Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography/Iapodes

IA′PODES, IAP′YDES (Ἰάποδες, Strab. iii. p. 207, vii. p. 313; Ἰάπυδες, Ptol. ii. 16. § 8; Liv. xliii. 5; Virg. Georg. iii. 475; Tibull. iv. 1. 108), an Illyrian people to the N. of Dalmatia, and E. of Liburnia, who occupied Iapydia (Plin. iii. 19), or the present military frontier of Croatia, comprised between the rivers Kulpa and Korana to the N. and E., and the Velebich range to the S.

In the interior, their territory was spread along Mons Albius (Velika), which forms the extremity of the great Alpine chain, and rises to a great elevation; on the other side of the mountain they reached towards the Danube, and the confines of Pannonia. They followed the custom of the wild Thracian tribes in tattooing themselves, and were armed in the Keltic fashion, living in their poor country (like the Morlacchi of the present day) chiefly on zea and millet. (Strab. vii. p. 315.)

In B. C. 129, the consul C. Sempronius Tuditanus carried on war against this people, at first unsuccessfully, but afterwards gained a victory over them, chiefly by the military skill of his legate, D. Junius Brutus, for which he was allowed to celebrate a triumph at Rome (Appian, B. C. i. 19, Illyr. 10; Liv. Epit. lix.; Fasti Capit.) They had a "foedus" with Rome (Cic. pro Balb. 14), but were in B. C. 34 finally subdued by Octavianus, after an obstinate defence, in which Metulum, their principal town was taken (Strab. l. c.; Appian, Illyr. l. c.).

Metulum (Μετοῦλον), their capital, was situated on the river Colapis (Kulpa) to the N., on the frontier of Pannonia (Appian, l. c.), and has been identified with Möttling or Métlika on the Kulpa. The Antonine Itinerary has the following places on the road from Senia (Zeugg) to Siscia (Sissek): —Avendone (comp. Peut. Tab.; Abeudo, Geog. Rav.; Αὐενδεάται, Appian, Illyr. l. c.; Οὐενδος, Strab. iv. p. 207, vii. p. 314.); Arupium (Arypium, Peut. Tab.; Parupium, Geog. Rav.; Ἀρουπῖνοι, App. Illyr. 16., perhaps the same as the Ἀρουκκία. of Ptolemy, ii. 16. § 9), now Ottochatz. At Bibium, which should be read Bivium (Wesseling, ad loc.), the road divided, taking a direction towards Pannonia, which the Itinerary follows, and also towards Dalmatia, which is given in the Peutinger Table.

Neigebaur (Die Sudslaven, pp. 224-235) has identified from a local antiquary the following sites of the Table:

Epidotium (Uselle); Aucus (Chauke); Ausancalio (Vissuch, near Udbina); Clumbetae (Grachatz). [ E. B. J. ]