Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography/A'ttica

I. Name.
II. Natural Divisions.
III. Rivers.
IV. Products.
V. Political Divisions.

A'TTICA (ή Άττική, sc. γή), one of the political divisions of Greece. I. Name. — The name of Attica is probably derived from Acle (άκτή), as being a projecting peninsula, in the same manner as the peninsula of Mt. Athos was also called Acte. [Acte.] Attica would thus be a corruption of Actica (Άκτική), which would be regularly formed from Acte, It is stated by several ancient writers that the country was originally called Acte. (Strab. ix. p. 391; Steph. B. s. v. άκτή; Plin. iv. 7. s. 11.) Its name, however, was usually derived by the ancient writers from the autochthon Actaeus or Actaeon, or from Atthis, daughter of Cranaus, who is represented as the second king of Athens. (Paus. i. 2. § 6; Strab. ix. p. 397; Apollod. iii. 14. § 5.) Some modern scholars think that Attica has nothing to do with the word Acte, but contains the root Att or Ath, which we see in Ath-enae.

II. Natural Divisions. — Attica is in the form of a triangle, having two of its sides washed by the sea, and its base united to the land. It was bounded on the east by the Aegaean sea, on the west by Megaris and the Saronic gulf, and on the north by Boeotia. It is separated from Boeotia by a range of lofty, and in most places inaccessible, mountains, which extend from the Corinthian gulf to the channel of Euboea. The most important part of this range, immediately south of Thebes and Plataeae, and near the Corinthian gulf, was called Cithaeron. From the latter there were two chief branches, one extending SW. through Megaris under the name of the Oenean mountains, and terminating at the Scironian rocks on the Saronic gulf; and the other, called Parnes, running in a general easterly direction, and terminating on the sea coast above the promontory Rhamnus. The modern name of Parnes is Nozia; that of Cithaeron, or at least of its highest point, is Elate derived from its fir-trees. These two chains of mountains, together with the central one of Cithaeron, completely protect the peninsnla of Attica from the rest of Greece, It thus appears that Megaris naturally forms a part of the peninsula: it was one of the four ancient divisions of Attica, but was afterwards separated from it. [Megaris.]

There are two passes across the mountains from Corinth into the Megaris, which are spoken of under Megaris. Through the range of Cithaeron and Parnes there are three principal passes, all of which were of great importance in ancient times for the protection of Attica on the side of Boeotia. The most westerly of these passes was the one through which the road ran from Thebes and Plataeae to Eleusis; the central one was the pass of Phyle, through which was the direct road from Thebes to Athens; and the eastern one was the pass of Deceleia, leading from Athens to Oropus and Delium. A more particular account of these important passes is given below. [See Nos. 43, 48, 61.] The highest points of Mt. Parnes lie between the passes of Phyle and Deceleia: one of the summits rises to the height of 4193 feet.

From this range of mountains there descend several other ranges into the interior, between which there lie four plains of greater or less extent.

On the NW. boundary of Attica a range of mountains runs down to the south, terminating on the west aide of the bay of Eleusis in two summits, formerly called Cerata (τά Κέρατα, Strab. ix. p.395) or the Horns now Kandili: this range forms the boundary between Attica and Megaris. Another mountain range, extending from Parnes to the south, terminates on the eastern side of the bay of Eleusis, and at the narrow strait which separates the island of Salamis from the mainland: it bore the general name of Aegaleos, and parts of it were also called Poecilum and Corydallus. [Aegaleos.] Between the range of Cerata and that of Aegaleos lies the Eleusinian and Thriasian Plain.

Eastward of this plain lies the Athenian Plain, frequently called simply The Plain (τό Πέδιον). It is bounded on the west by Aegaleos, as has been already mentioned. Through this range of mountains there is an important pass leading from the Eleusinian into the Athenian plain. It is a narrow rocky opening between Mt. Corydallus, and is now called the pass of Dhafni: through it the Sacred Way from Eleusis to Athens formerly ran. Further north, towards Acharnae, are some openings in the heights, where are found ruins of a rampart, seven feet high, and five feet and a half thick, built along the crest of the hills: the summit of the wall forms a commanding platform towards the Eleusinian plain. (Leake, p. 143.) On the west the Athenian plain is bounded by a range of mountains, which also descends from Parnes. The northern part of this range appears to have been anciently called Brilessus (Thuc. ii. 23), and subsequently Pentelicus (τό Πεντελικύν όρος, Paus. i. 32. § 1; Mons Pentelensis, Vitruv. ii. 8), now Mendeli or Penteli. The first Greek writer who applies the name of Pentelicus to this mountain is Pausanias; but as Strabo (ix. p. 399) speaks of Pentelic marble, we may infer with Leake that the celebrity of the marble quarried in the demus of Pentele, upon the side of Mt. Brilessus, had caused the name of Pentelicus to supplant that of the ancient Brilessus. The plain of Athens is bounded on the south-east by the lofty range of Mt. Hymettus, which is separated from that of Pentelicus by a depression about two miles in length. Hymettus, the highest point of which is 3506 feet, is separated by a remarkable break into two parts, the northern or greater Hymettus, now called Telo-Vuni, and the southern or leaser Hymettus, which formerly bore also the name of Anhydrus (Άνυδρος, Theophr. de Sign. Pluv. p. 419, Heine.) or the Waterless, now called Mavro-Vuni The latter terminates in the promontory Zoster.

The hill of Lycabettus, in the neighbourhood of Athens, is spoken of elsewhere. [See p. 303, b.]

Sometimes both the Eleusinian and Athenian plains are included under the general name of The Plain; and the coast of these two plains was more specifically called Acte, (Strab. ix. p. 391.)

North-east of the Athenian plain, between Parnes, Pentelicus, and the sea, is a mountain district, known by the name of Diacria (Διακρία) in antiquity. Its inhabitants, usually called Diacreis or Diacrii (Διακρείς, Διακρίαι), were sometimes also termed Hyperacrii (Ύπερακρίαι, Herod, i. 59), apparently from their dwelling on the other side of the mountain from the city. The only level part of this district is the small plain of Marathon, open to the sea. At the north-eastern extremity of this district, west of Cape Kálamo, there rises an eminence 2038 feet in height, which is probably the ancient Phelleus (Φελλεύς), a name which came to be used by the Athenians for any rocky heights adapted for the pasture of goats. (Aristoph. Nab. 71, Acharn. 272; Isaeus, de Ciron. Hered. p. 227, Reiske; Harpooat., Suid., s. v. Φελλέα; Hesych. s. v. Φελλος.)

South-east of the Athenian plain is an undulating district, anciently called Mesogaea (Μεσόγαια) or the Midland district; and now Mesoghia. It is bounded by Pentelicus on the north, Hymettus on the west, the sea on the east, and the hills of Paralia on the south.

Paralia or Paralus (Παραλία, Παραλος), i. e. the Sea-coast district, included the whole of the south of Attica, extending from the promontory Zoeter on the west, and from Brauron on the east, to Sunium. It was a hilly and barren district, but contained the rich silver-mines of Laurium. (Thuc ii. 55 ; Steph, B., Suid. s. v.)

It appears, then, that Attica is distributed into five natural divisions. 1. The Eleusinian or Thriasian Plain. 2. The Athenian Plain. 3. The Diacria or Highlands, including the Plain of Marathon. 4. The Mesogaea or Midland District. 5. The Paralia or Sea-coast District. This geographical distribution gave rise also to political divisions, as we shall see presently.

The small plain of Oropus, lying north of Paroes upon the Euboean channel, generally belonged to Attica, though physically separated from it, and properly a part of Boeotia. [Oropus.]

The area of Attica is about 700 square miles, not including the island of Salamis, which is about 40 more. The length of the west coast from Cerata or the Horns to Sunium is about 60 miles, and the length of the east coast is about the same. (There is a good account of the physical features of Attica in the Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. iii. p. 59.)

III. Rivers, — The rivers of Attica are little better than mountain torrents, almost dry in summer, and only full in winter, or after heavy rains. The Athenian plain is watered by two rivers, the Cephissus and the Ilissus. The Cephissus (Κηφιεσός), which is the more important of the two, flows southwards from Mt Parnes on the west side of Athens, and after crossing the Long Walls falls into the Phaleric bay. Strabo (x. p. 400) places its sources at Trinermii. Leake observes: "The most distant sources of the river are on the western side of Mt. Pentelicus, and the southern side of Mt. Parnes, and in the intermediate ridge which unites them; but particularly at Kivisia, at the foot of Pentelicus, — near Fasidhero, in the part of Diacria adjoining to the same mountain, — at Tatoy, near the ancient Deceleis, and in the steepest part of Mt. Parnes, from whence descends a broad torrent, which, passing near the village Menidhi, pours a large occasional supply into the main channel of the Cephissus." Strabo says (l. c.) that "the Cephissus is only a torrent stream, and that in summer it fails altogether;" but this is not in accordance with the account of most modern trayellers, who represent it as the only river in Attica which is supplied with water during the whole year. In ancient times "it flowed in a single channel, and was probably carefully embanked: it is now allowed to find its way through the olive-groves in several streams, from which there are many smaller derivations, for the purpose of watering olive-trees and gardens." (Leake.)

The Ilissus (Ίλισσές) is a more insignificant river. It was composed of two branchies, one of which was named Eridanus (Ήριδανός, Paus. i. 19. § 5). The main branch rises at the northern extremity of Hymettus, and receives near the Lyceium, on the east side of Athens, the Eridanus, which rises on the western slope of Hymettus at a spot called Syridmi. The united stream then flows through the southern portion of the city, towards the Phaleric bay; but it scarcely ever reaches the sea, and in the neighbourhood of Athens it is always dry in the summer. The spreading plane trees, and the shady banks of this stream, which have been immortalized by the beautiful description in the Phaedrus of Plato, have been succeeded by sun-burnt rocks and stunted bushes. (Dodwell, vol. i. p. 475.) The source of the river at Syridmi is a beautiful spot, and is apparently described in the passage of Ovid (Ar. Am. iii. 687), beginning:

"Est prope purpureos colles florentis Hymetti
Fons sacer, et viridi cespite mollis humus."

There was a torrent in the Athenian plain called Cycloborus (Κυκλόβορος), described as rushing down with a great noise (Aristoph. Equit. 137, with Schol., Acharn. 381; Hesych., Suid.): it is probably the huge and deep channel, called Megalo Potamo, which descends from Parnes, and flows some miles, until lost in the olive-groves. (Dodwell, vol. i pu 477.)

Two small streams water the Eleusinian plain; one called the Cephissus (Sarandáforo)^ rises in Mt. Cithaeron, and traverses the narrow plain of Eleuitherae, before it descends into that of Eleusis (Paus. i. 28. § 5); the other, now named Ianula, has its origin in the range of Parnes, near Phyle. A small stream called Iapis (Ίαπίς) formed the boundary between the territory of Eleusis and Megaris. (Scylax, s. v. Μέγαρα; Callim. ap. Steph. B. s. v. Ίαπίς.)

The only other rivulets of Attica deserving notice are three on the eastern coast: one flowing through the plain of Marathon; a second rising on the south-eastern side of Pentelicus, and flowing into the sea a little below Ratina; and a third, now called the river of Vraóma, which descends from Hymettus, and flows into the bay of Livádhi: the last is probably the ancient Erasinus (Έρασίνος, Strab. viii. p. 371).

IV. Products. — The mountains of Attica are chiefly calcareous. The best marble was obtained from Mt. Pentelicus, which supplied inexhaustible materials for the public buildings and statues of Athens. The Pentelic marble is of a dazzling white colour, hard, and fine-grained; but, owing to the little pieces of quartz or flint imbedded in it, not easy to work. Hymettus also produced fine marble: it is not so brilliantly white as the Pentelic, and in some places is almost grey. It was much used by the Romans in architecture. ("Trabes Hymettiae," Hor. Carm. ii. 18. 3.) Blue or black marble, which was frequently used in the Athenian architecture, is found at Eleusis, and was also obtained from a quarry near the promontory of Amphiale. (Strab. ix. p. 395.) Marble was an article of export from Attica. (Xen. de Vect. 1. § 4.) Between Pentelicus and Parnes, the mass of rocks appears to have been mica slate, which is also the basis of Pentelicus. Near the Horns, on the boundaries of Megaris, there is a large deposit of conchiferous limestone, which Pausanias mentions (i. 44. § 6).

The hilly district of Laurium, above the promontory of Sunium, contained valuable silver mines, which contributed to raise Athens at an early period to a foremost rank among the Grecian states. These mines require a separate notice. [Laurium.]

The soil of Attica is light and dry, and produces at present little wheat. In antiquity, however, agriculture was held in great honour by the Athenians, who cultivated their land with extraordinary care. Some remarks are made elsewhere respecting the quantity of corn probably grown in Attica in ancient times. [Athenae, p. 262.]

The soil is better adapted for the growth of fruits. The olives and figs were particularly delicious; they both ripened earlier and continued longer in season than those in other countries. (Xen. de Vect. 1.) The olive-tree was regarded as the gift of Athena, and its cultivation was always under the especial care and protection of the goddess. From the olive-tree which grew in the temple of the goddess on the Acropolis, there came the Mortiae (μορίαι), or sacred olive-trees in the Academy [see p. 303]; and from these again all the other olive-trees, which grew In the precincts of the temples and the grounds of private persons. Even in the present day there are extensive groves of olive-trees along the banks of the Cephissus. The fig-tree was under the protection of Demeter, as the olive was under the care of Athena. Like the sacred olive-tree on the Acropolis, there was a sacred fig-tree at Eleusis, which the goddess Demeter is said to have produced. Olives were exported from Attica, and so probably were figs also; for the law which is said to have prohibited the exportation of the latter became obsolete in historical times, if indeed it ever existed. (Böckh, Publ. Economy of Athens. p. 41, 2nd ed.)

The wine of Attica was pleasant to the taste, though not of a superior kind. The most celebrated was grown at Icaria, where Dionysus is said to have been welcomed. [See below, No. 42.] One of the varieties of the Attic grape was called the Nicostratian (Νικοστράτιος βότρυς, Athen. xiv. p. 654.) The honey, however, was particularly fine, especially from the bees which sucked the wild flowers of Mt. Hymettns.

Attica is not adapted for the breeding of horses to any extent; the country is too hilly, and the soil too poor to afford much nourishment for them. Hence they were very scarce in early times, and even at later times could be kept only by the wealthy. For the same reason homed cattle were also scarce, and Philochorus mentions an ancient law which prohibited the killing of these animals. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The slopes of the mountains, however, afforded excellent pasture for sheep and goats, which were very numerous in ancient times. Goats in particular formed a large portion of the wealth of the ancient inhabitants; and, from this animal, one of the four ancient tribes was called Aegicoreis. Of sheep there were several different breeds, particularly of the finest kinds. (Dem. c. Euerg. et Mnesib. p. 1153; Athen. xii. p. 540.) To encourage the breeding of sheep, there was an ancient law, which forbade the sacrifice of a sheep until it had lambed or had been shorn. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The seas around the coast abounded in fish, which were a favourite article of diet among the Athenians. Leake enumerates several varieties caught in the Phaleric bay, of which the άφύη, probably a sort of anchovy or sardine, is often mentioned. Off Cape Zoster was caught the red mullet (τρίγλη).

On the mountains wild animals were found. Even in the time of Pausanias the bear and the wild boar were hunted on Mt. Parnes. (Paus. i. 32. § 1.)

V. Political Divisions. — The oldest political division of Attica is said to have been made by Cecrops, who divided the country into twelve independent communities, which were afterwards united into one state by Theseus. The names of these communities were: Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna, Thoricus, Brauron, Gytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia, and Phalerus. (Philochor. ap. Strab. ix. p. 397; Etymol. M. s. v. Έπακρία; Plut. Thes. 24.) Their position has been ably discussed by Finlay, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature (vol. iii. p. 396), but as we shall have occasion to speak of each presently, it is only necessary to state now that these names continued to exist down to the latest times of Athenian history; that Cecropia became the Acropolis of Athens ; that Tetrapolis contained the four demi of Oenoë, Marathon, Tricorythus, and Probalinthus (Strab. viii. p. 383); and that the remaining cities sunk into demi.

Another ancient division of Attica into four parts, among the sons of Pandion, has a distinct reference to the physical divisions of the country. Nisus received Megaris; Aegeus the Coastland (άκτί), with the capital and the adjoining plain (πεδιάς); and the two other brothers Diacria (διακρία), or the Highlands in the NE. of the country, and Paralia (παραλία), or the southern coast. (Strab. ix. p. 392; Schol. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1223, and ad Vesp. 58.) That this division has a reference to some historical fact, is clear from the circumstance that, after Megaris had been torn away from Athens by the Dorians, the inhabitants of the remaining parts formed three political parties in the time of Solon and Peisistratus, known by the name of the Men of the Plain, the Parali, and the Diacrii or Hyperacrii. (Herod. i. 59; Plut. Sol 13.)

Another division of the people of Attica into four φυλαί or tribes, existed from the earliest times. These tribes were called by different names at different periods. In the time of Cecrops they were called Ceeropis, Autochthon, Actaea, and Paralia, the two former names being derived from mythical persons, and the two latter from the physical divisions of the country. In the reign of Cranais, these names were changed into Cranius, Atthis, Mesogaea, and Diacris, where again the two former are mythical, and the two latter local denominations. Afterwards we find a new set of names, Dias, Athenais, Poseidonias, and Hephaestias, evidently derived from the deities who were worshipped in the country. But these names all disappeared before the four Ionic tribes of Geleontes, Hopletes, Argades, and Aegioores, which continued to exist down to the time of Cleisthenes (B.C. 510). One of the most important measures in the democratical revolution, brought about by Cleisthenes after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, was the abolition of the four ancient Ionic tribes, and the formation of ten new tribes. The names of these ten tribes, derived from Attic heroes, were, in order of precedence, Erechtheis, Aegeis, Pandionis, Leontis, Acamantis, Oeneis, Ceeropis, Hippothoontis, Aeantis, Antiochis. This number remained unaltered down to B.C. 307, when it was increased to twelve by the addition of two new tribes, Antigonias and Demetrias, in honour of Antigonus and his son Demetrius, because the latter had delivered Athens from the rule of Cassander. The name of Antigonias was subsequently changed into that of Ptolemais, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus; and the Demetrias into Attalis, when Attains was the ally of Athens against Philip and the Rhodians. Finally, the number of tribes was increased to thirteen, in the reign of Hadrian, by the addition of Hadrianis, in honour of this emperor.

Each tribe was subdivided into a certain number of δήμοι, townships, cantons, or parishes. The whole territory of Attica was parcelled out into these demi, in one or other of which every Athenian citizen was enrolled. The number of these demi is not ascertained: we only know that they were 174 in the time of Polemo, who lived in the third century B.C. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Eustath. in Il. 546.) It has been supposed, from the words of Herodotus (δέκα δέ καί τούς δήμους κατένεμε ές τάς φυλάς v. 69), that there were originally one hundred demi, ten to each tribe; but it is improbable that the number of demi was increased so largely as from 100 to 174, and hence some modern critics construe δέκα with φυλάς, and not with δήμους, as the least difficulty in the case.

It is important to bear in mind that the demi assigned by Cleisthenes to each tribe were in no case all adjacent to each other. The reason for this arrangement cannot be better stated than in the words of Mr. Grote (vol. iv. p. 177): "The tribe, as a whole, did not correspond with any continuous portion of the territory, nor could it have any peculiar local interest, separate from the entire community. Such systematic avoidance of the factions arising out of neighbourhood will appear to have been more especially necessary, when we recollect that the quarrels of the Parali, the Diacrii; the Pediaci, during the preceding century, had all been generated from local feud, though doubtless artfully fomented by individual ambition. Moreover, it was only by this same precaution that the local predominance of the city, and the formation of a city-interest distinct from that of the country, was obviated; which could hardly have failed to arise, had the city itself constituted either one deme or one tribe." We know that five of the city demi belonged to five different tribes namely the demus Ceraneicus belonged to the tribe Acamantis; Melite to the Cecropis; Collytus to the Aegeis; Cydathenaeum to the Pandionis; Scambonidae to the Leontis. Moreover, Peiraeeus belonged to the Hippothoontis, and Phalerum to the Aeantis.

For further information respecting the Athenian tribes in general, and the organization of the demus, the reader is referred to the Dict. of Antiq. arts. Tribus and Demus.

It is certain that the descendants of a man always remained in the demus in which their ancestor was originally enrolled in the time of Cleisthenes. Consequently, if a person transferred his abode to another demus, he was not enrolled in the new demus in which he settled, even if he was highly esteemed by the inhabitants of the latter, and had conferred great obligations upon them. This is clear from an inscription in Bockh's collection (n. 101). (Sauppe, De Demis Urbanis Athenarum, p. 13.) It is important to bear this fact in mind, because modern writers hare sometimes fixed the site of a demus, simply in consequence of finding upon the spot the name of this demus attached to the name of a man; but this is not conclusive, since the demus in which a man was enrolled, and the demus in which he resided, might be, and frequently were, different.

Each of the lager demi contained a town or village; but several of the smaller demi possessed apparently only a common temple or place of assembly, the houses of the community being scattered over the district, as in many of our country parishes. The names of most of the demi are preserved. It was the practice in all public documents to add to the name of a person the name of the district to which he belonged; and hence we find in inscriptions the names of a great number of demi. Many others are met with in Harpocration, Hesychius, Stephanus, and Suidas, as well as in the earlier writers. But though the names of most of the demi are thus preserved, it is impossible to fix the site of a large number of them, as they were not of sufficient importance to be mentioned in history. We shall endeavour, however, to ascertain their position as far as is practicable, arranging the demi under: 1. The Demi of the Athenian Plain. 2. The Demi of the Eleusinian Plain. 3. The Demi of Diacria and Mount Parnes. 4. The Demi of Paralia and Mesogaea.

A. The Demi of the Athenian Plain.

1 — 10. The demi in the city of Athens and its suburbs are spoken of elsewhere. [Athenae, p. 301, seq.] They were Cerameicus, Melite, Scambonidae, Collytus, Cydathenaeum, Diomeia, Coele, and perhaps Ceriadae. To these must be added Peiraeeus and Phalerum. [See p. 304, seq.]

(a.) West of the Cephissus in the direction from N. to S. were:

11. Xtpete (Ευπέτη, also Ευπετεών, Strab. xiii.. p. 604), said to have been likewise called Troja (Τροία), because Teucrus led from hence an Attic colony into Phrygia. (Dionys. i. 61; Strab. l. c. Steph. B.) It was apparently near Peiraeeus or Phalerum, since Xypete, Peiraeeus, Phalerum, and Thymoetadae formed the τετράκωμοι (Pollux, iv. 105), who had a temple of Hercules in common (τετράκωμοι Ήρακλεών, Steph. B. s. v. Έχελίδαι; Bockh, Inscrip. vol. i. p. 123). Leake places Xypete at a remarkable insulated height, a mile from the head of the harbour of Pei- raeeus, where' are still seen some Hellenic foundations; but Ross remarks that this cannot be correct, since Xenophon (Hell. ii. 4. § 34) mentions this hill without giving its name, which he certainly would not have done if it had been Xypete.

12. Thymoetadae (Θυμοιτάδαι), deriving its name from Thymoetas, a kmg of Attica, possessed a port, from which Theseus secretly set sail on his expedition to Crete. (Plut, Thes. 19.) This retired port seems to have been the same as the Phoron Limen (Φώρων λιμήν), or "Thieves' port," so called from its being frequented by smugglers. (Dem. c. Lacrit. p. 932; Strab. ix. p. 395.) It is a small circular harbour at the entrance to the bay of Salamis, and according to Dodwell is still called Klephtho-limani. Leake noticed the foundations of a temple upon a height near the beach, and other remains at a quarter of a mile on the road to Athens. This temple was probably the Heracleium mentioned above. It was situated on the Attic side of the Strait of Salamis (Ctesias, Pers. c. 26, ed. Lion; Diod. xi. 18); and it was from the heights of Aegaleos, above this temple, that Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis. (Phanodemus, ap. Plut. Them. 13; comp. Herod, viii. 90.) It is true that this temple was not situated at the narrowest part of the strait, as some writers represent; but Leake justly remarks, that the harbour was probably the point from whence the passage-boats to Salamis departed, as it is at the present day, and consequently the Heracleium became the most noted place on this part of the Attic shore. At the foot of Mt. Aegaleos are still seen vestiges of an ancient causeway, probably the road leading from Athens to the ferry. The σισύραι, or garments of goatskins of Thymoetadae, appear to have been celebrated. (Aristoph. Vesp. 1138.)

13. Echelidae (Έχελίδαι), so called from the hero Echelus, lay between Peiraeeus and the Heracleium, in or near a marshy district, and possessed a Hippodrome, in which horse-races took place. (Steph. B. s v.; Etym. M. s v. Έχελος; Hesych. and Etym. M. s. v. έν Έχελίδών.) It is probable that this Hippodrome is the place to which the narrative in Demosthenes refers (c. Everg. p. 1155, seq. in which case it was near the city. (Ibid. p. 1162; comp. Xen. de Mag. Eq. 3. §§ 1, 10.)

14. Corydallus (Κορυδαλλός), at the foot of the mountain oi the same name, is placed by Strabo (ix. p. 395) between Thria and Peiraeeus, near the straits of Salamis, opposite the islands of Pharmacussae. This position is in accordance with the account of Diodorus (iv. 59), who, after relating the contest of Theseus with Cercyon, which, according to Pausanias (1. 39. § 3), took place to the west of Eleusis, says that Thesens next killed Procrustes, whose abode was in Corydallus. Against the express testimony of Strabo, we cannot accept the authority of other writers, who make Corydallus a mountain on the frontiers of Boeotia and Attica. (Athen. ix. p. 390 ; Plin. x. 41; Antig. Caryst. 6; Aelian, H. An. iii. 35.)

15. Hermus (Έρμος), lay on the sacred road to Eleusis, between the Cephissus and the Pythium, a temple of Apollo on Mt. Poecilum, upon a rivulet of the same name. Here was the splendid monument of Pythonice, the wife of Harpalus. (Plut. Phoc. 22; Harpocrat. s. v. Έρμος; Paus. i. 37. § 4; Athen. xiii. p. 594; Diod. xvii. 108.)

16. Oea or Oe (Οία or Οη), was situated above the Pythium, to the west of Mt. Aegaleos, to the north of the pass of Poecilum. (Soph. Oed. Col. 1061, Οίάτιδος έκ νόμου, with the Sehol.; Leake, p. 151.)

(b.) West of the Cephissus, and E. of the city, in the direction from N. to S:

17. Oeum Ceramiecum (Οίον Κεραμεικόν), to distinguish it from Oeam Deceleieum near Deceleia. Its name shows that it was near the outer Cerameicus, and it may, therefore, be placed, with Leake, between the Sacred Way and the northern Long Wall. (Harpocrat., Suid. s. v.)

18. Scirum (Σκίρον, Σκίρα, Strab. ix. p. 393), a small place near a torrent of the same name, just outside the Athenian walls on the Sacred Way. It was not a demus, and derived its name from Scirus, a prophet of Dodona, who fell in the battle between the Eleusinii and Erechtheus, and was buried in this spot (Paus. i. 36. § 4; Strab. l. c.; Steph. B., Harpocrat. s. v.; comp. Schol. ad Aritoph. Eccl. 18)

19. Laciadae (Λακιάδαι), on the Sacred Way between Sciron and the Cephissus, and near the sacred fig-tree. It is celebrated as the damus to which the family of Miltiades and Cimon belonged. (Paus. i. 37. § 2; Plut. Cim. 4, Alc. 22; Cic. de Off. ii. 18; Hesych.; Suid.)

20. Colonus (Κολωνός), celebrated as the damus of Sophocles, and the scene of one of the poet's tragedies, was situated ten stadia from the gate of the city, called Dipylum, near the Academy and the river Cephissus. (Thuc. viii. 67; Cic. de Fin. v. 1.) It derived its name from two small but conspicuous heights, which rise from the plain a little to the north of the Academy. Hence it is called by Sophocles "the white Colonus" (τόν άργήτα Κολωνόν, Oed. Col. 670). It was under the especial care of Poseidon, and is called by Thucydides (l. c.) the ίερόν of this god. It is frequently called "Colonus Hippius," to distinguish it from the "Colonus Agoraeus" in Athens. [Athenae, p. 298, b.] Besides the temple of Poseidon, it possessed a sacred inclosure of the Eumenides, altars of Athena, Hippia, Demeter, Zeus, and Prometheus, together with sanctuaries of Peirithous, Theseus, Oedipus, and Adrastus. (Paus. i. 30. § 4.) The natural beauties of the spot are described by Sophocles in the magnificent chorus, beginning with the words :

εύίππον. ξένε, τάσδε χώρας
ίκου τά κράτιστα γάς έπαυλα
τόν άργήτα Κολωνόν

(c.) Farther north:

21. Acharnae (Άχαρναί), the most important of all the Attic demi, described in a separate article. [Acharnae.]

22. Eupyridae (Εύπυρίδαι, Steph. B.),

23. Cropia (Κρωπία. Steph. B.; Κρωπείά, Thuc. ii. 19),

24. Peleces (Πήληκες), three demi forming a community, as τρίκωμοι (Steph. B. s. v. Εύρυπίδαι), and probably, therefore, adjacent. If the reading in Thucydides (ii. 19) is correct, διά Κρωπειάς, these demi should be placed in the north of the Athenian plain, but many editors read διά Κεκροπιάς. Stuart, who has been followed by most modern writers, was led, by similarity of name, to place Peleces at the modern Bélikas, near Marúsi; but Ross maintains that the name of this Albanian village has no connexion with Peleces.

25. Paeonidae (Παιονίδαι, Paus. ii. 18. § 9), apparently the same as the Paeonia (Παιονίη) of Herodotus (v. 62), who describes Leipsydrium as situated above Paeonia. It was perhaps on the site of the modern Menidhi, since we know that the modern Greeks frequently change π into μ; thus Πεντέλη is also pronounced Μεντέλη.

26. Leipsydrium (Λειψύδριον), was not a demus, but a fortress, in which the Alcmaeonidae fortified themselves after the death of Hippachua, but was taken by the Peisistratidae after defeating the opposite party. (Herod, v. 62; comp. Athen. xv. p. 695.) We have already seen that Herodotus describes it as situated above Paeonia, and other authorities place it above Parnes. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Lyster. 665; Hesych. s. v. Λειψύδριον; Hesych., Suid. Λειψυδριφ μάχη.) It is, however, more probable that it stood on the southern slopes of Mt. Parnes, so as to command the descent into the Athenian plain. Leake conjectures that it may have occupied the site of the Metókhi of St. Nicolas, a small monastery, situated amidst the woods of the upper region of Mount Parnes, at the distance of three or four miles to the north of Menidhi.

27. Cephisia (Κήφισία), was one of the ancient twelve cities of Cecrops, and continued to be an important demus down to the latest time. It retains its ancient name (Kivisia) and is situated about nine miles NE. of Athens, at the foot of Mt. Pentelicus, nearly opposite Acharnae. It was the favourite summer residence of Herodes Atticus, who adorned it with buildings, gardens, and statues. We learn from modern travellers that a fountain of transparent water, and groups of shady trees, still remain here; and that it continues to be a favourite residence of the Athenians during the heat of summer. (Strab. iz. 397; Diog. Laërt. in. 41; Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 1. § 12; Gell. i. 2, xviii. 10; Harpocrat; Phot.; Wordsworth, p. 227; Stephani, Reise durch Griechenland, p. 1.)

28. Athmonium (Άθμανον, also Άθμονία, Harpocrat; Steph. B.; Zonar.; Suid.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 349), situated on the site of the village Marúsi, which is a mile and a half from Kivisia on the road to Athens. The name of the modern village has been derived from Amarysia, a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped under this designation at Athmonum. (Paus. i. 35. § 5.) An inscription found near Marúsi, in which the temenos of this goddess is mentioned, puts the matter beyond dispute. (άρες Άρτέμιδος τεμένους Άμαρυσίας Böckh, Inscr. n. 528.) Athmonum also possessed a very ancient temple of Aphrodite Urania. (Paus. i. 14. § 7.) The inhabitants of this damus appear to have been considered clever wine-dressers. (Aristoph. Pac. 190.)

29. Iphistiadae or Hephaestiadae (Ίφιστιάδαι, Ήφαιστιάδαι, Steph. B.; Hesych.), are the names of one demus, and not two separate demi, as Leake maintained. Iphistiadae appears to have been the correct form of the name, not only because it occurs much more frequently in inscriptions, but also because it is much more probable that a name formed from the obscure hero Iphistius should have been converted into one derived from the god Hephaestus, than that the reverse should have been the case. (Ross, p. 74.) We learn from Plato's will (Diog. Laërt. iii.l 41), that this damus contained an Heracleium or temple of Hercules, which has probably given its name to the modern village of Arakli, about two or three miles westward of Kivisia and Marusi Hence Arakli indicates the site of Iphistiadae, as Marusi does that of Athmonum.

30. Eiresidae (Είρεσίδαι, Steph. B.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 246), west or south-west of Cephisia, and adjacent to Iphistiadae; (Diog. Laërt iii. 41.)

31. Pentele (Πεντέλη, Steph.), was situated at the north-eastern extremity of the Athenian plain, at the marble quarries of Mt. Brilessus, which was called Mt. Pentelicus from this place. [See p. 823, a.] The fact of Pentele being a demus rests upon the authority of Stephanus alone, and has not yet been confirmed by inscriptions.

32. Pallene (Παλλήνη), a celebrated demus, frequently mentioned by ancient writers and in inscriptions. From the mythical story of the war of the Pallantidae against Theseus, we learn that the demi of Pallene, Gargettus, and Agnus were adjacent. When Pallas was marching from Sphettus in the Mesogaea against Athens, he placed a body of his troops in ambush at Gargettus, under the command of his two sons, who were ordered, as soon as he was engaged with the army of Theseus, to march rapidly upon Athens and take the city by surprise. But the stratagem was revealed to Theseus by Leos of Agnus, the herald of Pallas; whereupon Theseus cut to pieces the troops at Gargettus. In consequence of this a lasting enmity followed between the inhabitants of Pallene and Agnus. (Plut. Thes. 13; Philochor. ap. Schol. ad Eurip. Hippol. 35.) The road from Sphettus to Athens passed through the opening between Mt, Pentelicus and Mt. Hymettus. In this situation, on the SW. side of Pentelicus, we find a small village, named Garito, which is undoubtedly the site of the ancient Gargettus. The proximity of Pallene and Gargettus is indicated by another legend. Pallene was celebrated for its temple of Athena; and we are told that Eurystheus was buried at Gargettus in front of the temple of Athena Pallenis. (Strab. viii. p. 377; Steph., Hesych. s. v. Γαργηττός; πάροιθε παρθένου Παλληνίδος, Eurip. Heracl. 1031.) We know further that Pallene lay on one of the roads from the city to Marathon (Herod, i. 62); and as the most convenient road for warlike operations leads to Marathon around the southern side of Pentelicus, Ross places Pallene half an hour south of Garitó, between the monastery Hieraka and the small village Charvati, at the spot where was discovered a celebrated inscription respecting money due to temples, and which waS probably placed m the temple of Athena Pallenis. (Böckh, Inscr. n. 76.) In Hieraka there was also found the Boustrophedon inscription of Aristocles, which probably also came from the same temple. (Böckh, n. 23.) Leake supposes Pallene to have stood at the foot of Hymettne, immediately opposite to G€trit6 at the foot <^ Pentelicus, and supposes its site to be indicated by some Hellenic ruins of conndend)ls extent oa a height which is separated only from the nwthem extremity of Hy- mettns by the main road into tiie Mesogaca. " This place is abont a mile and a half to the south-west- ward of Garitdj near two small diurches, in mie of which Mr. Finlay found the I61k)wing fragment: eEO«ANHa nAAA(HN£T2). Thu situation, where the roads of the Mesogaea necessarily unite in approaching Athens, is sudi a point as would be important, and often occupied in military operations; and accoidingly, we find that oa three occasions in the early history of Athens, Pallene was the scene of action; first, when Eurysthens fought against the Athenians and Heracleidae; again, when The- seus was opposed to the Pallantidae; and a third time when Peisistatus defeated the Alcmaeonidae." (Leake, p. 46.) The inscription, however, in such a case, is not decisive evidence, as we have already seen. [See p. 825, a.]

Agnus is placed by Boss in the hollow which lies between the extreme northern point of Hymettus and Hieraka, Leake, on the other hand, fixes it at Marhdptdoy in the soathem part of the Mesogaea, because Mr. Finlay found at this place an inscrip- tion, .... vKihis *hyvo{nrios.

33. Gargettus (ropvirrrrfj, Steph.; Hesych.; Phavor. ; Schol. ad Aristopk. Tkeam, 905), spoken of above, and celebrated as the demus of Epicurus.

34. Agnus or Haonus (^AyyoOt or *Ayvovs, Steph.; Phryn.; Hesych.; Said.), also spoken of above.

(d.) East of Athens:-

35. Alopecb ('AAorftrcm}), was situated only eleven or twelve stadia from the city (Aesch. c, Timarch* p. 119, Beiske), and not far frum Cyno- sarges. (Herod, v. 63.) It lay consequently east of Athens, near the modern village of AmbeUkipo, between Lycabettus and Ilissns. It possessed a temple of Aphrodite (BSckh, Inter, n. 395), and also, apparently, one of Hermaj^roditus. (Alciphr. Ep. m. 37.) There are some remains of an ancient building in the church at AmbelokipOj which Leake supposes may be those of the temple oif Aphrodite.

(e.) South of Athens:-

36. 37. AouTUS QAypvKfiy *Af»atfX^, *Aypotii, Steph.; Harpocrat.; Snid.; Hesych.; Zonar.; Bek- ker, Anecd, l. pc 332), was the name of two demi, an upper and a lower Agryle. They lay imme- diately south of the stadium in the city, (Har- pocrat s, V. 'ApSirrrdf .) It is not improbable tlu^ the district of Agnte in the city belonged to one of these demi. [S^ p. 302, b.]

38. Halimus ('AAifun;;, Harpocrat ; Suid. ; Steph. ; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 376 ; Schol. ad Ari- ttoph, Av. 498), said to have been so called from rh &tfMy sea-weeds (Etym. M. s. 9.), was situated on the coast between Phalerum and Aexone (Strab. ix. p. 398), at the distance of 35 stadia from the city (Bem. c, EvtuKd, p. 1302), with temples of Demeter and Core ( Pans, i. 31 . §1), and of Her- cules. (Dem. pp. 1314, 13f9!}" Hence Leake places it at C. KaiUmdkMf at the back of which rises a small but conspicuous hill, crowned with a church of St CoMnas. H^mus was^the demus of Thucydides the historianJr^^sy^tW*-'^***^.^ ^^:

38*. Aexone (A2|a»m$, Harpocrat ; Suid. ; Zonar. ; Steph. ; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 358 ; Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 26), situated oA the coast south of Halimus (Strab. L c), probably near the promontory of Colias. [Re- specting the position of Colias, see p.305,b.] Aexone was celebrated for its fisheries. (Athen. vii. p. 325 ; Hesych.. 2^onar., Suid., §. v. Al^wflBa tpiyKfiy.)

39. Halab Aexonideb ('AAcd A2(»w8c5), a little south of the preceding, derived its name from its salt-works. (Strab. 7. c; Steph.) " They oc- cupy a level behind a cape called Agkid, where are fomid numerous remains of an ancient town, and among them a lion in white marble." (Leake.)

B. The Eleusinian or Thriasian Plain.

The celebrated Sacred Way ('Iff & '08<{s), leading from Athens to Elensis, demands a few words. It was the road along which tiie solemn prjcession in the Eleusinian festival travelled eveiy year from Athens to Elensis. ' It was lined on either side with numerous monuments. {Diet of Ani. «. v. Eleu- smio.) This road, with its monuments, is described at some length by Pausanias (i. 36 — 38), and was the subject of a special work by Polemon, which is unfortunately lost. (Harpocrat s. v. Ίερά Όδός.)

It has been mentioned elsewhere, that there were probably two roads leading from Athens, to each of which the name of the Sacred Way was given, one issuing from the gate called Dipylum, and the other from the Sacred Gate, and that these two roads united shortly after quitting Athens, and formed the one Sacred Way. [Athenae, p. 263, a.] Pausanias, in his journey along the Sacred Way, left Athens by Dipylum. The first monument, which was immediately outside this gate, was that of the herald Anthemocritus. Next came the tomb of Molossus, and then the place Scirum, already described. [See above, No. 18.] After some monuments mentioned by Pausanias there was the demus Laciadae [see No. 19], and shortly afterwards the Cephissus was crossed by a bridge, which Pausanias has omitted to mention, but which is celebrated as the place at which the initiated assailed passengers with vulgar abuse and raillery, hence called γεφυρισμοί. (Strab. ix. p. 400; Suid. s. v. Γεφυρίζων; Hesych. s. v. Γεφυρίσταί.) After crossing the Cephissus, Pausanias describes several other monuments, of which he specifies two as the most remarkable for magnitude and ornament, one of a Rhodian who dwelt at Athens, and the other built by Harpalus in honour of his wife Pythionioe. The latter, as we have already seen, was situated at the demus Hermus. [See above. No. 15.]

The next most important object on the road was the temple of Apollo on Mount Poecilum, the site of which is now marked by a church of St. Elias. In one the the walls of this church there were formerly throe fluted Ionic columns, which were removed by the Earl of Elgin in 1801: the capitals of these columns, a base, and a part of one of the shafts, are now in the British Museum. It was situated in the principal pass between the Eleusinian and Thriasian plains. This pass is now called Dhafni; at its summit is a convent of the same name. [See p. 322, a.] Beyond the temple of Apollo was a temple of Aphrodite, of which the foundations are found at a distance of less than a mile from Dhafni. That these foundations are those of the ancient temple of Aphrodite appears from the fact that doves of white marble have been discovered at the foot of the rocks, and that in the inscriptions still visible under the niches the words Φίλη Άφροδίτη may be read. This was the Philaeum or the temple of Phila Aphrodite, built by one of the flatterers of Demetrius Poliorcetes in honour of his wife Phila (Athen. vii. pp. 254, a. 255, c); but Pausanias, whose pious feelings were shocked by such a profanation, calls it simply a temple of Aphrodite. Pausanias says that before the temple was "a wall of rude stones worthy of observation" of which, according to Leake, the remains may still be seen ; the stones have an appearance of remote antiquity, resembling the irregular masses of the walls of Tiryns.

At the bottom of the pass close to the sea were the Rheiti (Ρειτοί), or salt-springs, which formed the boundaries of the Athenians and Eleasinians at the time of the twelve cities. "The same copious springs are still to be observed at the foot of Mt. Aegaleos; but the water, instead of being permitted to take its natural course to the sea, is now collected into an artificial reservoir, formed by a stone wall towards the road. This work has been constructed for the purpose of turning two mills, below which the two streams cross the Sacred Way into the sea." (Leake.)

Half a mile beyond the Rheiti, where the road to Eleutherae branches off to the right, was the Tomb of Strato, situated on the right-hand side of the road. There are still ruins of this monument with an inscription, from which we learn its object; but it is not mentioned by Pausanias. The Way then ran along the low ground on the shore of the bay, crossed the Eleusinian Cephissus, and shortly afterwards reached Eleusis. Leake found traces of the ancient causeway in several places in the Eleusinian plain, but more recent travellers relate that they have now disappeared. (Mure, vol. ii. p. 31.) Respecting the Sacred Way in general, see Leake, p. 134, and Preller, De Via Sacra Eleusinia, Dorpat 1841.

40. Eleusis (Έλευσίς), is noticed separately. [Eleusis.]

41. Thria (Θρία), an important demus, from which the Eleusinian plain, or, at all events, the central or eastern part of it, was called the Thriasian Plain. When Attica was invaded from the west, the Thriasian Plain was the first to suffer from the ravages of the enemy. (Θριάσιον πεδίον, Strab. ix. p. 395; Herod, ix. 7; Thuc. i. 114, ii. 19.) A portion of the Eleusinian plain was also called the Rharian Plain (Ράριον, Hom. Hymn, Cer. 450) in ancient times, but its site is unknown.

The territory of Thria appears to have been extended as far as the salt-springs Rheiti, since the temple of Aphrodite Phila is said to have been in Thria. (Athen. vi. p. 255, c.) Thria is placed by Leake at a height called Magúla, on the Eleusinian Cephissus, about three miles above Eleusis, but it is much more probable that it stood upon the coast somewhere between Eleusis and the promontory Amphiale (είτα [after Eleusis] τό Θριάσιον πεδίον καί όμώνυμος αίγιαλός καί δήμος είθ ή άκρα ή Άμφίαλη, Strab. l. c.). Fiedler mentions the ruins of a demus, probably Thria, situated on the coast, at the distance of scarcely ten minutes after leaving the pass of Dhafni. (Fiedler, Reise, &c. vol. i. p. 81.)

42. Idaria (Ίκαρία), the demus, in which Icarius received Dionysus, who taught him the art of making wine. (For the legend, see Dict. of Biogr. and Myth., art Icarius.) The position of this demus and of Mount Icarius (Plin. iv. 7. s. 11) has been variously fixed by modern scholars. Leake has identified Icarius with Mount Argaliki, on the south side of the Marathonian plain, since Icarius is said by Statius (Theb. xi. 644) to have been slain in the Marathonian forest. But, as Ross has observed, Marathonian is here used only in the sense of Attican; and the argument derived from this passage of Statius is entirely overthrown by another passage of the same poet, in which the abodes of Icarius and of Celeus (i. e. Icaria and Eleusis) and Melaenae are mentioned together as three adjacent places. ("Icarii Celeique domus viridesque Melaenae," Stat. Theb. xii, 619.) Ross, with greater probability, places Icaria in the west of Attica, because all the legends respecting the introduction of the worship of Dionysus into Attica represent it as coming from Thebes by way of Eleutherae, and because the Parian chronicle represents men from Icaria as instituting the first chorus at Athens, while the invention of comedy b assigned to the Megarian Susarion. From the latter circumstance, Ross conjectures that Icaria was near the frontiers of Megara; and he supposes that the range of moun tains, separating the Megarian and Eleusinian plains, and terminating in the promontory of the Kerata or the Horns, to which no ancient name has been hitherto assigned, was Mount Icarius. (Ross, p. 73.)

43. Oenoe (Οίνόη), which must be distinguished from a demus of the same name in the Marathonian plain, was situated upon the confines of Boeotia and Attica, near Etentherae, and upon the regular road to Plataea and Thebes. (Strab. yiii. p. 375; Herod. v.74; Thuc. ii. 18; Diod. iv. 60.) Hysiae and Oenoe are mentioned as the frontier demi of Attica in B.C. 507, when they were both taken by the Boeotians. (Herod. l. c.) From this time Hysiae continued to be a Boeotian town; but Oenoe was recovered by the Athenians, and was fortified by them before the commencement of the Peloponnesian war (Thuc l. c.) In B.C. 411 the Boeotians again obtained posssession of Oenoe (Thuc. viii. 98); but it must have been recovered a second time by the Athenians, as it continues to be mentioned as an Attic demus down to the latest times. Oenoe was situated on the Pythian Way, so called because it led from Athens to Delphi (Strab. x. p. 422): this road apparently branched off from the Sacred Way to Kleusis, near the tomb of Strato. Near Oenoe was a Pythium, or temple of Apollo Pythius, in consequence of the sanctity of which Oenoe obtained the epithet of the Sacred. (Liban. Declam. 16, in Dem. Apol. i. p. 451.) This Pythium is said to have formed the northern boundary of the kingdom of Nisus, when Attica and the Megaris were divided between the four sons of Pandion. (Strab. ix. p. 392.)

At the NW. extremity of Attica there is a narrow pass through Mount Cithaeron, through which ran the road from Thebes and Plataeae to Elcusis. This pass was known in antiquity by the name of the Three Heads, as the Boeotians called it, or the Oak's Heads, according to the Athenians. (Herod, ix. 38.) On the Attic side this pass was guarded by a strong fortress, of which the ruins form a conspicuous object, on the summit of a height, to the left of the road. They now bear the name of Ghyftó-kastro, or gipsy castle, a name frequently given to such buildings among the modern Greeks. Leake supposes these ruins to be those of Oenoe, and that Eleutherae was situated at Myúpoli, about four miles to the south-eastward of Ghyftó-kastro, The objection to this hypothesis is, that Eleutherae was originally a member of the Boeotian confederacy, which originally joined the Athenians, and never became an Athenian demus, and that hence it is improbable that Oenoe, which was always an Attic demus, lay between Plataeae and Eleutherae. To this Leake replies, that, on examining the ruins of Ghyftó-kastro, its position and dimensions evidently show that it was a fortress, not a town, being only 700 or 800 yards in circumference, and standing upon a strong height, at the entrance of the pass, whereas Myúpoli has every appearance of having been a town, with an acropolis placed as usual on the edge of a valley. (Respecting Eleutherae, see Paus. i. 38. § 8; Xen. Hell. v. 4. § 14; Strab. viii. p. 375, ix. p. 412; Plut. Thes. 29; Steph. B.; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12.) The position of these places cannot be fixed with certainty; but we think Leake's opinion is, upon the whole, the most probable. Müller, Kiepert, and others suppose the ruins of Ghyftó-kastro to be those of Panactum, described by Thucydides as a fortress of the Athenians, on the confines of Boeotia, which was betrayed to the Boeotians in B.C. 420, and subsequently destroyed by them. (Thuc. v. 3, 42; comp. Paus. i. 25. § 6; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 446; Steph. B.) Leake places Panactum on the Boeotian side of the pass of Phyle; but Ross thinks that he has discovered its ruins in the plain of Eleutherae, west of Skurta, Ross, moreover, thinks that Eleutherae stood to the east of Ghyftó-kastro, near the convent of St. Meletius, where are ruins of an ancient place; while other modern writers suppose Eleutherae to have stood more to the west, near the modern village of Kúndara.

44. Eleutherae (Έλευθεραί), not a demus. Respecting its site, see No. 43.

45. Panactum (Πάνακτον), a fortress, also not a demus. Respecting its site, see No. 43.

46. Melaenae (Μέλαιναι), a fortified demus, on the frontier of Attica and Boeotia, celebrated in Attic mythology as the place for which Melanthus and Xanthus fought. It was sometimes called Celaenae. (Polyaen. i. 19; Callim. ap. Steph. B. s. v. Μέλαινείς; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 146, Pac. 890; Suid. s. v. Άπατούρια, Κελαιναί.) Leake supposes the ruins near the convent of St. Meletius, of which we have just spoken, to be those of Melaenae, and remarks that the groves and fountains, which maintain the verdure of this spot, accord with the epithet bestowed by the Latin poet upon the place (viridesque Melaenae, Stat Theb. xii. 619.).

47. Drymus (Δρυμός), a fortress, not a demus, in the same neighbourhood, but of uncertain site. (Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 446; Hesych.; Harpocrat.)

C. The Demi of Diacria and Mount Parnes.

48. Phyle (Φυλή), still called Fili, a strong fortress, stands on a steep rock, commanding the narrow pass across Mt. Parnes, through which runs the direct road from Thebes to Athens, past Acharnae. On the northern side of the pass was the territory of Tanagra. Phyle is situated at the distance of more than 120 stadia from Athens (Psephisma, ap. Dem. de Cor. p 238), not 100 stadia, as Diodorus states (xiv. 32), and was one of the strongest Athenian fortresses on the Boeotian frontier. The precipitous rock upon which it stands can only be approached by a ridge on the eastern side. It is memorable in history as the place seized by Thrasybulus and the Athenian exiles in B.C. 404, and from which they commenced their operations against the Thirty Tyrants. The height of Phyle commands a magnificent view of the whole Athenian plain, of the city itself, of Mt. Hymettus, and the Saronic Gulf. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § 2, seq.; Diod. l. c.; Nep. Thrasyb. 2; Strab. ix. pp. 396, 404.) In Phyle there was a building called the Daplhnephoreion, containing a picture, which represented the Thargelia. (Athen. x. p. 424, f.)

49. Harma (Άρμα), a fortress, but not a demus, near Phyle, situated on a height visible from Athens. (Strab. ix. p. 404; Eustath. ad Il. ii 499.) Leake places it above Phyle, towards the summit of the ridge, and to the left of the modern road, where the ruins of a fortress are visible; but other writers place it south-east of Phyle.

50. Chastieis (Χαστιείς), a demus, mentioned only by Uesychius (s. v.); but in consequence of the similarity of name, it is supposed to have occupied the site of Khassiá, the largest village in Attica, which is the first place met with on descending the pass of Phyle towards Athens.

51. Deceleia (Δεκέλεια) was situated near the entrance of the eastern pass across Mount Parnes, which leads from the north-eastern part of the Athenian plain to Oropus, and from thence both to Tanagra on the one hand, and to Delium and Chalcis on the other. It was originally one of the twelve cities of Attica. (Strab. ix. p. 397.) It was situated about 120 stadia from Athens, and the same distance from the frontiers of Boeotia: it was visible from Athena, and from its heights also might be seen the ships entering the harbour of Peiraeus. (Thuc. vii. 19; Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 25.) It was by the pass of Deceleia that Mardonius retreated from Athens into Boeotia before the battle of Plataeae (Herod. ix. 15); and it was by the same road that the grain was carried from Euboea through Oropus into Attica. (Thuc. vii. 28.) In B.C. 413 Deceleia was occupied and fortified by the Lacedaemonians under Agia, who kept possession of the place till the end of the war; and from the command which they thus obtained of the Athenian plain, they prevented them from cultivating the neighbouring land, and compelled them to bring the com from Euboea round Cape Sunium. (Thuc. ii. 27, 28.) The pass of Deceleia is now called the pass of Tatóy. Near the village of this name there is a peaked height, which is a conspicuous object from the Acropolis: the exact site of the demus is probably marked by a fountain, near which are many remains of antiquity. (Leake.)

52. Oeum Deceleicum (Οίον Δεκελεικόν), of unknown site, but near Decelcia, so called to distinguish it from the Oeum Cerameicum. (Harpocrat.; Suid.) [No. 17.]

53. Sphendale (Σφενδάλη), a demus, at which Mardonius halted on his route from Deceleia to Tanagra. (Herod, ix. 15; Steph.; Hesych.) "Hence it appeals to have stood not far from the church of Aio Merkúrio, which now gives name to the pass leading from Deceleia through the ridges of Parnes into the extremity of the Tanagraean plain. But as there is no station in the pass where space can be found for a demus, it stood probably at Malakása, in a plain where some copious sources unite to form the torrent, which joins the sea one mile and a half east of the Skala of Apostólus." (Leake.) In the territory of Sphendale there waa a hill, named Hyacinthus. (Suid. s. v. Παρθένοι, where Σφενδαλέων should be read instead of Σφενδονίων.)

54. Oropus (Ώρωπός), was originally a Boeotian town, and though afterwards included in Attica, was not an Attic demus. This place, together with its harbour Delphinium, and Amphiaraeium, in its neighbourhood, is spoken of separately. [Oropus.]

55. Psaphis (Ψαφίς), originally a town of the Oropia, but subsequently an Attic demus, lay between Oropus and Brauron, and was the last demus in the north-eastern district of Attica. (Strab. ix. p. 399.)

56. Rhamnus (Ραμνούς), south of Psaphia, on the coast of the Euripus, requires a separate notice on account of its celebrated temples. [Rhamnus.]

57. Aphidna (Άφιδνα), one of the twelve ancient cities of Attica, lay between Deceleia and Rhamnus. It is also spoken of separately.

58, 59, 60. Titacidae (TiToiclSai), Perrhidae (n6/}/^i5ai), and Thyrgonidae (OvpT^WSat), were probably all in the neighbourhood of Aphidna. These three demi, together with Aphidna, are said to have been removed from the Aeantis to another tribe. (Harpocr. s. v. 0i;/>y«y{3a<.) Perrhidae is described as a demus in Aphidna (Hesych. Phavor. Znfun i^ 'A^Smut); and that Titaddae was in the same loojility may be inferred from the story of the capture of Apiiidna by tha Dioscuri in consequence of the treachery of Titacna. (Herod, ix. 73; Steph. «. v, TiroKiSai.)

61. TBUnoaoA (TptW/Mia), at which one of the minor branches of the Ce|^iissus takes its rise, and therefore probably rituated at the modern village of Bu^ti. (Strab. ix. p. 400; Steph. B. t. v.)

62, 63, 64, 65. Marathon {MapaBtii'), Pboba- usTRus (n^6eUiy0otX Tricortthds (Tpurtlpv-

  1. or), and Oenob (Oltfiiii), four demi situated in

the small plain open to the sea between Mt Pames and Mt. Pentelicus, originally formed the Tetrapolisy one of the twelve ancient divisions of Attica. The whole district was generally known under the name of Marathon, under which it is described in this work. [^Iarathoh.'}

66. Kpacria ('Eiraicpfa), one of the twelve an- cient districta of Attica (Strab. ix. p. 397), and subsequently, as appears finom an inscription, a demus near Ploiheia and Ualae Arapkenides. (Bockh, Inter, No. 82.) As the name of a district, it was probably synonymous with Diacria. (Etym. M. *£vai^{a; Steph. Siifusx^^ai.) An ancient grammarian describes the district of £pacria as bordering upon that of the Tetrapolis of Marath<Hi. (Bekker, Anecd. L p. 259.) Finlay and Leake place the town of tlus name at Pikirmi, upon the south-eastern heights of Pentelicus, ** where a strong position on a perennial stream, added to some ves- tiges of buildings, and several inscriptions, are proofii of an Hellenic site."

67. SEKACHmAB (2ii/«ax^'»)y described by Philochoms (ap. Steph. », v.) as a demus in the district of Epacria, but its exact site is uncertain. (Hesych.; Phot)

68. PlotheiA (liXMtia) appears to have be- longed to the district of Epacria, and to have been not far from Halae Araphenides. (Harpocr.; Suid.; Steph.; Phot; Bockh, /fucr. No. 82.)

69, 70. Phboaea (^iryota), the name of two demi of uncertain site. (Steph.; Harpocr.; Suid.; Etym. &L; Phot; Hesych.) It is probable, how- ever, that Stephanua speaks of one of these doni, under the name of Pheoeus^ when he describes Halae Araphenides as lying between Pb^os near Marathon and Braaron. (Steph. «. v. 'AAoT.)

71. Hegalb ('EiraAi)), probably near Marathon, since this demus is said to have <^tained its name from a woman who hospitably received Theseos inte her house, when he had set out to attack the Mara- thonian bull,, which was ravaging the TetrapoliB. It contained a sanctuary of Zeus Hecaleius. (Phi* lochor. 9^, Pkit The; 14; Suid. », m, 'ENIU17, Km- uiSf *£irauAia; Steph. «. w. 'Ek«Ui}, 'knr(r, Tpi- yffi€ls; Schol. ad Ari»topk. Acham. 127.)

72. Elaeus (^EAcuoSs, Steph.; Bekker, Aneod, i. p. 249), of uncertain site, but placed by Leake at Liosioj a village two miles to the west ci Aphidna, because he considers this name a oorruptian of Ebeus; but this is not probableir

D. The Demi of Paraua and Mesooaea.

Mount Hymettus, which bounded the Athenian plain on the south, terminated in the promontory of Zoster (ZaKrr^p), opposite to which was a small island called Phaura (Mipa). At Zoster, upon the sea, stood four altars^ sacred respectively to Athena, Apollo, Artemis, and Leta (Strab. ix. p. S98; Fkos. L 31. § 1; Steph. #. 9. Zoten/lp.)

    • The hill of Zoster tezminata m three capes; that

in the middle is a low peoinsala, which shelters ia the west a deep inlet called VuUtumini," (Leake.) The island PhMira is now called Fleoa or Fleff(u

73. Ahaoyrus (*AMryv^vs), sitoated on the western coast, a little north of the promonUxy Zoster, on the site of the modern Fort. [Ahagyrus.]

74. Chollbidab (XoAX^Sm, XoXXiicu, Hbj^ poor.; Snid.; StepL; SchoL ad Aritiopk, AehariL 404), ia supposed to have been near the Nym- phaoim, or Grotto of the Njmphs, situated at the soothem end of Mt Hymettua, luid about three miles from Vdri bj the road. From the inseriptioBs in this caire, we leam that it was dedicated to the nymphs and the other rustic deities by Archedenius of Pberae (not Thecae, as b stated by some modern writers^ who had been enrolled in the demus of Chol«  leidae. Hence it is inferred that the grotto was, in aU probabiHty, situated in this demus. A fiill and interesting description of the grotto is given by Wordsworth (p. 192, se<}.; comp. Leake, p. 57.).

75. Tborak (eoyMOk a little south of Anagyrus. (Strab. ix. pu398; Haipocr.; Stq>h.; Etym. H.)

76. 77. Lamftba (Adforrfia, in inscr.; A^^wpo, in Stiab. &c.), the name of two demi, Upper Laznptra (AdfcvT/w JcatfvrcpOcy), and Lower or Maritime Lamptra {hAfurrfa (ntw^^v or «ap(£Xier). These places were between Ana^ras, Thorae, and A^Ua. (Strabk £e.) Upper Lamptra was probably sitn- ated at Lamarikiy a village between three and foor miles firom the sea, at the aeiith-eastem extremity of Ml Hymettua; and Lower Lamptra on the coast At Lamptra the grave of Cranaus was shown. (Pans. L 3 1. § 2; Steph.; Hesych.; Harpocr.; Suid.; Phot.)

78. Abqilia (Ai7iAia), south of Lamptra, spoken of sepaxately. [Abqilia.]

79. Anapslystus ('An^^xNrTos), now called Andvjfto, sitoated between the promontories of As- typahiea and Sunium, a littla south of the former. Ii ia also spoken of separately. [Anaphltbtus.} Opposite the pronumtoiy of Astypalaea is a small isiud, BOW called Lagmiai or ZAgvtaa^ in ancient ttmes Eleuma (^EAfOMro'a, Stvab. ^c). Astypa- kea and Zoster were the two chief promontories on the western coast of Attica.

Straho (L c.) speaks of a Pabkzuu (Hoyttoi'), or Grotto of Fan, in the neighhoorhood of Anar- phlystua. It ie no doubt the same as the very beau- tifid and extensive cavern above Mt JSlymbo in the Pamlian raxige, of which the western portion beara the name of Pom.

80. AzEifiA (AfiirmX the only demus men- tioned by Stiabo {L e.) between Anaphlystns and Su- ninm. (Harpocr.; Hesych.; Steph.; Bekker,^iMotf. i. p 348.) It was prabaUy situated in the bay of wUdi Soninm forma the eastern cape. Opposite thia bay is a small island, now called Gaidharon^ ibnneriy the Ishind or Baropart of Patroclna (Ho- rp6itK»u xifoli ot nie'os), because a fortress was built upon it hj Patrodus, who eommanded on one occa- sioB the ships of Ptolemy Phikdeli^us. (Stntb. L c. Pans. i. 1. § 1; Steph. jl e. UnrpoKKov ni«ros.) Ten miles to the south of thu island, at the entrance of the Saronic gulf, is Bclbmaynow SL Gtorgt, which was reckoned to belong to Pebpoonesus, though it was nearer the coast of Attica [Bblbet a.]

81. ScTNiUM (Sovmok), situated on the southern pnxnaotory of Attica, which was also called Simiom, now Ct^KoiGnmM^ from the oolumns of the ruined temple ori its summit, is noticed separately. [Su- MiUM.] Northward of the promontory of Sunium, and stretching firom Anaphlystus on the west coast to Thoriens on the east coast, was ML Laurium, which contained the edebrated silver mines. [Lau- BIUM.]

82. Thobious (dopurdi), north of Sunium on the east coast, was a place of importance, and also required a separate notice. [Thobicus.] Midway between Sunium and Thoricus was the harbour Pa- NORMUS (ndwpiuo9, PtoL iiL 15. § 8), now named Ptmorimo. Parallel to the east coast, and extending from Sunium to Thuricus, stretches the long narrow island, called Macris or Helena. [Helena.]

83, 84. AuLON (KhX&v) and Mabomeia (Mo- p^eia)f two small places of uncertain site, not demi, in the mining district of Mt. Laurium. [Laubiux.]

85. Bbsa (B^tra), sitoated in the mining district, midway between Anaphlystus and Thoricus (Xen. Vect. 4. §§ 4^, 44), and 300 stadia from Athens. (Isaeus, de Pt^rrh. Her, p. 40, Steph.). Xenophon (L c.) recommended the erection of a fortress at Besa, which would thus connect the two fortresses situated respectively at Anaphlystus and Thoricus. Strabo (ix. p. 426) says that the name of this demus was written with one 5, which is confirmed by in- 8cripti<ms.

86. Amphitbope QAfi^pirpimf), north of Besa and in the district of the mines, placed by Stuart at Afetropisti, (Bockh, Inscr, No. 162; Steph.; Hesych.)

87, 88. PoTAMUS (noTo^r or lleraftot), the name of two demi, as appears from an inscription quoted by Boss (p. 92X though apparently only one place. It lay on the east coast north of Thoricus, and was once a populous pkce: it was celebrated as containing the sepulchre of Ion. (Strab. ix. pp. 398, 399; Pans, i 3L § 2^ vii. i. § 2; Plin. iv. 7. s. 11; Suid.; Harpocr.) Its harbour was pit>- bably the modern DhashaUS; and the demus itself 18 ^aced by Leake at the ruins named Pale6kastro or EvrwharirOj situated on a height surrounded by torrents two miles to the south.west of Dhatkcdio, a little to the soutii of the village Dardheza, The port DhaskaUd was probably, as Leake observes, the one which received the Peloponnesian fleet in b. c. 411. (Thuc. vin. 95.)

89. Prasiab (IIp€ia(ai), on the east coast, be- tween Potamus and Storia, with an excellent harbour, from which the Theoria or sacred pro- cession used to sail. Here was a temple of Apollo, and also the tomb of Eiysichthon, who (fied at this place on his return from Delos. (Strab. ix. p. 399; Paus. i 31. § 2; Thuc viii. 95; Liv. xxxL 45.) The ruins of the denras an seen on the nortii-east side of the bay. The harbour, now called Porto lU^i^ is the best on the eastern coast of Attica^ and is both deep and capa*- dous. The entrance oif the harbour is more than a mile in breadth; and in the centre of the entrance there is a rocky islet, upon which is a colossal statue of white marble, firom which the harbour has derived its modern name, since it is commonly sup- posed to bear some resemUance to a tailor ^dijnris) at work. The best description of this statue is given by Ross, who lemarks that it evidently be- longs to the Roman period, and probably to the first or second century after the Christian era. (Ross, Reiaen auf den GriecK Insehj vol. ii. p^ 9; comp. Leake, p. 72; Wordsworth, p 2 1 7.) We also loam from Boss that in the middle of the bay there is a rocky promomtoiy with mins of the ndddle ages upon it, which promointoiy Boss supposes to be the CoROMERL of Stephaniis («. v. Ko/M^veia).

90. Stbibia (XTflptOf Steph.; Hesych.; Said.; Plin. iv. 7. s. 11), on the east coast, between Prasiae and Brauron. (Strab. ix. p. 399.) Wordsworth says that it is an hoards walk from Prasiae to Branron, and that on the way he passed some ruins, which must be those of Steiria. Stiris in Phods is said to have been founded by the inhabitants of this demus. (Pans. x. 35. § 8.) The road from Athens to Steiria and the harboor of Prasiae was called the iTfipiwcii 6Ms, (Plat. Hij^rch, p. 229.) Steiria was the demos of Theramenes and Thrasybulus.

91. Brauron (Bpavp<^v), one of the twelve an- cient cities, but never mentioned as a demus, though it continned to exbt down, to the latest times. It wiu situated on or near the eastern coast of Attica, between Steiria and Halae Araphenides, near the river Erasinus. (Strab. viii. p. 371, ix. p. 399.) Its name is apparently preserved in that of the two villages, called Vrcuma and Paled VradnOy situated south of the Erasinus. Brauron is celebrated on account of the worship of Artemis Brauronia, in whose honour a festival was celebrated in this place. (^ Herod, vi. 138.) Here Orestes and Iphigeneia were supposed to have landed, on their return from Tanris, bringing with them the statue of the Tau- rian goddess. (Pans, i 33. § 1, ill. 16. § 7; Eurip. Jphig. in Taur. 1450, 1462; Nonnus, i)»onys. xiii. 186.) This ancient statue, however, was preserved at Halae Araphenides, which seems to have been the proper harbour of Brauron, and therefore the place at which the statue first landed. Pausanias (i. 33. § I), it is true, speaks of an ancient statue of Artemis at Brauron ; but the statue brought from Tauris is expressly placed by Callimachus (^Hymn, in Dion. 173), and Euripides Qphig. in Tcojw, 1452) at Halae; and Strabo (ix. p. 399) distin- guishes the temple of Artemis Tauropolus at Halae Araphenides from the temple of Artemis Brauronia at Brauron. There was a temple of Artemis Brau- ronia on the Acropolis, containing a statue of the goddess by Praxiteles. (Pans. i. 23. § 7.)

92. Halae Araphenides ('AAol 'A/nk^t^WSct), so called to distinguish it from Halae Aezonides [No. 39], lay on the east coast between Brauron and Araphen, and was the proper harbour of Brau- ron, from whence persons crossed over to Marmarium in Euboea, where were the marble quarries of Cary- stus. (Strab. ix. p. 399, x. p. 446.) Hence Halae is described by Euripides {Iphig. in Taur. 1451) as y€lToty JiupdJUos Kapwrrlas, The statue of the Taurian Artemis was presented at this place, as has been already shown. [No. 91.]

93. Araphen (A/ni^v), on the east ooost, north of Halae and Brauron, the name of which is pro- bably preserved in the village of Rajtna^ situated near the mouth of the river of that name. (Harpocr. ; Suid.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd, i. p. 338.) We learn from Strabo (ix. p. 399) that the demi in the Mesogaea were very numerous ; and his state- ment is confirmed by the great number of remains of ancient buildings which occur in this district. (Wordsworth, p. 226). But the names of only a few have been preserved, which we can as«ign with certainty to the Mesogaea; and the position of many of these is doubtful.

94. PROSPALTA (np6(riraTa) lay in the in- terior, between 2Soster and PotamoSj at the modern village of Kerali&j as we may infer from an inscrip-^ tion discovered at this place. (Paus. i. 31. § 1; Dem. c. Macart. p. 1071; Harpocr.; Phot; Suid.; Steph.)

95. Mtrrhinus (Mvfi^tyovs) lay to the east of Prasiae or Porio Raphiij at Menmdaj as appears from inscriptions found at this place. Artemis Colaenis was worshipped at Myrrhinus (Paus. L 31. § 4; Schol. ad Arittoph, Av. 874); and in one of die inscriptions at Meronda mention is made <^ a temple of Artemis Colaenis. (BSckh, Inscr. No. 100.) (See also Strab. ix. p. 399; Steph.; Phot.)

96. Phlya (^Avo, ^Avd), the site of which cannot be determined, though there can be little doubt that it lay in the Mesogaea from the position which it occupies in the list of Pausanias. It must have been a place of importance from the number of temples which it contained, and frcm its frequent mention in inscriptions. (Paus. i. 31. § 4, iv. 1. § 6; Plut. Them. 1; Athen. x. d. 424; Harpoqr.;-- ,. Suid.; Steph.; Phot.)J5n44if^^Wrf**tA*C //' -♦'-^

97, 98. Paeania (naiayla)^ divided into Upper and Lower Paeauia, was situated on the eastern side of Hymettus, near the modern village of Liogegu It was the demus of Demosthenes. (Paus. i. 23. § 12; Harpocr.; Suid.; Phot.; Boss, in AnnaL deff Intt. Arch, vol. ix. p. 5, foil.)

99. Philaidab (^tXa/8eu) appears to have been near Brauron, since it is said to have derived its name from Philaens, the son of the Telamonian Ajaz, who dwelt in Brauron. Philaldae was the demus of Peisistratus. (Plut. Sol. 10; Plat. Hipparch. p. 228; Pans. i. 35. § 2; Herod. *i. 35.)

100. Cephale (K«0aX^) appears, firom the order in which it occurs in the list of Pausanias (i. 31. § 1), to have been situated south or east of Hymettus, perhaps in the neighbourhood of Brauron and Vraona, where Boss fouid an inscription containing the name of this demus. Cephale possessed a temple of the Dioscuri, who were here called the Great Gods. (Pans. I. c; Harpocr.; Suid.; Phot.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 417.)

101. Sphsttus (Z^ittti^s), one of the twelve ancient cities, and subsequently a demus. Its posi- tion has given rise to much dispute. Leake places it in the northern part of the Mesogaea, and thinks that Spata may be a conruption of Sphettus. That it was sHuated either in the Mesogaea or the Paralia is certain from the legend, that Pallas, who had obtained these districts, marched upon Athens from Sphettus by the Sphettian Way. (Pint. Thes. 13; Philochor. ap. Schol. ad Eurip. Hipp. 35.) Now we have seen good reasons for believing Uiat Pallas must have marched roimd the northern extremity of Hymettus [see above. No. 32] ; and consequently the Sphettian road must have taken that course. Although the Sphettian road cannot therefore have mn along the western coast and entered Athens from the south, as many modern writers maintain, Sphet- tus was probably situated further south than Leake supposes, inasmuch as Sphettus and Anaphlystns are represented as sons of Troezen, who migrated inta Attica; and, seeing that Anaphlystns was opposite Troezen, it is inferred that Sphettus was probably in the same direction. (Pans. ii. 30. ^9 ; Steph. a. vv.

102. CrTHERRUS (K«5«n^^or, Inscr.; Kii^poj,*J^***; Kvflijpoi', Strab. ix. p. 397 ; Harpoc.; Suid.; Steph,;/*'**-' Phot.), one of the twelve ancient cities, and after- wards a demus. Its position is quite uncertain. Leake conjectures that its territory as one of the twelve cities may hare occupied the aonthem end of the inland country, on the supposition that the territory of Sphettns occupied the northem half of this district. Ross however conjecture, from a pas- sage of Paussnias (yi. 22. § 7), that Cytherus may have been near Gargettus. Pausanias states that the nymphs of the river Cytherus in Elis were called lonides from Ion, the sod of Gargettus, when he migrated from Adiens to Elis.

(The best works oa the demi are by Leake, The JDani of AtticOy London, 1841, 2nd ed., and Boss, Die Demen wm Attiia, Halle, 1846; from both of >rhich great assistance has been derived m drawing Up the preceding account. Tlie other most import- ant works upon the topography of Attica are Grote- fend, De Demis tive Pagie AtUcae, GStt. 1829; Finlay, in Tratuactume of the Royal Society of Literature^ vol. iiL p. 396, seq., and Remarkt on the Topography of Oropia and DiaoricL, 12mo. Athens, 1838; K. O. Hiilier, art Attika^ in Ersch and GrUber's EncyclopSdie^ vol. vi., tianfllated by Lockhart, London, 1842; Wordsworth, Alhena aind Attica^ London, 1836; Kruse, HeUaSy vol. ii.; Leake, Northem Greece^ vol. ii.; Stuart's Anti- quities; and the Travels of Dodwell, Gell, Briinsted, Fiedler, and Mure.)

In the following alphabetical list of the demi, the first column contains the name of each demus; the second that of the demotes; the tliird that of the tribe to which each demus belonged during the time of tiie ten tribes; and the fourth that of the tribe when there were twelve or thirteen tribes. Of the demi in this list, which have not been spoken of above, the site is unknown.

E. Alphabetical List of the Demi.

1. •AYTfA^ 'ATTtX^^K, ^AyytKtif Pandionis Pandionis. 2,3. 'Aytcvkfi Ka0vir9pOt¥ and

  • AyKvri$fVj

Aegeis Aegeis. jhr^cp0cr. ^AyKv€6s t 4. 'A-yroSf , *Ayvovs

  • Ayvo(Mrun

Acamantis DemetriaSi AtUlis. [*A7/)i<£8ai 'AypidJIhis Hippothoontis.] 5,6.|

  • A7poiA^) jcotfvwep^r V

and iv4y€p69r, J ^Aypv*^s y Erechtheis Attalis. 7. •AfoWa 'A^ijMcvf, 'ACriyiS$fy Hippothoontis Hippothoontis. 8. ^ASfu^oP (;A$fun^ia) AiytXia (Af/tAos) ^Ae/iovtis Cecropis Attalis. 9. AhyiKit^f Antiochis Antiodiis. 10. A10aAi3a«  AieoMhit Leontis Antigonis(?) 11. Ai^otril Al^vytis Cecropis Cecropis. 12. 'AAa2 Al^wlSts 'AAotc^f Cecro{Ms Cecropis. 13.

  • AXal *Apa^Wffcs

'AAcuf^r Aegeis Aegeis. 14. 'AXt^Mfwa 'AAc{ay8p«^T Acamantis Acamantb. 15. 'AXi/u»vf 'AifMwrtos Leontis Leontis. 16. 'AAmtck^ ^AXwrtKriBty, 'AAanrcir«c<;s Antiochis Antiochis. 17. 'A/ia{arr«ia

  • A/Aa|ai>Tci«uT,

Hippothoontis Hippothoontis. 18.

  • Af(^iTpo«4

^Att^npowridtP Antiochis. 19. 'Aj'cryvfwOf ^Arayupdfftos Erechtheis Erechtheis. 20. 'Amucaia 'Aycuroicvi Hippothoontis Hippothoontis. 21. ^Aydpkvaros ^Aya^ucrrior Antiochis Antiochis. 22. 'AiroAAMWa 'AiroAAM'tc^f Attalis. 23.

  • Apailffiy

'Apa^vioi Aegeis Aegeis. 24. •AT^ni 'AniKf^ Antiochis Attalis. 26. "A^ra

  • A^tBpa!ds

Aeantis, Leontis Pt4>lemaifl, Hadrianis. 27.

  • Axapval

'AxopycvT Oeneis Oen«is. 28. 'Ax«pSovf (*Axy»8ovf *

  • Axfp^ovaios

Hippothoontis 29. Bar^$tp Aegeis. 30. BfpfructSflu Btpwucihis Ptolemais. 31. Bq<ra Bi)<rcuci6T Antiochis Hadrianis. 32. Bou^ioi Bott&rios 33. Bovrddris Oeneis Aegeis (?) 34. rafryriTr6s Tapyfirrtos Oeneis (?) Aegeis. 35. rpaia Tpatis Pandionis. 36. Acu8aid«  AotSoAlSffS Cecropis Cecropis. 37. Afip<(8cT AtipaZuinis Leontis Leontis. 38. AcaeAcia A«fc<Aci;f, AcKcAcc^s Hippothoontis Hadrianis. 39. AtS/i€ia Aioficvs, AlO/ACf^t, Aiofiettvs Aegeis Aegeis. 40. Eipeaiiku, 'Hp«(riSai 41. EiTda ClTio) 42. 'Ek6i 43.

  • E^xuovs

44. 'Etvfflt 45.

  • Eir€UciSeu


  • Eiriiaf^iaia


  • EplKua

'EpUaiOj 48. Epfws 49. 'EpoidSau 50.

  • Epxia CE/>X««»)

51. 'Eimala, 'laruda 52. EfnfoarUku 53. Einrupldai 54. Ehwfvno¥ (^AmwpJia) • 55.

  • Ex<A(8at

[*H^<rrtc(8ax, see *I^t(r- 56. 57. eoped 58. BopiKSs 59. epia 60. ^ufuurdJiai (0v/*otr<i8cu) 61. QvpywlBai 62.

  • lKapta

63. ['iT^o, see EIt^o.] 64. 'I^io-Tuidai (^*H<pcu<rrid8ai) 65.

  • IctfW8(u

66. K«ipi(i5ou 67. K^pofuucds (KcfKififts) 68. K«^»aA^ 69. KvSal {KifioC) 70. KriTToi (KlJTT^j) 71. Kriifuaia 72. KiKuyva 73. KoBwhUm 74. KolKri 75. KoWvtSs (KoXwtt^s) 76. Kouv6s 77. Kor0ui) 78. Kdrrpos 79. KopviaW6s 80. Kpi&a 81. KptaiFfla (KptowfZai) 82. Kv^a&iivcuoy 83. KvSovTi&u 84. KvBripos (Kvertpoy) 85. K^KoAa 86. KvpruiSfiu (Ku|pT«78eu) 87. AoKidiai 88,) 89.] AofiiFTpai KaO6w9p0w 1 and {nivtpQtp, S 90. AiKKoy 91. AfvKoy6ri (AcMc^Kior) 92. AfVKOir^pa ATTldA. Eircoibr

  • £iC(Ucioi (?)

'EffoA^tfcy 'EAcuoixrios

  • EtwTlytos

^Eir§iKUi7js 'Ettucri^iaios 'Eputut^Sf

  • Epuc99Vi

"Epfjuios 'EpoidSi}; 'Epx^^^f 'EffTiat6$ty Ei>yo(rriZris Einrvpii^f EimyvfM^s 'Ex«A/8ijf 9opu6eyj Bopattivs BopUios Bptdaios BufuurdJ^t Bvpytcyi^ns ^lKapu6s ^l^iffTidBris

  • luyl9vs

KfipidSrts iK KfpafUmyj Ktpofifvs Kt^paXrjB^y iK Ktfiwy KflTTlOS KtKvyy€V$ 4k Koiri$ KoAAirrcvs ^K Kx>«yov, KoXwyrjBtyj Kotcy*is ]ioy$vKf6s, Koy0vihis K6rp€io^ KopvSoAAet^r Kpic0c(}r KvBadriycutiis Kvdayrl^s Kv^piof KvpTiaSris AaucidJhis Aofjorrpv&s AtvKoyot^Sf AwKoyatfvt Acamantis Acamantis Leontu Hippothoontis Hippothoontis Acamantis Hippothoontis Aegeis A^eis Erechtheis Erechtheis Antlochis Acamantis Oeneis Hippothoontis Aeanfcis A^eis Aegeis Hippothoontis Acamantis Acamantis Erechth^ Leontis Erechtheis Acamantis, CecxDjus Oeneis Aegeis Antiochis Pandionis Hippothoontis Hippothoontis Antiocliis Leontis Pandicsiis A^eis Pandionis Oeneis Erechtheis Leontis Acamantis. Acamantis. Ptolemais. Hadrianis. Hippothoontis. Cecropis. Oeneis. Aegeis. Acamantis. Hippothoontis. Aegeis. Aegeis. Antigonis. Leontis. Erechtheis. Ptolemais, Antigonis. Antiochis. Acamantis. Oeneis. Hippothoontis. Ptolemais Aegeis. Acamantis. Aegeis. Hippothoontis. Acamantis. Acamantis. Erechtheui. Leontis. Erechtheis. Acamantis. Hippothoontis. Aegeis. Aegeis, Ptolemais. Ptc^mais. Hippotlioontis. Attalis. Antiochis. Leontis. Pandionis. Aegeis, Ptulemais. Pandionis. Acantis. Acamantis. Oeneis. Erechtheis. Antiochis. Leontis. Antiochis.

AUDUS. 157. X Ereclitheis. 158. Xoafy6s {KoXofryla) Xokafyt^s Acamantis Acamantis. 159. XoAAciSoi (KoAA/dcu) Xoe<8i}s Leoutis Acgeis. 160. rna. see "Oo.] Va^lhis Acantis.