Diatomaceae of Philadelphia/Discoideae

DIATOMACEÆ


Unicellular or filamentous. Cells either free, sessile, united in filaments, immersed in a gelatinous envelope or in fronds composed of branching tubes; microscopic, enclosed in a more or less siliceous envelope (frustule), composed of two parts (valves), usually connected by an intervening band (zone or girdle). Cell contents include yellowish or brownish chlorophyll-like bodies which occur in one or several bands (placcochromatic), or as variously distributed granular masses (coccochromatic) lining the inner walls. Growth by ordinary cell division or by auxospores; sexual multiplication by the formation of sporangia. Valves of two kinds: (a) Those in which the markings or parts are more or less concentric (Centricæ); (b) Those (Pennatæ) in which the parts are more or less symmetrically divided by a line (pseudoraphe) or by a cleft (raphe).


CENTRICÆ

Valves without a dividing line or cleft; markings more or less radiate; transverse section of frustule circular, polygonal, or elliptical, sometimes irregular.

Divided into four groups:

1. Discoideæ.—Frustules (cells) discoid; valves without horns or elevations (sometimes with processes).

2. Solenoideæ.—Frustules with numerous girdle bands.

3. Biddulphioideæ.—Frustules box-like, i. e., with the longitudinal axis greater than in the Discoideæ. Valves with two or more angles, elevations or horns.

4. Rutilarioideæ.—Valves as if naviculoid, but with irregular or radial structure.

Groups 2 and 4 are not included in our description. No. 2 contains plankton genera only, while No. 4 consists of genera not yet found in this locality.


DISCOIDEÆ

1. Coscinodisceæ.—Valve not divided by rays or costæ into sectors; puncta sometimes radiate; ocelli or processes absent.

2. Actinodisceæ.—Valve with radial striæ divided into sectors: ocelli and processes absent.

3. Eupodisceæ.—Valve disc-shaped with mammiform processes or one or more ocelli.


1. COSCINODISCEÆ

(a) Meloseirinæ.—Frustules short, in chains.

(b) Coscinodiscinæ.—Frustules disc form, usually single, rarely in short chains.


(a) MELOSEIRINÆ

1. Meloseira.—Valve punctate, with a constriction or furrow between edge of valve and girdle.

2. Gaillonella.—Valve punctate, with a circular collar or crest near edge of valve.

3. Lysigonium.—Valve punctate, neither keeled nor constricted.

4. Hyalodiscus.—Valve punctate in the centre; border with decussating radial lines.

5. Stephanopyxis.—Border of valve with a crown of thorns; valve areolate.

6. Pyxidicula.—Valve areolate, with a border of spines.


Meloseira Ag. (1824), em. De Toni (1892)

(melos, a limb or member, and seira, a chain)

Frustules globose, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, concatenate, closely joined together. Valve either simply punctate or punctate and areolate. A constriction of the cell-wall, forming a furrow between the edge of the valve and the girdle, is more or less evident.

The genus Meloseira constituted by Agardh has been variously modified by Kuetzing, Thwaites, Wm. Smith, Van Heurck, De Toni, and others. In Systema Algarum Agardh included certain species of Conferva, of Lyngbye, Dillwyn and others, and limited his genus to frustules more or less globose (fila articulata ad genicula constricta), although in his Conspectus Criticus (p. 64), he modifies the description (fila teretia articulata, articulis diametro æqualibus vel longioribus) to include M. varians. As, however, Lysigonium Link, Gaillonella Bory, and other genera enlarged by Ehrenberg and Kuetzing, came to be included under Meloseira, Thwaites suggested the division of the genus into two: Orthosira, in which the frustules are not convex at the ends and Aulacosira in which no central line is apparent but with two distinct sulci. Wm. Smith adopts the genus Orthosira but rejects Aulacosira, including all forms under the former genus and Meloseira, suggesting that differences "exist in the formation of the sporangia" of the two genera. M. varians and M. crenulata appear to form auxospores or sporangial frustules in different ways, as will be noticed hereafter.

As, however, the present state of our knowledge is so limited and as much confusion would result in further changing the nomenclature, I shall adopt, for the most part, the division made by De Toni, separating Gaillonella and Lysigonium and employing the name Meloseira as emendated in Sylloge Algarum, although, as stated, it omits the species of Agardh. That a further division may be necessary is indicated by the differences existing between the Orthosira forms and the others.


ANALYSIS OF SPECIES


Frustules cylindrical and lengthened:
Valves with two distinct furrows; granules small distans
Valves with coarse granules granulata
Valves denticulate on the margin crenulata
Valves denticulate and constricted roeseana
Valves with row of large puncta on the girdle side undulata
Frustules cylindrical and compressed:
Valves punctate and areolate sulcata


The chromatophores consist of circular and compressed or irregular flat granules which lie along the wall of the cell.


MELOSEIRA DISTANS (EHR.) KUETZ.

Frustules cylindrical, slender, with two furrows, one on each side of the suture; valve in zone view with fine puncta in longitudinal rows; puncta in valve view scattered. L. 7-10 µ.

Meloseira nivalis Wm. Sm.

Coscinodiscus minor Wm. Sm.

Fresh water. Fossil in New England deposits.

Pl. 1, Figs. 8 and 9.

Note.—In all species of Meloseira, as well as Gaillonella and Lysigonium, the frustules are so closely coherent that when the filaments are broken entire frustules are less frequently found than a union of two valves of contiguous frustules.


MELOSEIRA GRANULATA (EHR.) RALFS

Frustules cylindrical, robust, 5-18 µ in diam., with large granules in longitudinal, sometimes spiral, lines, variable in size and arrangement in the same filament. Valve in valve view with scattered puncta. Variable in relative width and length, passing to M. crenulata.

Gaillonella granulata Ehr.

Orthosira punctata Wm. Sm.

Fresh water. Fossil at Coldspring, L. I.

Pl. 1, Fig. 10.


MELOSEIRA CRENULATA (EHR.) KUETZ.

Frustules cylindrical, with furrows on each side of the suture, 10-20 µ in diam.; puncta in longitudinal rows. Margins of valves denticulate at the junction of the frustules; valves with puncta scattered at the centre, radiate at the circumference.

Common in fresh water; quite variable in size.

Gaillonella crenulata Ehr.

Orthosira orichalcea Wm. Sm. in part; not Conferva orichalcea. Mertens or Gaillonella aurichalcea Ehr. and Bailey.

Pl. 1, Figs. 1 and 2.


MELOSEIRA ROESEANA RAB.

Frustules cylindrical, constricted toward each end, with coarse, longitudinal striæ; valve convex, striæ punctate, radiating, with several large granules at the centre. Connective zone with longitudinal rows of fine puncta. Diam. 12-45 µ.

Orthosira spinosa Grev.

Fresh water. Media, Pa. (Palmer); not common.

Pl. 1, Figs. 5 and 6.


MELOSEIRA ROESEANA VAR. EPIDENDRON (EHR.) GRUN.

Frustules denticulate at the margin; valve with coarse granules at the centre from which radiate lines of fine puncta.

Wet rocks of the Wissahickon.

Pl. 1, Figs. 3 and 4.


MELOSEIRA UNDULATA (EHR.) KUETZ.

Frustules single or in twos, usually broader than long, constricted near the margin. Valve with six to twelve internal projections forming with the outline of the constriction of the valve a polygonal figure within the circumference. Surface of the valve with radiating lines of puncta disappearing toward the centre, at which are numerous coarse puncta.

Meloseira gowenii A. Schmidt.

Blue clay of Philadelphia, especially common at Twelfth and Market Sts.

Pl. 1, Figs. 15, 16, 17.


MELOSEIRA SULCATA KUETZ.

Frustules quite robust, with diam. several times the length, deeply furrowed at the margin, areolate and punctate. Valve with radiating striæ disappearing toward the centre, and with a double row of cells near the margin, the outer one having the appearance of a crown of teeth.

Gaillonella sulcata Ehr.

Paralia sulcata (Ehr.) Cleve.

Paralia marina Heib.

Marine and brackish. Common in all parts of the world, and fossil in the Miocene. The Philadelphia form is the var. genuina Grun.

Pl. 1, Figs. 11 and 12.

In a gathering from Media of Meloseira crenulata (Palmer leg.), occasional filaments are noticed with much longer and narrower frustules which become enlarged in the middle and are seen to contain inner frustules in the process of still further division, as shown in Fig. 2, Pl. 38.

Meloseira dickei Thwaites shows internal box-like cells placed one within the other, which were supposed by Thwaites to be a method of reproduction. Wm. Smith doubts this, but is unable to offer any explanation. In the present form the mode of reduplication is that usually found in filamentous forms, but in this case the presence of perfect frustules enclosing others in the process of still further division has been heretofore unfamiliar to me. The swelling in the middle appears to indicate that not all filamentous diatoms are reduced in size by subdivision. In outline the valve is like that of a "truncated cone," as described by Petit in referring to Gaillonella granulata var. bambusina Petit (Diat. Nouv. et Rares, Jour. de Micrographie, 1890).


Gaillonella Bory de St. Vincent (1823)

(named after Gaillon, a botanist of Dieppe)

Frustules ellipsoidal, united in long filaments, usually found in pairs; each valve is furnished with a circular collar or crest extending at right angles to the convex edge. Valve hyaline at the centre from near which radiate lines of fine puncta, 18-20 in 10 µ.

Note.—The original names of both Meloseira and Gaillonella are retained, as there is no good reason for contracting the Greek diphthong in the first, and the second is the correct spelling.


GAILLONELLA NUMMULOIDES (DILLW.) BORY

Frustules as in the generic diagnosis. Diam. 30 µ.

Conferva nummuloides Dillwyn (Brit. Confervæ, p. 45, Sup. Pl. B).

Meloseira nummuloides Ag.

Heiberg and O'Meara assign this species to Lysigonium moniliforme (Muell.) Link, which is not keeled. While Dillwyn's and Lyngbye's figures do not show the keel, it is probable from their descriptions that the angular outline produced by the keel was noticed.

Marine or brackish. Coast of New Jersey; Hudson River (Bail.).

Pl. 1, Figs. 13 and 14.

Gaillonella moniliformis of Bailey is this form, as he describes it as having "two minute projections of the delicate transverse ridges seen near the ends of the two globules belonging to a joint." (Amer. Jour. Science, 1842, p. 89, Pl. 2, Fig. 3.)


Lysigonium Link (1820)

(luo, to loose, and gonu, a joint)

Frustules globose, concatenate; valve simply punctate.


LYSIGONIUM MONILIFORME (MUELL.) LINK

Frustules usually in twos, not keeled; valve with puncta in longitudinal lines, the puncta of the enveloping zone larger and in transverse rows. L. 25-40 µ (De Toni).

Conferva moniliformis Mueller (1783).

Conferva nummuloides Eng. Bot. pl., 2287, not Dillwyn.

Meloseira borreri Grev.

Lysigonium nummuloides (Lyngb., Kuetz.) O'Meara = Gaillonella nummuloides (Dillw.) Bory. See O'Meara, p. 248.

Marine and brackish. Long Island Sound and coast of New Jersey.

Pl. 1, Fig. 7.


LYSIGONIUM VARIANS (AG.) DE TONI

Frustules cylindrical, in long filaments, slightly constricted on each side of the suture; puncta in oblique rows in zone view. Valves 15-35 µ in diam. (De Toni), sub-plane, with fine puncta in lines radiating from the centre. Under medium magnification the frustules appear smooth. Very variable in size.

Meloseira varians Ag.

Fresh water. Common in ditches and springs.

Pl. 1, Figs. 18 and 19.


Hyalodiscus Ehr. (1845)

(hyalos, transparent, and discus, a disc)

Frustules spheroidal; valve with a flattened, irregularly punctate umbilicus from which proceed radiating or decussating lines of fine puncta.


ANALYSIS OF SPECIES


Valves divided into sectors stelliger
Valves not divided but interrupted by short dark lines at intervals radiatus
Valves with very fine puncta scoticus


HYALODISCUS STELLIGER BAIL.

Valve with puncta in oblique decussating rows which, by reason of the difference in obliquity, form numerous sectors. Umbilicus irregular, with scattered, coarse puncta. Margin wide, striated.

Podosira maculata Wm. Sm.

Blue clay. Not common.

Pl. 1, Fig. 22.


HYALODISCUS RADIATUS VAR. ARCTICA GRUN.

Valve with radiating puncta from a rather small umbilicus, the rays interspersed with short, dark lines, having the appearance of spines, at irregular intervals. Margin broad, striated.

Pyxidicula radiata O'Meara.

The Philadelphia form corresponds exactly to Grunow's variety which has closer puncta than the type form.

Blue clay. Rather rare.

Pl. 1, Fig. 21.


HYALODISCUS SCOTICUS (KUETZ.) GRUN.

Valve small, with puncta about 24 in 10 µ, appearing hyaline.

De Toni remarks that it resembles a small form of H. subtilis which occurs north and south of our limits and is yet likely to be recorded.

Cyclotella scotica Kuetz.

Podosira hormoides Wm. Sm.

Blue clay. Not rare.

Pl. 1, Fig. 20.

Endochrome in the form of four flaps or patches bound together about a common pyrenoid. In H. subtilis numerous rod-shaped chromatophores lie in a row and are not bound in the centre (Mereschkowsky).


Stephanopyxis Ehr. (1844) em. Grun. (1884)

(stephanos, a crown, and pyxis, a kind of vase or box)

Frustules ellipsoidal, concatenate; valves tumid, of unequal convexity, coarsely areolate, the cells in rows parallel to the longitudinal axis, not radiate, with stray spines or teeth placed concentrically more or less near the margin.

According to Karsten the chromatophores are round or angular discs which lie near the connective zone.


STEPHANOPYXIS TURRIS (GREV.) RALFS

Valve cylindrical, with a crown of stout spines less than the diameter of the valve near the margin. Cells hexagonal, about 2 in 10 µ, sometimes punctate. The valve having the greater convexity has the larger spines, though usually less of them.

Creswellia turris Grev. (Gregory, Diat. of the Clyde, T. R. S. E., vol. 21, part 4, p. 66.)

Stephanopyxis appendiculata Ehr.?

Creswellia is incorrectly based, as stated by Ralfs, on the concatenation of the valves which was not noticed by Ehrenberg in the fossil forms. It had been suggested by Kuetzing in Systema Algarum (p. 126).

Blue clay. Port Penn and Smith's Island.

Pl. 2, Figs. 1 and 2.


STEPHANOPYXIS CORONA (EHR.) GRUN.

Valve larger than in turris, sub-globose, coarsely areolate cells, 4-5 in 10 µ. One valve furnished with a crown of teeth shaped like the letter T and united at the top into a ring above the margin of the valve; the other valve with long spines more or less concentrically arranged.

Blue clay. Not common. Fossil in the Nottingham deposit.

Pl. 2, Fig. 3.

Note.—The diatomaceous deposit, so often called "Bermuda" or "Bermuda tripoli," especially by foreign writers, is in reality the Miocene stratum extending for miles along the Patuxent River near the village of Nottingham, Md. The author is perfectly familiar with the location, having made large collections there. The mistake in the name is due to the fact that Prof. Bailey received material from Mr. Tuomey marked "Bermuda Hundred," which is located near Petersburg, Va. Attempts have been made to find material there and while there is an earth containing Miocene diatoms at Petersburg, it does not exactly correspond to the material sent to Ehrenberg by Bailey, who was in doubt as to the locality. The Bermuda Islands are of coral formation and have no deposits of diatomaceous earth.


Pyxidicula Ehr. (1833)

(dim. of pyxis, a box)

Frustules globular, solitary or in short fasciæ. Valve more or less hemispherical, areolate, destitute of spines.


PYXIDICULA CRUCIATA EHR.

Valve hemispherical, with large, hexagonal cells. An inner stratum is finely punctate.

Blue clay. Walnut St. Bridge. Rare.

Pl. 38, Fig. 8.

This form is not usually described as having punctate areolæ, but it does not apparently differ from other forms of Pyxidicula of Ehrenberg as described by Kuetzing (Species Algarum, pp. 21-23), including P. areolata. In fact, it differs from Stephanopyxis, which is also sometimes punctate, only in the absence of spines. In fossil deposits the absence of an easily detached stratum is not significant. The difference, except in size, between it and P. mediterranea Grun. (V. H. S., Pl. 95, Figs. 15 and 16), I am unable to determine.

Although many species of Meloseira are fresh-water, the habitat of the group Meloseirinæ is, in general, marine. It more nearly coincides in structure and development with other algæ not diatomaceous, the siliceous envelope constituting its most distinctive feature. As we proceed in the classification, the structure both of the frustule and contents becomes more complicated.


(b) COSCINODISCINÆ

1. Cyclotella.—Valve with two concentric divisions of different structure, one a wide border and the other a central surface.

2. Coscinodiscus.—Valve areolate or punctate, with a narrow border of the same structure.


Cyclotella Kuetz. (1833)

(cyclos, a circle)

Frustules single or geminate, cylindrical, short, in zone view rectangular or with undulating sides. Valve usually with smooth or punctate striæ, centre sometimes bullose, smooth, or with granules scattered or radiating.

Chromatophores numerous along the valves (Pfitzer).


CYCLOTELLA STRIATA (KUETZ.) GRUN.

Valve 30-80 µ in diam., with coarse striæ, 7-12 in 10 µ, centre coarsely punctate and bullose.

Coscinodiscus striatus Kuetz.

Cyclotella dallasiana Wm. Sm.

Common in the blue clay.

Pl. 2, Fig. 9.


CYCLOTELLA MENEGHINIANA KUETZ.

Frustule in zone view rectangular, undulated; valve, 10-20 µ in diam., marginal striæ robust and transversely punctate, centre radiately punctate.

Cyclotella kuetzingiana Wm. Sm. (not Thwaites).

Crum Creek.

Pl. 2, Fig. 8.


CYCLOTELLA MENEGHINIANA, VAR. STELLIGERA CL. AND GRUN.

Differs from the type in the coarse radiating lines at the centre.

Broomall Lake, Media.

Pl. 2, Fig. 4.


CYCLOTELLA MENEGHINIANA, VAR. STELLULIFERA CL. AND GRUN.

As in type but with the central rays granulate.

Broomall Lake, Media.

Pl. 2, Fig. 12.


CYCLOTELLA STYLORUM (BR.?) V. H.

Margin striated, the alternate striæ thickened near the border, producing an appearance of subquadrate cells. Centre faintly granulate, the outer border of which is encircled by 10-12 puncta, each of which is surrounded by a small hyaline space.

Blue clay. Rare.

Van Heurck gives this form doubtfully as a variety of striata, while De Toni makes it synonymous with it. Van Heurck's figure is not that of Brightwell, but as the specimen above described is, I believe, exactly the same as Van Heurck's, I retain his name.

Pl. 2, Fig. 10.


CYCLOTELLA COMTA (EHR.) KUETZ.

Valve with marginal striæ well marked, each third or fourth costa more robust than the others. Central part finely striated, the striæ punctate, radiating.

Fresh water.

Pl. 2, Fig. 7.

The form here figured is probably the variety radiosa Grun. and is from a New England specimen. It is quite likely to occur in this locality.


CYCLOTELLA OPERCULATA (AG.) KUETZ.

Frustules in zone view undulated. Angles rounded. Marginal costæ alternating with minute spines; centre nearly smooth, depressed, convex or flexuose.

Fresh water.

Pl. 2, Figs. 5 and 6.

The figure is drawn from a specimen from Boston, Mass., H. L. Smith Type Slide No. 107, marked equivalent to C. minutula Wm. Sm.


CYCLOTELLA ANTIQUA WM. SM.

Marginal costæ alternating with thick puncta; centre finely granulate with subtriangular elevations. Frustules in zone view rectangular.

Blue clay.

Pl. 2, Fig. 11.

The form corresponds to the original specimens of Wm. Smith in the deposit of Stavenger, Norway.

The genus Cyclotella comprises about seventy specific names, many of which may be referred to other genera, while some of Ehrenberg's are incapable of verification on account of the small size of the figures and the lack of sufficient description. About half of the forms are marine. The fresh-water species are usually found living in more or less stagnant water or in pools contaminated with drainage, being an exception to the general rule that diatoms are more abundant in water free from deleterious matter.


Coscinodiscus Ehr. (1838)

(coscinon, a sieve, and discus)

Frustules solitary, cylindrical, compressed; valve circular or elliptical; surface flat or sometimes convex near the border; markings more or less angular, radiating, sometimes fasciculate; border usually well defined. Central space, if present, hyaline, sometimes surrounded with a rosette of large cells.

Chromatophores round, angular or irregular discs usually without pyrenoids (Karsten).

Rattray's classification is here followed, so far as it refers to our species.

Excentrici.—Valves circular; central space absent; markings angular, in oblique, decussating rows.

Lineati.—Central space absent; markings angular, oblique decussating rows straight.

Fasciculati.—Markings fasciculate, or sometimes only near the border.

Radiati.—Markings rounded or angular, more or less radiate.

Elaborati.—Valves elliptical, markings rounded.


EXCENTRICI

COSCINODISCUS EXCENTRICUS EHR.

Valve with a hyaline excentric space from which proceed, usually in six directions, rows of polygonal markings decreasing toward the narrow, coarsely striated border, the rows appearing convex toward the centre. Apiculi at unequal distances apart. Quite variable in size.

Common in the blue clay and along the coast.

Pl. 2, Figs. 14 and 20.

Fig. 20 is probably var. perpusilla Grun. (Diat. Fr. Jos. L., Pl. 4 (D), Fig. 7).


LINEATI

COSCINODISCUS LINEATUS EHR.

Valve circular, markings hexagonal, cells in parallel rows. Border narrow, cellular.

Blue clay and Atlantic coast. Not common.

Pl. 3, Fig. 8.


FASCICULATI

COSCINODISCUS NITIDUS GREG.

Valve flat, markings rounded, distant, radiate, decreasing toward the border which is coarsely striate. Quite variable in size and in the distance between the markings.

Blue clay and Atlantic coast. Common.

Pl. 2, Fig. 18.


COSCINODISCUS NITIDULUS GRUN.

Valve usually not quite circular; markings smaller than in nitidus and fasciculate near the border.

Blue clay.

Pl. 2, Fig. 19.

Various intermediate forms between nitidus and nitidulus occur.


COSCINODISCUS SUBTILIS EHR.

Markings polygonal, irregular at the centre, but forming numerous fasciculi radiating toward the border, the rows parallel to the central row of each fasciculus. Border narrow with fine striæ; apiculi often present between the fasciculi.

Blue clay and along the coast. Very common in the water supply of Philadelphia and Camden, where the diameter seldom exceeds 40 µ and the markings on the semi-radius are 10 in 10 µ.

Pl. 2, Fig. 17.


COSCINODISCUS DENARIUS SCHMIDT

Markings larger than in C. subtilis, equal, forming usually ten fasciculi, each beginning near the semi-radius and containing ten parallel rows of granules.

Common in the blue clay and sparingly along the coast.

Pl. 2, Fig. 13.

Forms are found intermediate between C. subtilis and C. denarius, as shown in Fig. 15.


COSCINODISCUS POLYACANTHUS GRUN.

Markings angular, 10 in 10 µ, decreasing toward the border, fasciculate. Apiculi large, twelve or more, usually inserted at the middle of each fasciculus, and extending into the interior of the cell. The apiculi in outline resemble the heads of horse-shoe nails, and are seen with difficulty except when the valve is examined from the inner side. Border narrow, striated. Diam. 70 µ.

Pensauken, N. J., artesian well.

Pl. 38, Fig. 5.

Rattray's description of C. polyacanthus var. intermedia Grun., from Cape Wankarema, Siberia, gives the diam. as 60 µ, and there are about 7 markings by actual count in 10 µ in Grunow's figure (Diat. Fr. Jos. Land, Pl. 3 (C), Fig. 25). The apiculi are more numerous, but there appears to be little doubt of the general similarity. The Philadelphia form is abundant in the Pensauken well deposit at a depth of 33 ft. The apiculi become quite distinct in slides stained with silver nitrate by Mr. F. J. Keeley; they are distinct from small apiculi sometimes evident between the fasciculi. The specimens in the Pensauken deposit are mingled with other forms which cannot be distinguished from C. subtilis. Whether the two are identical, I am unable to determine. Rattray (Rev. Cos., p. 47) refers to H. L. Smith's Type Slide No. 100, from rice-field mud, Savannah, Ga., as C. subtilis. In Smith's slide, in my possession, a number of the forms show faint outlines of the large apiculi and are otherwise exactly like C. polyacanthus.


RADIATI

COSCINODISCUS VELATUS EHR.

Markings angular, decreasing slightly toward the coarsely striated border, covered with fine puncta.

Blue clay.

Pl. 3, Fig. 2.


COSCINODISCUS MARGINATUS EHR.

Markings rounded, large, decreasing toward the broad border, which is coarsely marked with distant striæ. The cells are punctate.

Common in the blue clay.

Pl. 3, Fig. 9.

In the fossil forms the puncta are not evident, hence the species is usually described as not punctate.


COSCINODISCUS RADIATUS EHR.

Markings polygonal, slightly decreasing toward the border where they are much smaller; border well marked, striate. Quite variable in size.

Common in the blue clay and along the coast.

Pl. 3, Fig. 11. Fig. 1 is probably a smaller form.


COSCINODISCUS SUBAULACODISCOIDALIS RATTR.

Markings small, decreasing toward the border in somewhat fasciculate rows. About one-third the distance from the border are five (Rattray finds six) well-marked apiculi somewhat resembling those of Aulacodiscus. Border narrow, hyaline.

Rare in the lower stratum of the blue clay.

Pl. 3, Fig. 4.


COSCINODISCUS ARGUS EHR.

Markings angular with central dots, increasing from the centre toward the border, where they are smaller.

Blue clay.

Pl. 3, Fig. 7 (a small form).


COSCINODISCUS BIANGULATUS SCHMIDT

Central space and rosette absent, markings large, angular, not punctate, with large central papillæ, decreasing toward the border. Border wide, coarsely marked with rows of granules, and with two indentations on the inner side distant from each other about two-thirds of the diameter.

Blue clay.

Pl. 3, Fig. 3.

Distinguished from Coscinodiscus asteromphalus var. omphalantha Grun., which also has two constrictions, by the absence of punctate markings.


COSCINODISCUS ASTEROMPHALUS EHR.

Central space small, surrounded by a rosette of large polygonal cells from which radiate hexagonal cells, increasing about half way toward the border and then slightly decreasing. Cells punctate.

Blue clay.

Pl. 2, Fig. 16; Pl. 40, Fig. 12.


COSCINODISCUS ASTEROMPHALUS VAR. OMPHALANTHA (EHR.) GRUN.

Central space absent, rosette evident. Markings 2½ in 10 µ, somewhat smaller near the rosette and decreasing near the border, which is constricted in two places, as in C. biangulatus.

Blue clay.

Pl. 38, Fig. 10.


COSCINODISCUS OCULUS-IRIDIS EHR.

Central space and rosette distinct; markings polygonal, not punctate, with large papillæ, smaller near the rosette, increasing toward the semi-radius, and then decreasing to the striated border which is comparatively narrow.

Blue clay and Atlantic coast.

Pl. 3, Fig. 10.


ELABORATI

COSCINODISCUS LEWISIANUS GREV.

Valves elliptical, major axis a little more than twice the minor. From a point, usually near one side, radiate rows of granules in lines nearly parallel to the major axis. Border broad, with distinct striæ.

Great Sedge Island, N. J. (artesian well), and in outcrops later than the Miocene, where it is usually found.

Pl. 3, Fig. 5.


2. ACTINODISCEÆ

ACTINOPTYCHINÆ

Valves divided into sectors alternately elevated and depressed.

(1) Actinoptychus.—Sectors plane.

(2) Polymyxus.—Sectors convex.


Actinoptychus Ehr. (1839) em. V. H. (1890)

(actis, a ray, and ptyx, a fold)

Frustule cylindrical, less in length than the diameter, in zone view undulated. Valve divided into six or more sectors alternately raised and depressed, areolate and punctate, varying in the alternate divisions. The areolation is confined to the outer layer of the valve while the punctation is usually on an inner valve often found detached. Processes on the border, three or more. Umbilicus circular or angular, hyaline.


ANALYSIS OF SPECIES


Sectors, six undulatus
Sectors, eight or more, cellular heliopelta
Sectors, fourteen, punctate vulgaris


ACTINOPTYCHUS UNDULATUS (KUETZ.) RALFS

Valve areolate and punctate in quincunx, divided into six equal sectors, alternately elevated or depressed, their areolations appearing different. Margin well defined. Umbilicus smooth, hexagonal. Processes three, sometimes six, inserted within the margin of each alternate division. Very variable in size and appearance.

This is the Actinocyclus of Bailey, figured and described in Amer. Jour. Science, 1842, p. 93, Pl. 2, Fig. 11, but not named. Kuetzing describes and names it and refers to Bailey.

Actinoptychus omphalopelta Ehr.

Actinoptychus cellulosa Ehr., H. L. Smith Sp. Typ., 384.

Quite common in marine and brackish water and in the blue clay.

Pl. 4, Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 6.


ACTINOPTYCHUS VULGARIS VAR. INTERRUPTA N. VAR.

Valve with fourteen sectors, the alternate ones divided by a smooth lanceolate space for about one-half the radius, forming with the smooth, circular umbilicus a seven pointed star. The sectors thus divided have coarser puncta in quincunx than the other sectors, ending in a smooth area near the margin, and also larger black puncta scattered from the centre to the semi-radius.

Near A. vulgaris var. neogradensis Pant.

Blue clay. Not common.

Pl. 4, Fig. 5.


ACTINOPTYCHUS HELIOPELTA GRUN. VAR.?

Valve circular, sectors, eight, umbilicus circular, without rays; border wide, cellular, with distinct rays. Inserted at a distance within the inner edge of the border are large processes, one on each of four alternate sectors, and two on each of the others. The sectors are cellulate and punctate.

Near A. heliopelta var. versicolor Brun., which, however, in the specimen in my collection from Atlantic City (artesian well), has a greater number of processes and they are situated on the edge of the border.

Outcrop at Buckshutem, N. J. Rare.

Pl. 4, Fig. 3.

It has been quite well determined, I think, that the typical forms of A. heliopelta occur at the base of the Miocene. At Rock Hall, Md., on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, at a depth of from 21 to 130 ft., and at Wildwood, N. J., at a depth of from 78 to 179 ft., diatomaceous beds occur considered by Mr. Lewis Woolman (Geol. Surv. of N. J., 1898, pp. 116-121) "as synchronous in age," the former being deposited in the Delaware River Delta and the latter in the Chesapeake in post-miocene times. In each of these beds a small form of A. heliopelta is rarely found. The material at Buckshutem is post-miocene, and the form here figured shows a marked variation from the Miocene species and a gradual approach toward A. undulatus.


Polymyxus L. W. Bail. (1855)


Valve circular, usually divided into fourteen sectors which are on the same plane at the centre, but the alternate ones are elevated into mammillated projections terminated by small processes on the margin. Zone view rectangular with undulations subconical, terminated by the processes.


POLYMYXUS CORONALIS L. W. BAIL.

Central space hyaline, rounded or slightly stellate, from which radiate rows of fine puncta in quincunx, shown in the figure only on the alternate elevations, the depressed interspaces being out of focus. The mammillæ are stated by Bailey to vary from six to ten.

Very rare in the blue clay (Walnut St. Bridge). Occurs also in the Wildwood deposit (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 1895, p. 261).

Pl. 4, Fig. 7, and Pl. 5, Fig. 2.


3. EUPODISCEÆ

Aulacodiscinæ.—Valves with mammiform elevations near the border surmounted by nipple-like processes.


AULACODISCUS—THE ONLY GENUS AS ABOVE

Eupodiscinæ.—Valves with ocelli.

(1) Actinocyclus.—Valve with one small ocellus; striæ radial.

(2) Eupodiscus.—Valve with one or more ocelli; striæ not radial.

(3) Auliscus.—Valve with large, elevated ocelli. Central area hyaline. Markings granular and costate.

(4) Pseudauliscus.—Valve with radiating granules. No central space.


Aulacodiscus Ehr. (1844) em. Rattr. (1888)

(aulax, a furrow, and discus)

Valve usually circular, plane or with an elevated zone, frequently inflated beneath the processes; central space irregular or rounded, sometimes absent; markings granular, radial, sometimes in a reticulum.

The genus comprises more than one hundred species most of which are fossil, and is represented in this locality by a single form, A. argus, included by Rattray in his section "Retiformes," distinguished by the presence of a reticulum.


AULACODISCUS ARGUS (EHR.) SCHMIDT

Frustule in zone view elliptical. Valve circular, 125-190 µ in diam., closely covered with two kinds of markings, one, a mesh of large, radiating, angular cells, the outer plate, and the other, radiating rows of circular granules with hyaline spaces intervening and closer near the border, forming the inner plate which can occasionally be seen detached. Central space absent. The walls of the angular cells are crossed with fine lines and are probably composed of granules compressed so closely as to produce partial opacity, the depth of which depends in a measure not only on the superposition of the two plates, but on the relative closeness and thickness of the cell-walls. In a fully-developed specimen the effect is to produce more or less triangular cells containing three or four granules. In some cases the opacity is so great as to render detail invisible.

In the figure the valve is supposed to be divided into three sectors, illustrating at "a" the lower plate, at "c" the combination of the upper and lower plates, and in the other sector the cellular mesh of the upper plate. Processes, usually three, quite robust and inserted at from one-fourth to one-fifth the length of the radius from the border which is striated on the inner side. A form with four processes is found in the lower blue clay.

Tripodiscus argus Ehr.

Eupodiscus argus (Ehr.) Wm. Sm.

Not uncommon in the blue clay.

Pl. 4, Fig. 8.


Actinocyclus Ehr. (1837)

(actis, a ray, and cyclos)

Valve circular or elliptical; surface flat at the centre, sloping toward the border. Central space usually evident, rounded or irregular. Markings rounded, granular, punctiform, in radial, or nearly radial, rows, sometimes fasciculate. A nodule, more or less evident, is found near the border which is usually striate.

Chromatophores round discs or granules.


ANALYSIS OF SPECIES


Valve circular, rows radial, hyaline lines at the border barkleyi
Valve circular, rows fasciculate moniliformis
Valve elliptical ellipticus


The nodule is generally supposed to be a thickening of the cell-wall, and, in the opinion of Rattray, a projection outward, but "whether there may not be at the same time a slight inward protuberance is difficult to determine," though, as a rule, he seems to "think there is not."


ACTINOCYCLUS BARKLEYI VAR. AGGREGATA RATTR.

Surface flat from centre to semi-radius. Central space irregular, sometimes with a few scattered granules. Markings round with central dots distinct, about 7 at the centre, decreasing in straight radial rows to 12 in 10 µ at the border, where they form moniliform striæ. Border narrow with striæ about 16 in 10 µ. Hyaline interspaces at the origin of the shorter rows, but not at equal intervals. At the border, linear hyaline spaces occur at somewhat irregular intervals between the moniliform striæ owing to the termination of certain radial rows before they reach the circumference. Nodule small, from one-seventh to one-fourth the radius from the border.

According to Rattray the distinction between A. ralfsii and A. barkleyi is partly in the absence of the zone arrangement of the hyaline spaces in the latter, and to the slight differences in the number of granules. The variety aggregata differs from the type form of barkleyi mainly in the distance of the nodule from the border. I have specimens from the blue clay material at Walnut St. Bridge, and from Smith's Island, in which the distance from the border in one case is, as stated above, quite different from that in the other. In specimens from Morris Cove, Conn., the locality referred to by Rattray, variations occur.

Blue clay.

Pl. 6, Fig. 1.

In the figure the subulate hyaline spaces at the border are, in some instances, wider than usual.


ACTINOCYCLUS MONILIFORMIS RALFS

Surface flat, from centre to about five-sixths of the radius. Central space rounded, with one or more granules. Markings, 8 in 10 µ, round, in radial rows, fasciculate, the oblique transverse rows irregular, very slightly decreasing until near the edge of the flattened zone, and then suddenly decreasing and appearing as decussating lines oblique to the border. Apiculi distinct, interfasciculate within the border. Nodule quite evident, surrounded by a rather wide irregular hyaline space on the margin of the flattened zone in the middle of the fasciculus. Border wide, with striæ about 20 in 10 µ.

Blue clay. Port Penn. Not common.

Pl. 6, Fig. 2.

Equivalent to Actinocyclus ehrenbergii, H. L. S. Type Slide 10.

In a valve from Port Penn, Delaware Bay, two nodules occur nearly opposite each other.


ACTINOCYCLUS ELLIPTICUS VAR. DELAWARENSIS N. VAR.

Valve rhombic-elliptical. Markings somewhat angular, 6 in 10 µ at the centre where they are sub-concentric, thence decreasing in lines radiating more or less toward the border, where they suddenly become punctiform, striæ about 20 in 10 µ. Border equal to one-fifth the radius. A nodule is found on the inner side of the border. Apiculi apparently absent.

The markings are larger than in the Richmond forms which are associated by Rattray with Actinocyclus ellipticus Grun. The form corresponds closely to Witt's Cestodiscus ovalis var.? (Witt, Polierschief. von Archangelsk-Kurojedowo, Pl. 8, Fig. 2), except as to the border. It does not answer to Van Heurck's figure or any other.

Blue clay. Very rare.

Pl. 3, Fig. 6.


Eupodiscus Ehr. (1844)

(eu, well, pous, a foot, and discus)

Valve circular, 45-117 µ in diam. (De Toni). Central space absent, surface plane with angular cells. At the border short, circular processes or ocelli.


EUPODISCUS RADIATUS BAIL.

Valve with radiating hexagonal cells, sometimes slightly curved toward the large ocelli inserted near the border which are hyaline at the centre. Border wide, coarsely striate.

The number of ocelli heretofore recorded is four. Specimens with five processes are found in the artesian well at St. Augustine, Fla., and in material at Twelfth and Brandywine Sts. Mr. Hugo Bilgram has discovered valves with three and six ocelli.

Not common in the blue clay, but abundant along the southern coast of the Atlantic states and the Gulf of Mexico.

Not Eupodiscus radiatus Wm. Sm, which is Biddulphia smithii (Ralfs) V. H.

Pl. 5, Fig. 3.


Auliscus Ehr. (1843)

(aulax, a furrow, referring to the grooves in certain species, according to De Toni, but preferably from auliscos, a small reed, referring to the processes?)

Frustule cylindrical; zone with longitudinal rows of fine puncta. Valve circular or elliptical, plane except near the processes; central area hyaline, usually circular. Markings of two kinds, granules radiating or scattered and radiating, costate lines, prominent or indistinct. Processes, two or three, large, short, cylindrical, with hyaline surface, near the ends of the major axis in a line oblique to it.

Auliscus is divided by Rattray into fourteen sections, defined chiefly by the character and arrangement of the markings. About eighty species are described, but as many of the forms are fossil, occuring in the Miocene of California, Oamaru and elsewhere, and as so few species are found in this locality, I shall refer but briefly to this division.


Striolati.—No transverse median areas, striæ inconspicuous punctatus
Lineolati.—Markings distinct, pruinose, interrupted pruinosus
Costati.—Transverse median areas usually distinct, markings continuous, costate sculptus
cælatus


AULISCUS PUNCTATUS BAIL.

Valve broadly elliptical, or suborbicular, covered with delicate interrupted striæ radiating in sinuous lines to the circumference, more evident on the transverse median area; puncta 3 in 10 µ, grouped into a rounded area on each side of the median line, elsewhere scattered. Central space rounded, processes two, large, suborbicular.

Port Penn, Delaware River. Rare.

Pl. 5, Fig. 6.


AULISCUS PRUINOSUS BAIL.

Valve elliptical, with distinct, interrupted, pruinose, irregular markings diverging in curved lines toward the circumference in the median part and converging toward the processes, interspersed with numerous darker markings having the appearance of apiculi. Central space nearly circular, sometimes with several granules. Processes large near the ends of the major axis and not oblique to it, or scarcely so, the edges with a crenulate border.

Blue clay. Rather rare.

Pl. 5, Fig. 8.


AULISCUS SCULPTUS (WM. SM.) RALFS

Valve elliptical or subcircular, median areas distinct, rounded, circumscribed by coarse distant costæ radiating near the border where they are more evident, and converging toward the processes. Central space rounded, sometimes indefinite. Processes, two, circular.

Typical specimens show wide, coarse, distant costæ, but, in some cases, the median areas are indistinctly outlined.

Blue clay.

Pl. 5, Fig. 5.


AULISCUS CÆLATUS BAIL.

Valve elliptical or subcircular, with radiating costæ, more evident around the median areas and at the border, converging toward the processes, with intermediate punctate radiating lines. Central space rounded or irregular. Processes circular.

A. sculptus has coarser costæ and the interspaces are hyaline, or apparently so, while in A. cælatus the punctate striæ between the costæ are more evident.

Blue clay. Not uncommon.

Pl. 5, Fig. 4.

Fig. 7 is a small, indefinite form intermediate between A. sculptus and A. cælatus. The numerous variations in this genus make it difficult to satisfactorily differentiate the species. The size of the four above described varies from 40 to 150 µ.


Pseudauliscus A. S. (1875) and Leuduger-Fortmorel (1879)

Valve circular or subcircular, nearly flat or depressed at the centre. Central space not evident. Processes circular, with narrow border, near the circumference. Border narrow, striated. Markings granular, radiating, sometimes interspersed with striæ and apiculi.

Differs from Auliscus chiefly in the absence of a central space and costæ.


PSEUDAULISCUS RADIATUS (BAIL.) RATTR.

Valve circular, or nearly so, flat. Central area with scattered granules radiating and increasing in size outward in diverging rows toward the border which is coarsely striated. Processes, two, circular. Two small apiculi are inserted at about one-fifth the radius from the border near the ends of the minor axis.

Blue clay. Rare.

Pl. 5, Fig. 9.

The apiculi are not always figured. They appear in a number of specimens from the Miocene of Maryland, Atlantic City, Harvey Cedars and Newbern.


PSEUDAULISCUS SPINOSUS (CHRISTIAN) RATTR.

Valve subcircular or slightly quadrangular, depressed at the centre and rising to an elevated zone near the border, the two zones separated by a distinct line. The inner zone indistinctly reticulate with fine puncta radiating from the centre and apiculi at intervals. The outer zone with smaller apiculi surrounding the inner zone and with intermingled rows of fine puncta and interrupted diverging striæ. Near each end of the minor axis is a rather long, robust spine inserted at one-fourth the radius from the border which is narrow and striated. Processes circular, close to the circumference.

Auliscus spinosus Christian.

Blue clay. Rare.

Pl. 5, Fig. 10.

The genus is named by Schmidt, described by Leuduger-Fortmorel and emendated by Rattray.