for offenses against the State, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint a state librarian and notaries public, and such other officers as may be provided by law. Fie shall have power to appoint commissioners to take the acknowledgment of deeds or other instruments in writing, to be used in the State. He shall have a negative upon all laws passed by the legislature, under such rules and limitations as are in this Constitution prescribed. He may on extraordinary occasions convene both houses of the legislature. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, fill any vacancy that may occur in the office of secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney general, and such other state and district offices as may be hereafter created by law, until the end of the term for which the person who had vacated the office was elected, or the first Monday in January following the next general election whichever is sooner, and until their successors are chosen and qualified.

Official term of other executive officers. Sec. 5. The official term of the secretary of state, treasurer and attorney general shall be two (2) years. The official term of the state auditor shall be four (4) years, and each shall continue in office until his successor shall have been elected and qualified. The further duties and salaries of said executive officers shall each be prescribed by law.

Duties of lieutenant governor. Sec. 6. The lieutenant governor shall be ex officio president of the Senate; and in case a vacancy should occur, from any cause whatever, in the office of governor, he shall be governor during such vacancy. The compensation of lieutenant governor shall be double the compensation of a state senator. Before the close of each session of the Senate they shall elect a president pro tempore, ho shall be lieutenant governor in case a vacancy should occur in that office.

Oath of office to be taken by State officers. Sec. 8. Each officer created by this article shall, before entering upon his duties, take an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States and of this State, and faithfully discharge the duties of his office to the best of his judgment and ability.

ARTICLE VI: JUDICIARYEdit

Judicial powers. Sec. 1. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in the supreme court, district courts, courts of probate, justices of the peace, and such other courts, inferior to the supreme court, as the legislature may from time to time establish by a two-thirds vote.

[13]Supreme court; jurisdiction and powers; reporter of decisions; clerk of supreme court. Sec. 2. The supreme court shall consist of one chief justice and six associate justices. It shall have original jurisdiction in such remedial cases as may be prescribed by law, and appellate jurisdiction in all cases, both in law and equity, but there shall be no trial by jury in said court. It shall hold one or more terms in each year, as the legislature may direct, at the seat of government, and the legislature may provide, by a two-thirds vote, that one term in each year shall be held in each or any judicial district. It shall be the duty of such court to appoint a reporter of its decisions. There shall be chosen, by the qualified electors of the state, one clerk of the supreme court, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, and until his successor is duly elected and qualified; and the judges of the supreme court, or a majority of them, shall have the power to fill any vacancy in the office of clerk of the supreme court until an election can be regularly had.

Election and term of office for judges. Sec. 3. The judges of the supreme court shall be elected by the electors of the State at large, and their term of office shall be six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified.

District judges may act where supreme judges are disqualified. Whenever all or a majority of the judges of the supreme court shall, from any cause, be disqualified from sitting in any case in said court, the governor, or, if he shall be interested in the result of such case, then the lieutenant governor, shall assign judges of the district court of the State, who shall sit in such case in place of such disqualified judges, with all the powers and duties of judges of the supreme court.

Judicial districts for district courts; election of judges; term of office and residence. Sec. 4. The State shall be divided by the legislature into judicial districts, which shall be composed of contiguous territory, be bounded by county lines, and contain a population as nearly equal as may be practicable. In each judicial district, one or more judges, as the legislature may prescribe, shall be elected by the electors thereof, whose term of office shall be six years, and each of said judges shall severally have and exercise the powers of the court, under such limitations as may be prescribed by law. Every district judge shall, at the time of his election, be a resident of the district for which he shall be elected, and shall reside therein during his continuance in office. In case any court of common pleas heretofore established shall be abolished, the judge of said court may be constituted by the legislature one of the judges of the district court of the district wherein such court has been so established for a period not exceeding the unexpired term for which he was elected.

Jurisdiction of district courts. Sec. 5. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction in all civil cases, both in law and equity, where the amount in controversy exceeds one hundred dollars, and in all criminal cases where the punishment shall exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of more than one hundred dollars, and shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law. The legislature may provide by law that the judge of one district may discharge the duties of judge of any other district not his own, when convenience or the public interest may require it.

Qualifications. Sec. 6. The judges of the supreme and district courts shall be men learned in the law, and shall receive such compensation at stated times as may be prescribed by the legislature; which compensation shall not be diminished during their continuance in office, but they shall receive no other fee or reward for their services.

Probate court; judges to be elected; jurisdiction. [14]Sec. 7. There shall be established in each organized county in the State a probate court, which shall be a court of record, and be held at such time and place as may be prescribed by law. It shall be held by one judge, whose qualifications may be established by law. The judge shall be elected by the voters of the county for a term of four years. He shall be a resident of such county at the time of his election, and reside therein during his continuance in office. His compensation shall be provided by law. He may appoint his own clerk or register of probate for such county, whose powers, duties, term of office and compensation shall be prescribed by law. A probate court shall have jurisdiction over the person and estate, either or both, of persons under guardianship; over estates of deceased persons; and such further jurisdiction as the legislature may from time to time establish by a two-thirds vote.

Justices of the peace to be elected; jurisdiction. Sec. 8. The legislature shall provide for the election of a sufficient number of justices of the peace in each county, whose term of office shall be two years, and whose duties and compensation shall be prescribed by law. Provided, That no justice of the peace shall have jurisdiction of any civil cause where the amount in controversy shall exceed one hundred dollars, nor in a criminal cause where the punishment shall exceed three months' imprisonment, or a fine over one hundred dollars, nor in any cause involving the title to real estate.

Judges for other courts to be elected. Sec. 9. All judges other than those provided for in this Constitution shall be elected by the electors of the judicial district, county, or city, for which they shall be created, not for a longer term than seven years.

Vacancies; appointment by governor. Sec. 10. In case the office of any judge become vacant before the expiration of the regular term for which he was elected, the vacancy shall be filled by appointment by the governor, until a successor is elected and qualified. And such successor shall be elected at the first annual election that occurs more than thirty days after the vacancy shall have happened.

Prohibition, supreme or district judges to hold other offices or to be voted for office while in office. Sec. 11. The justices of the supreme court and the district courts shall hold no office under the United States, nor any other office under this State. And all votes for either of them for any elective office under this Constitution, except a judicial office given by the legislature or the people, during their continuance in office, shall be void.

Change of judicial districts. Sec. 12. The legislature may at any time change the number of judicial districts or their boundaries, when it shall be deemed expedient; but no such change shall vacate the office of any judge.

Clerk of court. Sec. 13. There shall be elected in each county where a district court shall be held, one clerk of said court, whose qualifications, duties and compensation shall be prescribed by law, and whose term of office shall be four years.

Legal pleadings. Sec. 14. Legal pleadings and proceedings in the courts of this State shall be under the direction of the legislature. The style of all process shall be, “The State of Minnesota,” and all indictments shall conclude, “against the peace and dignity of the State of Minnesota.”

Court commissioner; powers and jurisdiction. Sec. 15. The legislature may provide for the election of one person in each organized county in this State, to be called a court commissioner, with judicial power and jurisdiction not exceeding the power and jurisdiction of a judge of the district court at chambers; or the legislature may, instead of such election, confer such power and jurisdiction upon the judges of probate in the State.

ARTICLE VII: ELECTIVE FRANCHISEEdit

Elective franchise. Section 1. What persons are entitled to vote:

Residence required. Every person of the age of twenty-one (21) years or upwards belonging to either of the following classes who has resided in this State six (6) months next preceding any election shall be entitled to vote at such election in the election district of which he shall at the time have been for thirty (30) days a resident, for all officers that now are, or hereafter may be, elective by the people.

Citizens of the United States. First—Citizens of the United States who have been such for the period of three (3) months next preceding any election.

Mixed Indians. Second—Persons of mixed white and Indian blood who have adopted the customs and habits of civilization.

Pure Indians having: adopted habits of civilization. Third—Persons of Indian blood residing in this State, who have adopted the language, customs and habits of civilization, after an examination before any district court of the State, in such manner as may be provided by law, and shall have been pronounced by said court capable of enjoying the rights of citizenship within the State.

Non-eligible. Sec. 2. No person not belonging to one of the classes specified in the preceding section; no person who has been convicted of treason or any felony, unless restored to civil rights; and no person under guardianship, or who may be non compos mentis or insane, shall be entitled or permitted to vote at any election in this State.

Residence not lost In certain cases. Sec. 3. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have lost a residence by reason of his absence while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged upon the waters of this State or of the United States; nor while a student in any seminary of learning; nor while kept at any almshouse or asylum; nor while confined in any public prison.

Soldiers and sailors; restriction. Sec. 4. No soldier, seaman or marine in the army or navy of the United States shall be deemed a resident of this State in consequence of being stationed within the same.

Civil process suspended on election day. Sec. 5. During the day on which any election shall be held, no person shall be arrested by virtue of any civil process.

Elections by ballots. Sec. 6. All elections shall be by ballot, except for such town officers as may be directed by law to be otherwise chosen.

Right to hold office. Sec. 7. Every person who by the provisions of this article shall be entitled to vote at any election shall be eligible to any office which now is, or hereafter shall be, elective by the people in the district wherein he shall have resided thirty days previous to such election, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, or the Constitution and law of the United States.[15]

Official year of the State. Sec. 9. The official year for the State of Minnesota shall commence on the first Monday in January in each year, and all terms of office shall terminate at that time; and the general election shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The first general election for State and county officers, except judicial officers, after the adoption of this amendment, shall be held in the year A. D. one thousand eight hundred and eighty-four (1884), and thereafter the general election shall be held biennially. All state, county or other officers elected at any general election, whose terms of office would otherwise expire on the first Monday of January, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and eighty-six (1886), shall hold and continue in such offices, respectively, until the first Monday in January, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven (1887).

ARTICLE VIII: SCHOOL FUNDS, EDUCATION AND SCIENCEEdit

Uniform system of public schools. Section 1. The stability of a republican form of government depending mainly upon the intelligence of the people, it shall be the duty of the legislature to establish a general and uniform system of public schools.[16]

Proceeds of school lands to be a perpetual fund. Sec. 2. The proceeds of such lands as are or hereafter may be granted by the United States for the use of schools within each township of this State shall remain a perpetual school fund to the State; and not more than one-third (⅓) of said lands may be sold in two (2) years, one-third (⅓) in five (5) years, and one-third (⅓) in ten (10) years; but the lands of the greatest valuation shall be sold first; provided, that no portion of said lands shall be sold otherwise than at public sale. The principal of all funds arising from sales or other disposition of lands or other property, granted or entrusted to this State in each township for educational purposes, shall forever be preserved inviolate and undiminished; and the income arising from the lease or sale of said school land shall be distributed to the different townships throughout the State, in proportion to the number of scholars in each township, between the ages of five and twenty-one years; and shall be faithfully applied to the specific objects of the original grants or appropriations.

[17]A revolving fund of not over two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000) may be set apart from the fund derived from the sale of school and swamp lands, to be used in constructing roads, ditches and fire breaks in, through and around unsold school and swamp lands and in clearing such lands, such fund to be replenished as long as needed from the enhanced value realized from the sale of such lands so benefited.

Investment of funds. Suitable laws shall be enacted by the legislature for the safe investment of the principal of all funds which have heretofore arisen or which may hereafter arise from the sale or .other disposition of such lands, or the income from such lands accruing in any way before the sale or disposition thereof, in interest-bearing bonds of the United States, or of the State of Minnesota, issued after the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty (1860), or of such other state as the legislature may, by law, from time to time direct.

Swamp lands; division of proceeds. All swamp lands now held by the State, or that may hereafter accrue to the State, shall be appraised and sold in the same manner and by the same officers, and the minimum price shall be the same less one-third (⅓), as is provided by law for the appraisement and sale of the school lands under the provisions of title one (1) of chapter thirty-eight (38) of the General Statutes. The principal of all funds derived from sales of swamp lands, as aforesaid, shall forever be preserved inviolate and undiminished. One-half (½) of the proceeds of said principal shall be appropriated to the common school fund of the State. The remaining one-half (½) shall be appropriated to the educational and charitable institutions of the State in the relative ratio of cost to support said institutions.

Public schools in each township to be established. Sec. 3. The legislature shall make such provisions, by taxation or otherwise, as, with the income arising from the school fund, will secure a thorough and efficient system of public schools in each township in the State.

Prohibition as to aiding sectarian school. But in no case shall the moneys derived as aforesaid, or any portion thereof, or any public moneys or property, be appropriated or used for the support of schools wherein the distinctive doctrines, creeds or tenets of any particular Christian or other religious sect are promulgated or taught.

University of Minnesota; location confirmed. Sec. 4. The location of the University of Minnesota, as established by existing laws, is hereby confirmed, and said institution is hereby declared to be the University of the State of Minnesota. All the rights, immunities, franchises and endowments heretofore granted or conferred are hereby perpetuated unto the said university; and all lands which may be granted hereafter by Congress, or other donations for said university purposes, shall vest in the institution referred to in this section.

Permanent school funds may be loaned to districts or counties for school purposes. Sec. 5. The permanent school funds of the State may be loaned upon interest at the rate of five (5) per cent per annum to the several counties or school districts of the State, to be used in the erection of county or school buildings. No such loan shall be made until approved by a board consisting of the governor, the state auditor and the state treasurer, who are hereby constituted an investment board for the purpose of the loans hereby authorized; nor shall any such loan be for an amount exceeding three (3) per cent of the last preceding assessed valuation of the real estate of the county or school district receiving the same. The state auditor shall annually, at the time of certifying the state tax to the several county auditors, also certify to each auditor to whose county, or to any of the school districts of whose county, any such loan shall have been made, the tax necessary to be levied to meet the accruing interest or principal of any such loan, and it shall be the duty of every such county auditor forthwith to levy and extend such tax upon all the taxable property of his county, or of the several school districts, respectively, liable for such loans—as the case may be—and in all such cases the tax so assessed shall be fifty (50) per cent in excess of the amount actually necessary to be raised on account of such accruing principal or interest. It shall be levied, collected and paid into the county and state treasuries in the same manner as state taxes, and any excess collected over the amount of such principal or interest accruing in any given year shall be credited to the general funds of the respective counties or school districts. No change of the boundaries of any school district after the making of any such loan shall operate to withdraw any property from the taxation herein provided for; nor shall any law be passed extending the time of payment of any such principal or interest, or reducing the rate of such interest, or in any manner waiving or impairing any rights of the State in connection with any such loan. Suitable laws, not inconsistent with this amendment, may be passed by the legislature for the purpose of carrying the same into effect.[18]

Investment of permanent school and university funds; approval; bonded indebtedness not to exceed 15 per cent, draw not less than two per cent, run not less than one year nor more than 30 years. [19]Sec. 6. The permanent school, permanent university and swamp land funds of this state may be loaned to or invested in the bonds of any county, school district, city, town, or village of this state and in first mortgage loans secured upon improved and cultivated farm lands of this state, but no such investment or loan shall be made until approved by the board of commissioners designated by law to regulate the investment of the permanent school fund and the permanent university fund of this state; nor shall such loan or investment be made when the bonds to be issued or purchased would make the entire bonded indebtedness exceed 15 per cent of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of the county, school district, city, town, or village issuing such bonds; nor shall any such farm loan or investment be made when such investment or loan would exceed 30 per cent of the actual cash value of the farm land mortgaged to secure said investment; nor shall such investments or loans be made at a lower rate of interest than two per cent per annum, nor for a shorter period than one year nor for a longer period than 30 years and no change of the town, school district, city, village, or county lines shall relieve the real property in such town, school district, county, village or city in this state at the time of issuing such bonds from any liability for taxation to pay such bonds.

[20]Sec. 7. Such of the school and other public lands of the state as are better adapted for the production of timber than for agriculture, may be set apart as state school forests, or other state forests, as the legislature may provide, and the legislature may provide for the management of the same on forestry principles. The net revenue therefrom shall be used for the purposes for which the lands were granted to the State.

[21]Sec. 8. Any of the public lands of the state, including lands held in trust for any purpose, may, with the unanimous approval of a commission consisting of the governor, the attorney general and the state auditor, be exchanged for lands of the United States and/or privately owned lands in such manner as the legislature may provide, and the lands so acquired shall be subject to the trust, if any, to which the lands exchanged therefor were subject, and the state shall reserve all mineral and water power rights in lands so transferred by the state.

ARTICLE IX: FINANCES OF THE STATE AND BANKS AND BANKINGEdit

Power of taxation; legislature may authorize. [22]Section 1. The power of taxation shall never be surrendered, suspended or contracted away. Taxes shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects, and shall be levied and collected for public purposes, but public burying grounds, public school houses, public hospitals, academies, colleges, universities, and all seminaries of learning, all churches, church property and houses of worship, institutions of purely public charity, and public property used exclusively for any public purpose, shall be exempt from taxation, and there may be exempted from taxation personal property not exceeding in value $200, for each household, individual or head of a family, and household goods and farm machinery, as the legislature may determine; Provided, that the legislature may authorize municipal corporations to levy and collect assessments for local improvements upon property benefited thereby without regard to a cash valuation, and provided further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to affect, modify or repeal any existing law providing for the taxation of the gross earnings of railroads.

Occupation tax. [23]Sec. 1A. Every person, co-partnership, company, joint stock company, corporation, or association however or for whatever purpose organized, engaged in the business of mining or producing iron ore or other ores in this State, shall pay to the State of Minnesota an occupation tax on the valuation of all ores mined or produced, which tax shall be in addition to all other taxes provided by law, said tax to be due and payable from such person, co-partnership, company, joint stock company, corporation, or association however or for whatever purpose organized, on May first of the calendar year next following the mining or producing thereof. The valuation of ore for the purpose of determining the amount of tax to be paid shall be ascertained in the manner and method provided by law. Funds derived from the tax herein provided for shall be apportioned: fifty per cent to the State General Revenue Fund, forty per cent to the Permanent School Fund and ten per cent to the Permanent University Fund. The Legislature shall by law make the necessary provisions for carrying out the provisions of this section.

Portion of Occupation Tax Placed in Veterans Compensation Fund. [24]Sec. 1B. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1A of Article 9 of the Constitution, a portion of the proceeds of the occupation tax on the valuation of all ores mined or produced to be paid by every person, copartnership, company, joint stock company, corporation, or association however or for whatever purpose organized, engaged in the business of mining or producing iron ore or other ores in this state, equal to the proceeds of a tax of one percent on such valuation levied in the manner provided by law, shall be paid into the veterans compensation fund before the remaining funds derived from the occupation tax are apportioned as provided by Section 1A of Article 9 of the Constitution.

N. B.—Sections 2, 3 and 4 obsolete, because in 1906 there was adopted the section which now is Section 1 in this article. It supplanted Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 and the unnumbered section of 1896. This amendment is sometimes called the wide open tax amendment. No amendments have been adopted to take the place of the old Sections 2, 3 and 4. There is therefore a gap in the numbering from 1 to 5.

State debt limited; how contracted. [25]Sec. 5. For the purpose of defraying extraordinary expenditures, the state may contract public debts, but such debts shall never, in the aggregate, exceed two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; every such debt shall be authorized by law, for some single object, to be distinctly specified therein; and no such law shall take effect until it shall have been passed by the vote of two-thirds of the members of each branch of the legislature, to be recorded by yeas and nays on the journals of each house respectively; and every such law shall levy a tax annually sufficient to pay the annual interest of such debt, and also a tax sufficient to pay the principal of such debt within ten years from the final passage of such law, and shall specially appropriate the proceeds of such taxes to the payment of such principal and interest; and such appropriation and taxes shall not be repealed, postponed, or diminished, until the principal and interest of such debt shall have been wholly paid. The state shall never contract any debts for works of internal improvements, or be a party in carrying on such works, except as authorized by Section 16 of Article 9, and by Article 16 of this Constitution, but it may levy an excise tax upon any substance, material, fluid, force or other means or instrumentality, or the business of dealing in, selling or producing any or all thereof, used or useful, in producing or generating power for propelling motor or other vehicles used on the public highways of this State, and shall place two-thirds of the proceeds of such tax in the Trunk Highway Fund provided for in Section 2 of said Article 16, and one-third thereof in the State Road and Bridge Fund, and further except in cases where grants of land or other property shall have been made to the State, especially dedicated by the grant to specific purposes, and in such cases the state shall devote thereto the avails of such grants, and may pledge or appropriate the revenues derived from such works in aid of their completion.

Issue of bonds for created debt. Sec. 6. All debts authorized by the preceding section shall be contracted by loan on State bonds of amounts not less than five hundred dollars each on interest, payable within ten years after the final passage of the law authorizing such debt; and such bonds shall not be sold by the State under par. A correct registry of all such bonds shall be kept by the treasurer, in numerical order, so as always to exhibit the number and amount unpaid and to whom severally made payable.

Limitation as to when debt may be contracted. Sec. 7. The State shall never contract any public debt, unless in time of war, to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, except in the cases and in the manner provided in the fifth and sixth sections of this article.

Disposition of funds received for bonds. Sec. 8. The money arising from any loan made, or debt or liability contracted, shall be applied to the object specified in the act authorizing such debt or liability, or to the repayment of such debt or liability, and to no other purpose whatever.

Money drawn from the State treasury. Sec. 9. No money shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this State except in pursuance of an appropriation by law.

Credit of the State limited. Sec. 10. The credit of the State shall never be given or loaned in aid of any individual, association or corporation, except as hereinafter provided. Nor shall there be any further issue of bonds denominated “Minnesota Railroad Bonds,” under what purports to be an amendment to Section ten (10) of Article nine (9) of the Constitution, adopted April 15th, 1858, which is hereby expunged from the Constitution, saving, excepting and reserving to the State, nevertheless, all rights, remedies and forfeitures accruing under said amendment. [26]Provided, however, that for the purpose of developing the agricultural resources of the state, the State may establish and maintain a system of rural credits and thereby loan money and extend credit to the people of the State upon real estate security in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by law, and to issue and negotiate bonds to provide money to be so loaned. The limit of indebtedness contained in Section 5 of this Article shall not apply to the provisions of this Section, and the purposes for which the credit of the State or the aforesaid municipal subdivisions thereof may be given or loaned as herein provided are declared to be public purposes.

Publication of receipts and expenditures by treasurer. Sec. 11. There shall be published by the treasurer, in at least one newspaper printed at the seat of government, during the first week in January in each year, and in the next volume of the acts of the legislature, detailed statements of all moneys drawn from the treasury during the preceding year, for what purpose and to whom paid, and by what law authorized; and also of all moneys received, and by what authority and from whom.

State school fund; investment; safe keeping; all State funds to be deposited in name of State. Sec. 12. Suitable laws shall be passed by the legislature for the safe keeping, transfer and disbursements of the State and school funds; and all officers and other persons charged with the same or any part of the same, or the safe keeping thereof, shall be required to give ample security for all moneys and funds of any kind received by them; to make forthwith and keep an accurate entry of each sum received, and of each payment and transfer; and if any of said officers or other persons shall convert to his own use in any manner or form, or shall loan, with or without interest, or shall deposit in his own name, or otherwise than in the name of the State of Minnesota; or shall deposit in banks or with any person or persons, or exchange for other funds or property, any portion of the funds of the State or the school funds aforesaid, except in the manner prescribed by law, every such act shall be and constitute an embezzlement of so much of the aforesaid State and school funds, or either of the same, as shall thus be taken, or loaned, or deposited or exchanged, and shall be a felony; and any failure to pay over, produce or account for the State school funds, or any part of the same entrusted to such officer or persons as by law required on demand, shall be held and be taken to be prima facie evidence of such embezzlement.

General banking law; provision and restrictions. Sec. 13. The legislature may, by a two-thirds vote, pass a general banking law, with the following restrictions and requirements, viz.:

First—The legislature shall have no power to pass any law sanctioning in any manner, directly, or indirectly, the suspension of specie payments by any person, association or corporation issuing bank notes of any description.

Second—The legislature shall provide by law for the registry of all bills or notes issued or put in circulation as money, and shall require ample security in United States stock or State stocks for the redemption of the same in specie; and in case of a depreciation of said stocks, or any part thereof, to the amount of ten per cent or more on the dollar, the bank or banks owning said stocks shall be required to make up said deficiency by additional stocks.

Third—The stockholders in any corporation and joint association for banking purposes, issuing bank notes, shall be individually liable in an amount equal to double the amount of stock owned by them for all the debts of such corporation or association; and such individual liability shall continue for one year after any transfer or sale of stock by any stockholder or stockholders.

Fourth—In case of the insolvency of any bank or banking association, the bill holders thereof shall be entitled to preference in payment over all other creditors of such bank or association.

Fifth—Any general banking law which may be passed in accordance with this Article shall provide for recording the names of all stockholders in such corporation, the amount of stock held by each, the time of transfer, and to whom transferred.

Special provision for a loan for hospital building for insane. Sec. 14. (a) For the purpose of erecting and completing buildings for a hospital for the insane, a deaf, dumb and blind asylum, the state prison, the legislature may by law increase the public debt of the State to an amount not exceeding $250,000, in addition to the public debt already heretofore authorized by the Constitution; and for that purpose may provide by law for issuing and negotiating the bonds of the State, and appropriate the money only for the purpose aforesaid; which bonds shall be payable in not less than ten nor more than thirty years from the date of the same, at the option of the State.

County, city or township aid to railroads limited. Sec. 15. The legislature shall not authorize any county, township, city, or other municipal corporation to issue bonds, or to become indebted in any manner, to aid in the construction or equipment of any or all railroads to any amount that shall exceed five (5) per centum of the value of the taxable property within such county, township, city, or other municipal corporation. The amount of such taxable property to be ascertained, and determined by the last assessment of said property made, for the purpose of state and county taxation, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness.[27]

State Road and Bridge Fund. Sec. 16. For the purpose of lending aid in the construction and improvement of public highways and bridges, there is hereby created a fund, to be known as the “State road and bridge fund,” said fund shall include all moneys accruing from the income derived from investments in the internal improvement land fund, or that may hereafter accrue to said fund, and shall also include all funds accruing to any State road and bridge fund, however provided.

The legislature is authorized to add to such fund, for the purpose of constructing or improving roads and bridges of this State, by providing, in its discretion, for an annual tax levy upon the property of this State of not to exceed in any one year one mill on all the taxable property within the State. Provided, that no county shall receive in any year more than three (3) per cent, or less than one-half (½) of one (1) per cent of the total fund thus provided and expended during such year.[28]

ARTICLE X: OF CORPORATIONS HAVING NO BANKING PRIVILEGESEdit

Corporation for general purposes. Section 1. The term “Corporation,” as used in this Article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint stock companies having any of the powers and privileges not possessed by Individuals or partnerships, except such as embrace banking privileges and all corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be liable to be sued in all courts, in like manner as natural persons.

Not to be created by special act. Sec. 2. No corporations shall be formed under special acts, except for municipal purposes.

Liability of stockholders. [29]Sec. 3. The legislature shall have power from time to time to provide for, limit and otherwise regulate the liability of stockholders or members of corporations and co-operative corporations or associations, however organized.

Lands may be taken for public use. Sec. 4. Lands may be taken for public way, for the purpose of granting to any corporation the franchise of way for public use. In all cases, however, a fair and equitable compensation shall be paid for such land, and the damages arising from the taking of the same; but all corporations being common carriers enjoying the right of way in pursuance of the provisions of this section, shall be bound to carry the mineral, agricultural and other productions of manufacturers on equal and reasonable terms.

ARTICLE XI: COUNTIES AND TOWNSHIPSEdit

County organization. Section 1. The legislature may from time to time establish and organize new counties; but no new county shall contain less than four hundred square miles; nor shall any county be reduced below that amount; and all laws changing county lines in counties already organized, or for removing county seats, shall, before taking effect, be submitted to the electors of the county or counties to be affected thereby, at the next general election after the passage thereof, and be adopted by a majority of such electors. Counties now established may be enlarged, but not reduced below four hundred (400) square miles.

Cities of 20,000 population may be organized into separate counties. Sec. 2. The legislature may organize any city into a separate county, when it has attained a population of 20,000 inhabitants, without reference to geographical extent, when a majority of the electors of the county in which such city may be situated, voting thereon, shall be in favor of a separate organization.

Township organization. Sec. 3. Laws may be passed providing for the organization for municipal and other town purposes, of any congressional or fractional townships in the several counties in the State, provided that when a township is divided by county lines or does not contain one hundred inhabitants, it may be attached to one or more adjoining townships or parts of townships for the purposes aforesaid.

Election of county and town officers. Sec. 4. Provision shall be made by law for the election of such county or township officers as may be necessary.

Local taxation may be authorized. Sec. 5. Any county and township organization shall have such powers of local taxation as may be prescribed by law.

Money drawn from county or town treasuries. Sec. 6. No money shall be drawn from any county or township treasury except by authority of law.

County of Manomin abolished. Sec. 7. That the county of Manomin is hereby abolished, and that the territory heretofore comprising the same shall constitute and be a part of the county of Anoka.[30]

ARTICLE XII: OF THE MILITIAEdit

Militia organization. Section 1. It shall be the duty of the legislature to pass such laws for the organization, discipline and service of the militia of the State as may be deemed necessary.

ARTICLE XIII: IMPEACHMENT AND REMOVAL FROM OFFICEEdit

Impeachment and removal from office. Section 1. The governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney general, and the judges of the supreme and district courts, may be impeached for corrupt conduct in office, or for crimes and misdemeanors; but judgment in such case shall not extend further than to removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit in this State. The party convicted thereof shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

Sec. 2. The legislature of this State may provide for the removal of inferior officers from office, for malfeasance or nonfeasance in the performance of their duties.

Sec. 3. No officer shall exercise the duties of his office after he shall have been impeached and before his acquittal.

Sec. 4. On the trial of an impeachment against the governor, the lieutenant governor shall not act as a member of the court.

Sec. 5. No person shall be tried on impeachment before he shall have been served with a copy thereof at least twenty days previous to the day set for trial.

ARTICLE XIV: AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTIONEdit

Amendments to constitution; majority vote of electors voting makes amendment valid. Section 1. Whenever a majority of both houses of the legislature shall deem it necessary to alter or amend this Constitution, they may propose such alterations or amendments, which proposed amendments shall be published with the laws which have been passed at the same session, and said amendments shall be submitted to the people for their approval or rejection at any general election, and if it shall appear, in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of all the electors voting at said election shall have voted for and ratified such alterations or amendments, the same shall be valid to all intents and purposes as a part of this Constitution. If two or more alterations or amendments shall be submitted at the same time, it shall be so regulated that the voters shall vote for or against each separately.

Revision of constitution. Sec. 2. Whenever two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the legislature shall think it necessary to call a convention to revise this Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors to vote at the next general election for members of the legislature, for or against a convention; and if a majority of all the electors voting at said election shall have voted for a convention, the legislature shall, at their next session, provide by law for calling the same. The convention shall consist of as many members as the House of Representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after their election for the purpose aforesaid.

Submission to people of revised constitution drafted at convention. [31]Sec. 3. Any convention called to revise this constitution shall submit any revision thereof by said convention to the people of the State of Minnesota for their approval or rejection at the next general election held not less than 90 days after the adoption of such revision, and, if it shall appear in the manner provided by law that three-fifths of all the electors voting on the question shall have voted for and ratified such revision, the same shall constitute a new constitution of the State of Minnesota. Without such submission and ratification, said revision shall be of no force or effect. Section 9 of Article IV of the Constitution shall not apply to election to the convention.

ARTICLE XV: MISCELLANEOUS SUBJECTSEdit

Seat of government. Section 1. The seat of government of the State shall be at the city of St. Paul, but the legislature, at their first or any future session, may provide by law for a change of the seat of government by a vote of the people, or may locate the same upon the land granted by Congress for a seat of government to the State; and in the event of the seat of government being removed from the city of St. Paul to any other place in the State, the capitol building and grounds shall be dedicated to an institution for the promotion of science, literature and the arts, to be organized by the legislature of the State, and of which institution the Minnesota Historical Society shall always be a department.

Residents on Indian lands. Sec. 2. Persons residing on Indian lands within the State shall enjoy all rights and privileges of citizens, as though they lived in any other portion of the State, and shall be subject to taxation.

Uniform oath at elections. Sec. 3. The legislature shall provide for a uniform oath or affirmation to be administered at elections, and no person shall be compelled to take any other or different form of oath to entitle him to vote.

State seal. Sec. 4. There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the secretary of state, and be used by him officially, and shall be called the great seal of the State of Minnesota, and shall be attached to all the official acts of the governor (his signature to acts and resolves of the legislature excepted) requiring authentication. The legislature shall provide for an appropriate device and motto for said seal.

State prison location. Sec. 5. The territorial prison, as located under existing laws, shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, be and remain one of the state prisons of the State of Minnesota.

ARTICLE XVI: TRUNK HIGHWAY SYSTEM[32]Edit

Section 1. There is hereby created and established a trunk highway system, which shall be located, constructed, reconstructed, improved and forever maintained as public highways, by the State of Minnesota. The said highways shall extend as nearly as may be along the following described routes, the more specific and definite location of which shall be fixed and determined by such boards, officers or tribunals, and in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, but in fixing such specific and definite routes there shall not be any deviation from the starting points or terminals set forth in this bill, nor shall there be any deviation in fixing such routes from the various villages and cities named herein, through which such routes are to pass.

Route No. 1. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa, southeasterly at Albert Lea and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point in Albert Lea and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point and on the southerly limits of the city of St. Paul and then beginning at a point on the northerly limits of the city of St. Paul and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on the westerly limits of the city of Duluth and then beginning at a point on the northerly limits of the city of Duluth and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on the boundary line between the State of Minnesota and the province of Ontario, affording Albert Lea, Owatonna, Faribault, Northfield, Farmington, St. Paul, White Bear, Forest Lake, Wyoming, Rush City, Pine City, Hinckley, Sandstone, Moose Lake, Carlton, Duluth, Two Harbors, Grand Marais and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 2. Beginning at a point on Route No. 1 on the westerly limits of the city of Duluth and thence extending in a southwesterly direction along said Route No. 1 to a point on said route at Carlton and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on the east bank of the Red River of the North at Moorhead, affording Duluth, Carlton, McGregor, Aitkin, Brainerd, Motley, Staples, Wadena, Detroit, Moorhead and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 3. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Wisconsin, westerly of La Crosse, Wisconsin, and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on the easterly limits of the city of St. Paul and then beginning at a point on the westerly limits of the city of Minneapolis and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on the east bank of the Red River of the North at Breckenridge, affording La Crescent, Winona, Kellogg, Wabasha, Lake City, Red Wing, Hastings, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Osseo, Champlin, Anoka, Elk River, Big Lake, St. Cloud, Albany, Sauk Center, Alexandria, Elbow Lake, Fergus Falls, Breckenridge and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 4. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa, southwesterly of Jackson and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 3, southeasterly of Sauk Center and thence extending in a northwesterly direction along said Route No. 3 to a point on said route at Sauk Center and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point at International Falls, affording Jackson, Windom, Sanborn, Redwood Falls, Morton, Olivia, Willmar, Paynesville, Sauk Center, Long Prairie, Wadena, Park Rapids, Itasca State Park, Bemidji, International Falls and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 5. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa, southerly of Blue Earth and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on the southerly limits of the city of Minneapolis and then beginning at a point on the northerly limits of the city of Minneapolis and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point in Swan River on Route No. 8, hereinafter described, affording Blue Earth, Winnebago, Mankato, St. Peter, Le Sueur, Jordan, Shakopee, Minneapolis, Cambridge, Mora, McGregor, Swan River and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 6. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa, southerly of Ash Creek, and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on the boundary line between the State of Minnesota and the province of Manitoba, near St. Vincent, affording Luverne, Pipestone, Lake Benton, Ivanhoe, Canby, Madison, Bellingham, Odessa, Ortonville, Graceville, Dumont, Wheaton, Breckenridge, Moorhead, Kragnes, Georgetown, Perley, Hendrum, Ada, Crookston, Warren, Donaldson, Hallock and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 7. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Winona and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and South Dakota, westerly of Lake Benton, affording Winona, St. Charles, Rochester, Kasson, Dodge Center, Claremont, Owatonna, Waseca, Mankato, St. Peter, New Ulm, Springfield, Tracy, Lake Benton and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 8. Beginning at a point on the westerly limits of the city of Duluth and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 6 near Crookston and thence extending in a westerly and northerly direction along said Route No. 6 to a point on said route northerly of Crookston and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on the east bank of the Red River of the North at East Grand Forks, affording Duluth, Floodwood, Swan River, Grand Rapids, Cass Lake, Bemidji, Bagley, Erskine, Crookston, East Grand Forks and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 9. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at La Crescent and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and South Dakota southwesterly of Beaver Creek, affording La Crescent, Hokah, Houston, Rushford, Lanesboro, Preston, Fountain, Spring Valley, Austin, Albert Lea, Blue Earth, Fairmont, Jackson, Worthington, Luverne and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 10. Beginning at a point on the westerly limits of the city of Minneapolis and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at or near Wheaton, affording Minneapolis, Montrose, Cokato, Litchfield, Willmar, Benson, Morris, Herman, Wheaton and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 11. Beginning at a point on Route No. 8 at the westerly limits of the city of Duluth and thence extending in a northwesterly and northerly direction to a point on Route No. 4 at International Falls and thence extending in a southwesterly direction along said Route No. 4 to a point on said route southwesterly of International Falls and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at Donaldson, affording Duluth, Eveleth, Virginia, Cook, Orr, Cussons, International Falls, Baudette, Warroad, Roseau, Greenbush, Donaldson and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 12. Beginning at a point on the west bank of the St. Croix River near Hudson, Wisconsin and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on the easterly limits of the city of St. Paul and then beginning at a point on the westerly limits of the city of Minneapolis and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at Madison, affording St. Paul, Minneapolis, Hopkins, Norwood, Glencoe, Olivia, Granite Falls, Montevideo, Dawson, Madison and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 13. Beginning at a point on Route No. 9 at Albert Lea and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 5 at Jordan, affording Albert Lea, Waseca, Waterville, Montgomery, New Prague, Jordan and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 14. Beginning at a point on Route No. 6 at Ivanhoe and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 4 at Redwood Falls and thence extending in an easterly direction along said Route No. 4 to a point on said route at Morton and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 22, hereinafter described, at Gaylord, affording Ivanhoe, Marshall, Redwood Falls, Morton, Winthrop, Gaylord and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 15. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa southerly of Fairmont and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 14 at Winthrop, affording Fairmont, Madelia, New Ulm, Winthrop and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 16. Beginning at a point on Route No. 5 southwesterly of Mankato and thence extending westerly to a point on Route No. 15 at Madelia and thence extending in a southerly direction along said Route No. 15 to a point on said route southerly of Madelia and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 4 northerly of Windom and thence extending in a southerly direction along said Route No. 4 to a point on said route at Windom and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point at Fulda and thence extending in a southerly direction to a point on Route No. 9 at Worthington, affording Mankato, Madelia, St. James, Windom, Fulda, Worthington and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 17. Beginning at a point on Route No. 16 at Fulda and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 12 at Granite Falls, affording Fulda, Slayton, Garvin, Marshall, Granite Falls and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 18. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Elk River and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 2 easterly of Brainerd, affording Elk River, Princeton, Milaca, Onamia and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 19. Beginning at a point on Route No. 2 at Brainerd and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 8 at Cass Lake, affording Brainerd, Pine River, Walker, Cass Lake and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 20. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa near Canton and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 9 at or near Preston and thence extending in a northwesterly direction along said Route No. 9 to a point on said route at Fountain and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 3 in the town of Douglas, Dakota county (T. 113, R. 17 W) affording Canton, Harmony, Preston, Fountain, Chatfield, Oronoco, Pine Island, Zumbrota, Cannon Falls and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 21. Beginning at a point on Route No. 20 at Zumbrota and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 5 at St. Peter, affording Zumbrota, Kenyon, Faribault, Le Sueur Center, Cleveland, St. Peter and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 22. Beginning at a point on Route No. 5 at St. Peter and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 4 at Paynesville, affording St. Peter, Gaylord, Glencoe, Hutchinson, Litchfield, Paynesville and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 23. Beginning at a point on Route No. 4 at Paynesville and thence extending in a northeasterly direction through the villages of Richmond, Coldspring, Rockville and Waite Park to a point on Route No. 3 westerly of St. Cloud, and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 5 southerly of Mora, and thence extending in a northerly direction along said Route No. 5 to a point on said route at Mora, and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 1 southerly of Hinckley, affording Paynesville, St. Cloud, Foley, Milaca, Ogilvie, Mora and intervening and adjacent communities, a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 24. Beginning at a point on Route No. 10 at Litchfield and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 3 at St. Cloud, affording Litchfield, St. Cloud and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 25. Beginning at a point on Route No. 5 at or near Belle Plaine and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 3 at Big Lake, affording Belle Plaine, Norwood, Watertown, Montrose, Buffalo, Monticello, Big Lake and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 26. Beginning at a point on Route No. 10 at Benson and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 near Ortonville, affording Benson, Ortonville and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 27. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at St. Cloud and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 2 at Brainerd, affording St. Cloud, Sauk Rapids, Royalton, Little Falls, Brainerd and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 28. Beginning at a point on Route No. 27 at Little Falls and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and South Dakota at Browns Valley, affording Little Falls, Sauk Center, Glenwood, Starbuck, Morris, Graceville, Browns Valley and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 29. Beginning at a point on Route No. 28 at Glenwood and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 2 westerly of Wadena affording Glenwood, Alexandria, Parkers Prairie, Deer Creek and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 30. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Fergus Falls, and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 8 at Erskine, affording Fergus Falls, Pelican Rapids, Detroit, Mahnomen, Erskine and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 31. Beginning at a point on Route No. 6 at Ada, and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 30 near Mahnomen, affording Ada, Mahnomen and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 32. Beginning at a point on Route No. 8 easterly of Crookston and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 11 at Greenbush, affording Red Lake Falls, Thief River Falls, Middle River, Greenbush and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 33. Beginning at a point on Route No. 32 at Thief River Falls and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at Warren, affording Thief River Falls, Warren and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 34. Beginning at a point on Route No. 2 at Detroit and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 8 westerly of Grand Rapids, affording Detroit, Park Rapids, Walker, Remer, Grand Rapids and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 35. Beginning at a point on Route No. 18 near Mille Lacs Lake and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point at Grand Rapids and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point at Ely, affording Aitkin, Grand Rapids, Hibbing, Chisholm, Buhl, Mountain Iron, Virginia, Gilbert, McKinley, Biwabik, Aurora, Tower and Ely and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 36. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Fergus Falls and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 29 easterly of Henning, affording Fergus Falls, Henning and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 37. Beginning at a point on Route No. 27 at Little Falls and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 2 at Motley, affording Little Falls, Motley and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 38. Beginning at a point on Route No. 12 at Montevideo and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 28 at Starbuck, affording Montevideo, Benson, Starbuck and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 39. Beginning at a point on Route No. 7 at Mankato and thence extending in a southeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 9 westerly of Albert Lea, affording Mankato, Mapleton, Minnesota Lake, Wells and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 40. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa at Lyle and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 7 at Owatonna, affording Lyle, Austin, Blooming Prairie, Owatonna and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 41. Beginning at a point on Route No. 40 at or near Blooming Prairie and thence extending in an easterly direction to a point on Route No. 56 hereinafter described, near Hayfield, affording Blooming Prairie, Hayfield and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 42. Beginning at a point on Route No. 7 easterly of Rochester and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 3 at Kellogg, affording Rochester, Elgin, Plainview, Kellogg and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 43. Beginning at a point on Route No. 9 at Rushford and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 3 at Winona, affording Rushford, Winona and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 44. Beginning at a point on Route No. 9 at Hokah and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 20 near Canton, affording Hokah, Caledonia, Canton and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 45. Beginning at a point on the west bank of the St. Croix River at Stillwater and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on the easterly limits of the city of St. Paul, affording Stillwater, Lake Elmo, St. Paul and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 46. Beginning at a point on the west bank of the St. Croix River at Taylors Falls and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 1 near Wyoming, affording Taylors Falls, Center City, Wyoming and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 47. Beginning at a point on Route No. 17 at Slayton and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at Pipestone, affording Slayton, Pipestone and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 48. Beginning at a point on Route No. 17 westerly of Granite Falls and thence extending in a westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 at Canby, affording Granite Falls, Clarkfield, Canby and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 49. Beginning at a point on Route No. 12 easterly of Montevideo and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 4 southerly of Willmar, affording Montevideo, Clara City, Willmar and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 50. Beginning at a point on Route No. 20 at Cannon Falls and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on the southerly limits of the city of Minneapolis, affording Cannon Falls, Farmington, Minneapolis and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 51. Beginning at a point on Route No. 5 at Shakopee and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 12 northerly of Shakopee, affording a connection between said Route No. 5 and said Route No. 12.

Route No. 52. Beginning at a point on Route No. 5 south of the city of Minneapolis and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on the westerly limits of the United States military reservation at Fort Snelling, affording St. Paul and adjacent communities a reasonable communication with said Route No. 5.

Route No. 53. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Hastings and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on the southerly limits of the city of South St. Paul, affording Hastings, South St. Paul and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 54. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Elbow Lake and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 10 at Herman, affording Elbow Lake, Herman and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 55. Beginning at a point on Route No. 2 northwesterly of Carlton and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point in Cloquet, affording Carlton, Cloquet and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 56. Beginning at a point on Route No. 9 easterly of Austin and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 21 at or near Kenyon affording Brownsdale, Hayfield, Dodge Center, West Concord, Kenyon and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 57. Beginning at a point in Mantorville and extending in a southerly direction to a point on Route No. 7 southerly of Mantorville, affording Mantorville a reasonable means of communication with said Route No. 7.

Route No. 58. Beginning at a point on Route No. 20 at Zumbrota and thence extending in a northeasterly direction to a point on Route No. 3 at Red Wing, affording Zumbrota, Red Wing and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 59. Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the States of Minnesota and Iowa southerly of Spring Valley and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on No. 3 at Lake City, affording Spring Valley, Stewartville, Rochester, Zumbro Falls, Lake City and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 60. Beginning at a point on Route No. 1 at Faribault and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 7 at or near Madison Lake, affording Faribault, Morristown, Waterville, Madison Lake and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 61. Beginning at a point on Route No. 8 at Deer River and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 4 at or near Big Falls, affording Deer River, Big Falls and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 62. Beginning at a point on Route No. 3 at Anoka and thence extending in a southeasterly direction to a point on the northerly limits of the city of St. Paul, affording Anoka, St. Paul and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 63. Beginning at a point on Route No. 1 southerly of Forest Lake and thence extending in a southwesterly direction to a point on the northerly and easterly limits of the city of Minneapolis, affording a reasonable means of communication between Route No. 1 and Minneapolis.

Route No. 64. Beginning at a point on Route No. 30 northerly of Fergus Falls and thence extending in a northerly and westerly direction to a point on Route No. 6 southerly of Moorhead, affording Fergus Falls, Rothsay, Barnesville, Moorhead and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 65. Beginning at a point on Route No. 8 at Bagley and thence extending in a northerly and westerly direction to a point on Route No. 32 southerly of Red Lake Falls, affording Bagley, Clearbrook, Gonvick, Gully, Brooks, Terrebonne and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 66. Beginning at a point on Route No. 12 at Montevideo and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 26 northerly of Appleton affording Montevideo, Appleton and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 67. Beginning at a point on Route No. 14 southerly of Echo and thence extending in a northerly and westerly direction to a point on Route No. 17 at or near Granite Falls, affording Echo, Granite Falls and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 68. Beginning at a point on Route No. 14 at Marshall and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 6 near Canby, affording Marshall, Minneota, Canby and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 69. Beginning at a point on Route No. 25 at Buffalo and thence extending in a northwesterly direction to a point on Route No. 22 southeasterly of Paynesville, affording Buffalo, Maple Lake, Annandale, Eden Valley, Paynesville and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Route No. 70. Beginning at a point on Route No. 7 westerly of New Ulm and thence extending in a northerly direction to a point on Route No. 12 at or near the village of Hector, affording Fort Ridgely, Fairfax, Hector and intervening and adjacent communities a reasonable means of communication, each with the other and other places within the State.

Additional Routes.—Whenever, either by reason of the creation of a new county, or by reason of the change of the county seat of any existing county, any city or village not a county seat at the time of the adoption of this amendment is lawfully constituted the county seat of any county, the legislature is authorized to add to the trunk highway system such additional routes connecting such newly constituted county seats with other county seats and other points in the state.

When after at least seventy-five (75) per cent of the total number of the miles of the routes embraced in the trunk highway system hereinbefore specified shall have been constructed and permanently improved, the legislature shall have authority to add new routes to such trunk highway system; provided, however, that no such new routes shall be added until and unless the funds available for the construction, improvement and maintenance of such additional routes shall be sufficient therefor in addition to the construction, improvement and maintenance of _ the several routes hereinbefore specifically described.

Section 2. There is hereby created a fund which shall be known as the trunk highway sinking fund. Said fund shall consist of the proceeds of any tax imposed on motor vehicles as herein authorized. The moneys in said fund shall be used for the payment of the principal and interest of any bonds which may be issued under the authority of this article; and any moneys in excess of such requirements shall be transferred to a fund which is hereby created and which shall be known as the trunk highway fund. The trunk highway fund shall be used solely for the purposes specified in section 1 of this article, and when duly authorized by legislative enactment to reimburse any county for the money expended by it subsequent to February 1st, 1919, in permanently improving any road hereinbefore specifically described, in accordance with plans and specifications therefor approved by the commissioner of highways.

[33]2Section 3. The legislature is hereby authorized to provide, by law, for the taxation of motor vehicles, using the public streets and highways of this state, on a more onerous basis than other personal property; provided, however, that any such tax on motor vehicles shall be in lieu of all other taxes thereon, except wheelage taxes, so-called, which may be imposed by any borough, city or village, and except that the legislature may impose such tax upon motor vehicles of companies paying taxes under gross earnings system of taxation and upon the right to use such vehicles upon the public highways notwithstanding the fact that earnings from such vehicles may be included in the earnings of such companies upon which such gross earnings taxes are computed. Any such law may, in the discretion of the legislature, provide for the exemption from taxation of any motor vehicle owned by a nonresident of the state, and transiently or temporarily using the streets and highways of the state. The proceeds of such tax shall be paid in to said trunk highway sinking fund.

Section 4. The legislature may provide by law for the issue and sale of the bonds of the state in such amount as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of section 1 of this article, provided, however, that the amount of bonds which may be issued in any one calendar year shall not exceed, in the aggregate, ten million dollars, par value, and provided, further, the total amount of such bonds issued and unpaid shall not at any time exceed seventy-five million dollars, par value. The proceeds of the sale of such bonds shall be paid into the treasury of the state and credited to the trunk highway fund. Any bonds so issued and sold shall be for a term not exceeding twenty (20) years. They shall not be sold for less than par and accrued interest and shall not bear interest at a greater rate than five per cent per annum. In case the trunk highway sinking fund shall not be adequate to meet the payment of the principal and interest of the bonds authorized by the legislature as hereinbefore provided, the legislature may provide by law for the taxation of all taxable property of the state in an amount sufficient to meet the deficiency, or it may, in its discretion, appropriate to such sinking fund moneys in the state treasury not otherwise appropriated.

Section 5. Any and all provisions of the constitution of the state of Minnesota are hereby repealed, inconsistent with the provisions of this article, so far, but only so far, as the same prohibit or limit the power of the legislature to enact laws authorizing or permitting the doing of the things hereinbefore authorized.

ARTICLE XVII: FOREST FIRES; PREVENTION, ABATEMENT[34]Edit

Section 1. The state and (or) any of its political subdivisions, if and whenever authorized by the legislature, may contract debts and pledge the public credit for and engage in any work reasonably tending to prevent or abate forest fires, including the compulsory clearing and improvement of wild lands (whether belonging to the public or privately owned) and the assessment against such lands of the value of all benefits so conferred and the payment of damages so sustained in excess of such benefits.

Sec. 2. Any and all provisions of the constitution of the state of Minnesota inconsistent with the provisions of this article, are hereby repealed, so far, but only so far, as the same prohibit or limit the power of the legislature to enact laws authorizing or permitting the doing of the things hereinbefore authorized.

ARTICLE XVIII: FORESTATION AND REFORESTATION[35]Edit

Section 1. Laws may be enacted for the purpose of encouraging and promoting forestation and reforestation of lands in this state, whether owned by private persons or the public, including the fixing in advance of a definite and limited annual tax on such lands for a term of years and a yield tax at or after the end of such term upon the timber and other forest products so grown, but the taxation of mineral deposits shall not be affected by this amendment.

Sec. 2. Any and all provisions of the constitution of the state of Minnesota, inconsistent with the provisions of this article, are hereby repealed, so far, but only so far, as the same prohibit or limit the power of the legislature to enact laws authorizing or permitting the doing of the things hereinbefore authorized.

ARTICLE XIX: AERONAUTICS[36]Edit

Section 1. The state may construct, improve, maintain, and operate and may assist counties, cities, towns, villages, boroughs, and public corporations in constructing, improving, maintaining, and operating airports and other air navigation facilities.

Sec. 2. For the purpose of carrying on or assisting in carrying on such work it may expend monies, including such monies as the legislature may see fit to appropriate, may incur debts, and may issue and negotiate bonds to provide money therefor. The provisions of Section 5 of Article 9 of the Constitution shall not apply to the provisions of this section, and the purposes for which the credit of the state may be given or loaned as herein provided are declared to be public purposes.

Sec. 3. The state may levy a state excise tax upon any fluid or other means or instrumentalities, or the business of dealing in, selling, or producing any or all thereof, used in producing or generating power for propelling aircraft of any kind now known or hereafter invented, or for propelling or operating motor or other vehicles, or other equipment used for airport purposes and not used on the public highways of this state.

Sec. 4. The legislature is hereby authorized to provide, by law, for the taxation of aircraft using the air space overlying the State of Minnesota and the airports thereof, including any contrivance, now known or hereafter invented, used or designed for navigation of or flight in the air, on a more onerous basis than other personal property; provided, however, that any such tax on aircraft shall be in lieu of all other taxation thereon, and except that the legislature may impose such tax upon aircraft of companies paying taxes under any gross earnings system of taxation, and upon the right to use such aircraft in the air space overlying the State of Minnesota and upon the airports thereof, notwithstanding the fact that earnings from such aircraft may be included in the earnings of such companies upon which such gross earnings taxes are computed. Any such law may, in the discretion of the legislature, provide for the exemption from taxation of any aircraft owned by a nonresident of the state and transiently or temporarily using the air space overlying the State of Minnesota or the airports thereof.

Sec. 5. Any and all provisions of the Constitution of the State of Minnesota inconsistent with the provisions of this article are hereby repealed, so far, but only so far, as the same prohibit or limit the power of the legislature to enact laws authorizing or permitting the doing of the things hereinbefore authorized.

ARTICLE XX: VETERANS BONUS[37]Edit

Section 1. The state may at any time pay an adjusted compensation to persons who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States during the period from and including September 16, 1940, through December 30, 1946; may levy taxes and appropriate monies for such purpose; and if and whenever authorized, and in such amounts and on such terms as may be fixed by the Legislature, may expend monies, may contract debts, may issue and negotiate bonds or certificates of indebtedness, or both, and may pledge the public credit, to provide money therefor. The provisions of section 5 of Articled of the Constitution shall not apply to the provisions of this section, and the purposes for which the credit of the state may be given or loaned as herein provided are declared to be public purposes.

Sec. 2. Any and all provisions of the Constitution of the state of Minnesota inconsistent with the provisions of this article are hereby repealed, so far, but only so far, as the same prohibit or limit the power of the Legislature to enact laws authorizing or permitting the doing of the things hereinbefore authorized.

NotesEdit

  1. The clause in brackets was adopted Nov. 4, 1890.
  2. The jury contemplated by article 1, section 6, securing the right to jury trial in criminal cases, is a body of twelve men, and it is error to try a party charged with crime in a justice court, against his objection, with a jury of six. The fact that he may appeal to the district court, on entering into recognizance with sureties, does not change the rule. 14 Minn. 330.
  3. 23 Minn. 1; 23 Minn. 411.
  4. The clause in brackets was adopted Nov. 6, 1888.
  5. The words “destroyed or damaged” inserted by amendment adopted Nov. 3, 1896.
  6. Adopted Nov. 6, 1906.
  7. The northern boundary of the state at the Lake of the Woods is projected beyond the 49th parallel a distance of about twenty miles, making a wedge-shaped jog through the lake until it strikes firm ground on the west bank of the lake; thence in a due south line to the 49th parallel. The explanation of this jog is found in the subjoined paragraphs. In the seventh article of the treaty of Ghent, section 19 reads as follows: See. 19. Resolved that the following described (also represented on said map as before mentioned), is, in the opinion of the commissioners, so far as the same extends, the true boundary intended by the before mentioned treaties, namely: * * * thence through the middle of the waters of this bay to the northwest extremity of the same; being the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, and from a monument in this bay, on the nearest firm ground to the above northwest extremity of said bay, the courses and distances are as follows: 56° W. 1,565½ feet; 2nd, N. 6° W. 861½ feet; 3rd, N. 28° W. 615.4 feet; 4th, N. 27° 10' W. 495.4 feet; 5th, N. 5° 10' E. 1,322½ feet; 6th, N. 70° 45' W. 493 feet, the variation being 12° east. The termination of this 6th and last course and distance being the above said most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, as designated by the seventh article of the treaty of Ghent, and being in latitude 49° 23' 55" north of the equator, and in longitude 95° 14' 38" west from Greenwich. The second article of the convention of 1818 is as follows: Article 2. It Is agreed that a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods along the 49th parallel of north latitude, or, if the said point shall not be in the 49th parallel of north latitude, then that a line drawn from the said point due north or south, as the case may be, until the said line shall Intersect the said parallel of north latitude, and from the point of such intersection due west, along and with the said parallel, shall be the line of demarkation between the territories of the United States and His Britannic Majesty, and that the said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of the United States and the southern boundary of His Britannic Majesty, from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Mountains. This boundary was re-established and determined by a commission authorized by congress, and the surveys embracing four years were made and reported to congress in 1877.
  8. Courts cannot control or interfere with an executive officer of the state in his official acts, even though they are such that the duty to perform them might have been entrusted to some other officer. 28 Minn. 50.
  9. By chapter 71, G. L. of 1881, extra session, the proceeds of this fund were pledged to the payment of Minnesota State Railroad adjustment bonds, and the law was voted upon and approved at the general election of 1884, by 31,011 voles in favor and 13,589 votes against.
  10. Changed by amendment adopted Nov. 3, 1942.
  11. An executive officer of the state is not subject to the control or interference of the judiciary in the performance of duties belonging to him as an executive officer, and no act done, or threatened to be done, by him in his official capacity can be brought under judicial control or interference by mandamus or injunction, even when the act is purely ministerial. 29 Minn. 555.
  12. Adopted November 2, 1954.
  13. Adopted November 4, 1930.
  14. Adopted November 2, 1954.
  15. Held restrictive and to disqualify a person from holding an elective office who was not eligible at the date of his election, though eligible at the beginning of the term. 45 Minn. 309.
  16. Article 8, section 1, which directs the establishment of a general and uniform system of public schools, does not prohibit the legislature from providing public schools other than those included in the general system, or creating exceptional districts, to meet particular and exceptional cases; and the exception from the operation of a general law relating to public schools of independent school districts, and schools specially provided for, does not violate the constitutional provision. 25 Minn. 1.
  17. Adopted Nov. 7, 1916.
  18. Chapter 193, G. L. of 1887, made the necessary provision for giving effect to this section.
  19. Changed by amendment adopted Nov. 7, 1916, and by amendment adopted Nov. 3, 1942.
  20. Adopted Nov. 3, 1914.
  21. Adopted Nov. 8, 1938.
  22. Adopted Nov. 6, 1934.
  23. Adopted Nov. 4, 1922.
  24. Adopted Nov. 7, 1950.
  25. Adopted Nov. 6, 1928.
  26. Adopted Nov. 7, 1922.
  27. Adopted Nov. 4, 1879.
  28. Adopted Nov. 5, 1912.
  29. Adopted November 2, 1954.
  30. Adopted Nov. 2, 1869.
  31. Adopted November 2, 1954.
  32. Adopted Nov. 2, 1920.
  33. Adopted Nov. 8, 1932.
  34. Adopted Nov. 4, 1924.
  35. Adopted Nov. 2, 1926.
  36. Adopted Nov. 7, 1944.
  37. Adopted Nov. 2, 1948.